Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

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  1. Saifur RG, Hassan AA, Dieng H, Salmah MR, Saad AR, Satho T
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2013 Mar;29(1):33-43.
    PMID: 23687853
    We studied the diversity of Aedes breeding sites in various urban, suburban, and rural areas over time between February 2009 and February 2010 in the dengue endemic areas of Penang Island, Malaysia. We categorized the breeding sites and efficiency, and identified the key breeding containers. Among the 3 areas, the rural areas produced the highest container index (55), followed by suburban (42) and urban (32) areas. The numbers of key premises and containers were significantly higher (P < 0.000) in rural areas. The class 1 containers were identified as the key containers with higher productivity and efficiency, although class 2 and class 4 are the highest in numbers. Aedes aegypti immatures were found mostly in drums, water reservoirs, and polyethylene sheets, while mixed breeding was more common in buckets and empty paint cans in urban and suburban areas. Aedes albopictus was found mainly in miscellaneous containers such as drums, empty paint cans, and covers in all areas. The main potential containers indoors were drums, water reservoirs, and empty paint cans, and containers outdoors included empty paint cans, drums, and polyethylene sheets.
  2. Ahmad A, Ahmad AH, Dieng H, Satho T, Ahmad H, Aziz AT, et al.
    J Med Entomol, 2011 Nov;48(6):1236-46.
    PMID: 22238885
    There is accumulating evidence that criminals wrap dead bodies in an attempt to conceal evidence. To anticipate the forensic implications of this phenomenon, we examined whether flies that are naturally associated with cadavers exhibit a delay in attendance or differ in species composition and abundance patterns because of the presence of wrapping material. Wrapped and exposed carcasses of dead monkeys placed in an oil plantation in Kedah, Malaysia, were visited over 50 d. On daily visits to each of the six carcasses, visiting adult flies were sampled using hand nets. Flies of 12 families were encountered. Calliphoridae (Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and C. megacephala (F.) was the most prevalent family, followed by Sphaeroceridae. Some families tended to be more abundant in WRCs (i.e., Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Phoridae), whereas others (i.e., Piophilidae, Sepsidae, and Psychodidae) were more prevalent in exposed carcasses. Wrapping delayed the arrival of all fly species encountered, with delays varying from 1 to 13 d depending on species. Wrapping did not affect species composition of flies, but prolong the occurrence of some species. The results of the current study emphasize the need to take into consideration the presence of a wrap when estimating postmortem interval.
  3. Saifur RG, Dieng H, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Satho T, Miake F, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(2):e30919.
    PMID: 22363516 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030919
    The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior.
  4. Aida HN, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, Satho T, Nurita AT, Salmah MR, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;1(6):472-7.
    PMID: 23569816 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60103-2
    OBJECTIVE: To generate life table characteristics for the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) under uncontrolled conditions, incorporating both the aquatic and the adult stages.

    METHODS: Ten females derived from wild pupae were allowed to fully blood-feed on restrained mice. 774 eggs were hatched in seasoned water. F1 larvae were followed for development until their F2 counterparts emerged as adults. Some population parameters were monitored (F1) or estimated (F2).

    RESULTS: A. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to 1:1. Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. A high proportion of females completed a reproductive cycle and the obtained parity rate was predicted to lead to higher fecundity in the next generation.

    CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that natural A. albopictus populations in Penang seem largely determined by quick development in combination with low immature loss and increased oviposition.

