Adaptations in the structural and/or functional properties of cells, tissues and organ systems in the human body occurs when exposed to various stimuli. While there is unanimous agreement that regular physical activity is essential for optimal function of the human body, it is evident that extrinsic factors, such as diet, smoking, exercise habits, are reflected in the morbidity and mortality statistics of the population. Ageing is obligatorily associated with reduced maximal aerobic power and reduced muscle strength, i.e. with reduced physical fitness. As a consequence of diminished exercise tolerance, a large and increasing number of the aged population will be living below, at or just above 'threshold' of physical ability, needing only a minor illness to render them completely dependent. Physical training can readily produce a profound improvement of functions essential for physical fitness in old age. Adaptation to regular physical activity causes less disruption of the cells' internal environment and minimises fatigue which enhances performances and the economy of energy output during daily physical activity. Regular physical exercise reduces the risk of premature mortality in general, and of coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Physical activity also improves mental health and is important for health and optimal function of muscles, bones and joints. The most recent recommendations advice the people of all ages to include a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity, such as brisk walking, on most, if not all, days of the week.
Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium. Studies show that rehydration after exercise can be achieved only if sweat electrolyte losses as well as water are replaced. Drinks with low sodium content are ineffective at rehydration and they will only reduce the stimulus to drink. Addition of smalls amounts of carbohydrate to the rehydrating drinks may improve the rate of intestinal uptake of sodium and water and will improve palatability. The volume of the rehydration beverage consumed should be greater than the volume of sweat lost to provide the ongoing obligatory urine losses. Palatability of the beverage is a major issue when a large volume of fluid has to be consumed.
Dexamethasone blocks aromatase and phospholipase A2 enzyme activities that are essentially involved in the formation of oestrogens and prostaglandins, the key chemicals to initiate parturition. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dexamethasone, a potent glucocorticoid, could prolong gestation and/or delay parturition in rats. Dexamethasone at 0.5 mg/rat/day from Day 19 through Day 21 of pregnancy consistently prolonged gestation. Only 36% of the pregnant rats had labour with an extended parturition time. Foetal mortality rate was also high. The remaining 64% pregnant rats that did not deliver showed intrauterine foetal death and resorption. Concomitant injection of oestradiol cyclopentylpropionate or prostaglandin F2 alpha on Day 19 effectively reversed the deleterious effects of dexamethasone. 100% of the pregnant rats had successful labour at term. The parturition time and foetal mortality rate were not different from controls. The results, therefore, indicate that an excess glucocorticoid that initiates parturition in sheep conversely prolongs gestation and delays parturition in rats.
Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.
The effects of 7.6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) and placebos (P) on rehydration (R) after exercise-induced dehydration and on a subsequent time-trial (TT) of cycling performance were studied. Thirteen male subjects exercised in a thermally-controlled environment (28 degrees C, 63% RH) until 3% of their body weight was lost. After exercise, the subjects moved to a neutral environment (22 degrees C) and rested for 30 minutes prior to a 2-hour R period. During R, subjects were fed CES or P to a maximum volume of 120% of previous body mass loss at 0, 30, and 60 minutes, in bolus-doses of 50%, 40% and 30% respectively. After R, subjects performed a 1-hour TT with no further fluid intake. % R with CES was significantly higher than with P (70 +/- 3% vs 60 +/- 5%; p < 0.01). During the TT, blood glucose dropped in the CES group but not in the P group. It was found that, despite a more effective R with CES, the performance results did not differ between groups (65.1 +/- 2.2 minutes and 65.2 +/- 2.3 minutes for CES and P respectively). It is suggested that an insulin-mediated rebound effect on CHO metabolism during TT, in which no further CHO was supplied, nullified the benefits of rehydration.
Dermatoglyphic is the study of the epidermal ridges and the pattern formed by them. It may be pointed out that genetic factors have a large share in determining the variations in dermatoglyphics. It is however, suggested by evidence that bipolar mood disorder factors are determined more by genetic factors than by the environmental factors. The experiment has been undertaken to look for the effects of the bipolar mood disorder on dermatoglyphics. The dermatoglyphic characteristics of subjects with bipolar mood disorder when compared with control group revealed significant differences. The radial loop were increased in bipolar mood disorder, but there were little changes in 'atd' angles between normal and bipolar mood disorder.
Cardiopulmonary capacities of twelve adults (aged between 14 to 44 years) with varying degrees of blindness engaged in regular recreational activities were compared with twelve age-matched normal sighted healthy males (control group) who were also involved in regular recreational activities. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured directly during exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Forced vital capacity, leg strength and power were determined by spirometry, standing long jump and vertical jump respectively. No significant differences in VO2max, forced vital capacity and leg strength and power were observed between the blind and the control groups. No anthropometric differences were evident between the two groups. The results show therefore that the visually handicapped who are active can have a similar level of physical fitness, lung function and explosive leg strength as those of their active sighted counterparts.
We report a retrospective review of 12 medical students with a peculiar erythemato-vesicular dermatitis entomologically caused by an endemic beetle Paederus fuscipes. The clinical features, outcome in these cases and treatment are discussed. The students were residents of hostels in the USM campus in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. The causative agent in all these cases were found to be Paederus fuscipes (rove beetle). The most common site of involvement in all these cases was the face, followed by the neck. The average duration of symptoms was two days and pruritus was a common symptom. About 83% of the patients made a complete recovery. However two patients (16%) had residual pigmentation.
Previously, perceived competence of and attraction toward targets categorized by race showed in-group bias and no bias, respectively. Consequently, previous investigators regarded intergroup perception as a compromise between the norms of in-group bias and fair-mindedness. An alternative hypothesis for such findings is that attraction is not as relevant a dimension for intergroup discrimination as is competence. To test contrasting predictions of these hypotheses, the present authors asked participants from the majority and minority groups in Singapore (ns = 320) to evaluate either competence of or attraction toward one of the five targets. Consistent with the hypothesis that intergroup perception is a compromise, both dimensions yielded a uniform but weak in-group bias. The participants' equating of the in-group with one out-group further illustrated fair-mindedness. The authors discussed implications of the findings.
The technique of mRNA fingerprinting was used to isolate flower-specific cDNAs in the oil palm. Differences in the RNA populations between vegetative tissue (leaf) and inflorescences at various stages of flower development were examined using 18 primer combinations. A total of 16 flower-specific cDNAs were identified, of which 15 were successfully re-amplified. Reverse Northern analysis confirmed that 8 of the 15 cDNAs appeared to truly represent differentially expressed mRNAs in flowering tissues. Northern blot analysis subsequently showed that 5 of the clones are preferentially or exclusively expressed in the flowering tissues of oil palm.
Introduction: Olecranon osteotomy is well described approach for complex intra-articular distal humeral fractures. In this study, we investigated the usefulness and complications of olecranon osteotomy approach for such fractures. We hypothesise that outcome is comparable in young adults and middle age group and also functional outcome is independent of fracture subtype following surgical fixation. Materials and Methods: Between December 2012 and September 2015, twenty-four adult patients (male: 15