  5. Saifur RG, Dieng H, Hassan AA, Satho T, Miake F, Boots M, et al.
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2010 Dec;26(4):373-80.
    PMID: 21290932
    Moisture plays a major role in the dynamics of mosquito populations, especially those breeding in container habitats. Despite this importance, the role of moisture conditions as they affect oviposition and egg development in Aedes vectors remains largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of exposing gravid female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and their eggs to different moisture levels (MLs) for various periods on oviposition and hatching. Overall, high-moisture substrates (HMSs; 66% and 72%) provided better environments for egg laying. The timing of initial egg laying was far longer at the lowest substrate moisture level (LSML, 25% and 41.2%) than at HMSs. The numbers of eggs laid were much lower in the drier environments. At LSMLs, gravid females retained increasing numbers of mature eggs until death, and egg retention decreased gradually with increasing ML. The HMSs also provided better environments for larval eclosion. The numbers of eggs hatched were lower at the LSML than the HSML environment. No egg hatching occurred after 1 h exposure to moisture. However, egg hatching occurred by installment, with spontaneous hatching (SH) increasing gradually with increasing ML. High-moisture conditions combined with long exposure (30 h and 48 h) favored SH. These results suggest that Ae. albopictus females can respond to better moisture conditions for increased success of embryonation and larval eclosion. This information may be useful in the colonization of floodwater Aedes species.
  6. Dieng H, Rahman GM, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Satho T, Miake F, et al.
    Int J Biometeorol, 2012 Jan;56(1):113-20.
    PMID: 21267602 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-011-0402-0
    Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).
  7. Ghani IA, Dieng H, Abu Hassan ZA, Ramli N, Kermani N, Satho T, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(12):e81642.
    PMID: 24349104 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081642
    Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera.
  8. Dieng H, Saifur RG, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Boots M, Satho T, et al.
    PLoS One, 2010;5(7):e11790.
    PMID: 20668543 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011790
    The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities.
  9. Saifur RG, Hassan AA, Dieng H, Ahmad H, Salmah MR, Satho T, et al.
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2012 Jun;28(2):84-92.
    PMID: 22894118
    It is important to obtain frequent measurements of the abundance, distribution, and seasonality of mosquito vectors to determine the risk of disease transmission. The number of cases of dengue infection has increased in recent years on Penang Island, Malaysia, with recurring epidemics. However, ongoing control attempts are being critically hampered by the lack of up-to-date information regarding the vectors. To overcome this problem, we examined the current situation and distribution of dengue vectors on the island. Residences throughout the urban, suburban, and rural areas were inspected through wet and dry seasons between February 2009 and February 2010. Two vectors were encountered in the survey, with Aedes aegypti present in especially high numbers mostly in urban areas. Similar observations were noted for Ae. albopictus in rural areas. The former species was more abundant in outdoor containers, while the latter showed almost equivalent abundance both outdoors and indoors. The dengue virus was active in both urban and rural areas, and the number of cases of infection was higher in areas where Ae. aegypti was predominant. The abundance of immature Ae. albopictus was positively correlated with rainfall (r2 = 0.461; P < 0.05), but this was not the case for Ae. aegypti. For both species, the size of immature populations tended to increase with increasing intensity of rain, but heavy rains resulted in population loss. In addition to updating data regarding the larval habitats and locations (outdoors and indoors), this study highlighted the importance of spatial vector control stratification, which has the potential to reduce costs in control programs.
  10. Dieng H, The CC, Satho T, Miake F, Wydiamala E, Kassim NFA, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2019 Jun;194:93-99.
    PMID: 30922800 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.03.027
    Sound and its reception are crucial for reproduction, survival, and population maintenance of many animals. In insects, low-frequency vibrations facilitate sexual interactions, whereas noise disrupts the perception of signals from conspecifics and hosts. Despite evidence that mosquitoes respond to sound frequencies beyond fundamental ranges, including songs, and that males and females need to struggle to harmonize their flight tones, the behavioral impacts of music as control targets remain unexplored. In this study, we examined the effects of electronic music (Scary Monsters and Nice Sprites by Skrillex) on foraging, host attack, and sexual activities of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Adults were presented with two sound environments (music-off or music-on). Discrepancies in visitation, blood feeding, and copulation patterns were compared between environments with and without music. Ae. aegypti females maintained in the music-off environment initiated host visits earlier than those in the music-on environment. They visited the host significantly less often in the music-on than the music-off condition. Females exposed to music attacked hosts much later than their non-exposed peers. The occurrence of blood feeding activity was lower when music was being played. Adults exposed to music copulated far less often than their counterparts kept in an environment where there was no music. In addition to providing insight into the auditory sensitivity of Ae. aegypti to sound, our results indicated the vulnerability of its key vectorial capacity traits to electronic music. The observation that such music can delay host attack, reduce blood feeding, and disrupt mating provides new avenues for the development of music-based personal protective and control measures against Aedes-borne diseases.
  11. Dieng H, Saifur RG, Ahmad AH, Rawi CS, Boots M, Satho T, et al.
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2011 Sep;27(3):263-71.
    PMID: 22017091
    Discarded cigarette butts (DCB) waste occurs worldwide, pollutes landscapes, is unsightly, and results in added debris removal costs. There is, therefore, a great deal of current interest in making use of DCBs in beneficial ways. Despite evidence that DCBs are harmful to water fleas (Daphnia magna), which breed in aquatic environments as do mosquito larvae, their impact on dengue vectors is unknown. We examined whether Aedes albopictus alters its ovipositional responses, larval eclosion, and development in response to presence of DCBs in its habitats. We found oviposition activity in DCB-treated water similar to that of control water and that ovipositional activity in DCB solutions steadily increased over time as those solutions aged to 10 days. Larval eclosion was initially suppressed on day 1 in DCB solution, but increased thereafter to levels similar to control larval eclosion rates. The DCB-water solutions produced significantly higher mortality in both 1st and 2nd instars over control larvae for several days after initial exposure. Mortality rates decreased sharply 3 to 5 days postexposure as DCBs continued to decompose. We found increased survival rates during late development, but daily input of fresh DCBs prevented most young larvae from completing development. Taken together, these observations suggest that decomposing did not deter gravid Ae. albopictus females from ovipositing in treated containers and that DCB solutions had larvicidal effects on early instars. Our results are discussed in the context of DCB use to control container-breeding Ae. albopictus, a competent dengue vector in Asia and other parts of the world.
  12. Dieng H, Satho T, Binti Arzemi NA, Aliasan NE, Abang F, Wydiamala E, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2018 Sep;185:230-238.
    PMID: 29856985 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.05.019
    Food location by mosquitoes is mediated by resource-derived olfactory and visual signals. Smell sensation is intermittent and dependent on the environment, whereas visual signals are continual and precede olfactory cues. Success of mosquito bait technology, where olfactory cues are used for attraction, is being impeded by reduced attractiveness. Despite proof that mosquitoes respond to colored objects, including those mimicking floral shape, and that they can discriminate among flowers, the impacts of artificial flowers on foraging remain unexplored. Using artificial flowers with sugar rewards, we examined the foraging responses of Aedes aegypti to various colors in equal choice bioassays. Starved adults were exposed to single flowers with petals of a given color (Single Blue Flowers [SBFs]; Single Red Flowers [SRFs]; Single Yellow Flowers [SYFs]; Single Pink Flowers [SPIFs]; and Single Purple Flowers [SPFs]) and two others with white petals (SWFs). Discrepancies in response time, visitation, feeding, and resting of both sexes were compared between colored flowers and SWFs. Ae. aegypti exhibited shorter response times to colored flowers compared to SWFs, but this behavior was mostly seen for SBFs or SYFs in females, and SRFs, SYFs, SPIFs, or SPFs in males. When provided an option to land on colored flowers and SWFs, female visitation occurred at high rates on SBFs, SRFs, SYFs, SPIFs, and SPFs; for males, this preference for colored flowers was seen to a lesser degree on SBF and SPIFs. Both sexes exhibited preference for colored flowers as sugar sources, but with different patterns: SPIFs, SRFs, SYFs, and SPFs for females; SYFs, SPFs, SPIFs and SRFs for males. Females preferentially rested on colored flowers when in competition with SWFs, but this preference was more pronounced for SPFs, SRFs, and SBFs. Males exhibited an increased preference for SRFs, SPFs, and SYFs as resting sites. Our results indicated the attraction of Ae. aegypti to rewarding artificial flowers, in some cases in ways similar to live flowering plants. The discovery that both male and female Ae. aegypti can feed on nectar mimics held by artificial flowers opens new avenues for improving sugar bait technology and for developing new attract-and-kill devices.
  13. Dieng H, Saifur RG, Ahmad AH, Salmah MR, Aziz AT, Satho T, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Mar;2(3):228-32.
    PMID: 23569903 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60047-1
    To identify the unusual breeding sites of two dengue vectors, i.e. Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti).
  14. Aziz AT, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, Mahyoub JA, Turkistani AM, Mesed H, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Nov;2(11):849-57.
    PMID: 23569860 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60242-1
    To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence.
  15. Dieng H, Tan Yusop NS, Kamal NN, Ahmad AH, Ghani IA, Abang F, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2016 May 11;64(18):3485-91.
    PMID: 27115536 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b01157
    Dengue mosquitoes are evolving into a broader global public health menace, with relentless outbreaks and the rise in number of Zika virus disease cases as reminders of the continued hazard associated with Aedes vectors. The use of chemical insecticides-the principal strategy against mosquito vectors-has been greatly impeded due to the development of insecticide resistance and the shrinking spectrum of effective agents. Therefore, there is a pressing need for new chemistries for vector control. Tea contains hundreds of chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing global environmental problem, is almost as rich in toxicants as green leaves. This paper presents the toxic and sublethal effects of different crude extracts of tea on Aedes albopictus. The survival rates of larvae exposed to tea extracts, especially fresh tea extract (FTE), were markedly lower than those in the control treatment group. In addition to this immediate toxicity against different developmental stages, the extracts tested caused a broad range of sublethal effects. The developmental time was clearly longer in containers with tea, especially in those with young larvae (YL) and FTE. Among the survivors, pupation success was reduced in containers with tea, which also produced low adult emergence rates with increasing tea concentration. The production of eggs tended to be reduced in females derived from the tea treatment groups. These indirect effects of tea extracts on Ae. albopictus exhibited different patterns according to the exposed larval stage. Taken together, these findings indicate that tea and its waste affect most key components of Ae. albopictus vectorial capacity and may be useful for dengue control. Reusing tea waste in vector control could also be a practical solution to the problems associated with its pollution.
  16. Satho T, Dieng H, Ahmad MH, Ellias SB, Hassan AA, Abang F, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2015 May 14;8:272.
    PMID: 25966847 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0874-6
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a prevalent arboviral disease and the development of insecticide resistance among its vectors impedes endeavors to control it. Coffee is drunk by millions of people daily worldwide, which is associated with the discarding of large amounts of waste. Coffee and its waste contain large amounts of chemicals many of which are highly toxic and none of which have a history of resistance in mosquitoes. Once in solution, coffee is brownish in colour, resembling leaf infusion, which is highly attractive to gravid mosquitoes. To anticipate the environmental issues related to the increasing popularity of coffee as a drink, and also to combat insecticide resistance, we explored the deterrence potentials of coffee leachates against the ovipositing and embryonic stages of the dengue vector, Aedes albopictus.

    METHODS: In a series of choice, no-choice, and embryo toxicity bioassays, we examined changes in the ovipositional behaviours and larval eclosion of Ae. albopictus in response to coffee extracts at different concentrations.

    RESULTS: Oviposition responses were extremely low when ovicups holding highly concentrated extract (HCE) of coffee were the only oviposition sites. Gravid females retained increased numbers of mature eggs until 5 days post-blood feeding. When provided an opportunity to oviposit in cups containing coffee extracts and with water, egg deposition occurred at lower rates in those containing coffee, and HCE cups were far less attractive to females than those containing water only. Females that successfully developed in a coffee environment preferentially oviposited in such cups when in competition with preferred oviposition sites (water cups), but this trait did not continue into the fourth generation. Larval eclosion occurred at lower rates among eggs that matured in a coffee environment, especially among those that were maintained on HCE-moistened substrates.

    CONCLUSIONS: The observations of the present study indicate a pronounced vulnerability of Ae. albopictus to the presence of coffee in its habitats during the early phases of its life cycle. The observations that coffee repels gravid females and inhibits larval eclosion provide novel possibilities in the search for novel oviposition deterrents and anti-larval eclosion agents against dengue vectors.

  17. Dieng H, Hassan RB, Hassan AA, Ghani IA, Abang FB, Satho T, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2015 May;145:68-78.
    PMID: 25617636 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.01.004
    Even with continuous vector control, dengue is still a growing threat to public health in Southeast Asia. Main causes comprise difficulties in identifying productive breeding sites and inappropriate targeted chemical interventions. In this region, rural families keep live birds in backyards and dengue mosquitoes have been reported in containers in the cages. To focus on this particular breeding site, we examined the capacity of bird fecal matter (BFM) from the spotted dove, to support Aedes albopictus larval growth. The impact of BFM larval uptake on some adult fitness traits influencing vectorial capacity was also investigated. In serial bioassays involving a high and low larval density (HD and LD), BFM and larval standard food (LSF) affected differently larval development. At HD, development was longer in the BFM environment. There were no appreciable mortality differences between the two treatments, which resulted in similar pupation and adult emergence successes. BFM treatment produced a better gender balance. There were comparable levels of blood uptake and egg production in BFM and LSF females at LD; that was not the case for the HD one, which resulted in bigger adults. BFM and LSF females displayed equivalent lifespans; in males, this parameter was shorter in those derived from the BFM/LD treatment. Taken together these results suggest that bird defecations successfully support the development of Ae. albopictus. Due to their cryptic aspects, containers used to supply water to encaged birds may not have been targeted by chemical interventions.
  18. Dieng H, Rajasaygar S, Ahmad AH, Rawi CS, Ahmad H, Satho T, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2014 Feb;130:123-30.
    PMID: 24239749 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.11.001
    Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health hazard to human and animal life. CBs are impregnated with thousands of chemical compounds, many of which are highly toxic and none of which has history of resistance in mosquitoes. This study was performed to examine whether exposure to CB alters various biological parameters of parents and their progeny. We examined whether the mosquito changes its ovipositional behaviors, egg hatching, reproductive capacity, longevity and fecundity in response to CB exposure at three different concentrations. Females tended to prefer microcosms containing CBs for egg deposition than those with water only. There were equivalent rates of eclosion success among larvae from eggs that matured in CB and water environments. We also observed decreased life span among adults that survived CB exposure. Extracts of CB waste have detrimental effects on the fecundity and longevity of its offspring, while being attractive to its gravid females. These results altogether indicate that CB waste indirectly affect key adult life traits of Aedes aegypti and could conceivably be developed as a novel dengue vector control strategy, referring to previously documented direct toxicity on the larval stage. But this will require further research on CB waste effects on non-target organisms including humans.
  19. Hamady D, Ruslan NB, Ahmad AH, Rawi CS, Ahmad H, Satho T, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2013;6:206.
    PMID: 23856274 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-206
    Mating is a physiological process of crucial importance underlying the size and maintenance of mosquito populations. In sterile and incompatible insect technologies (SIT and IIT), mating is essential for mass production, persistence, and success of released individuals, and is a central parameter for judging the effectiveness of SIT/IIT programs. Some mosquitoes have an enormous reproductive potential for both themselves and pathogens and mating may contribute to persistence of infection in nature. As Aedes albopictus can transmit flaviviruses both sexually and horizontally, and as infected insects are usually derived from laboratory colonies, we investigated the implications of mating between a long-term laboratory colony of Ae. albopictus and wild populations.
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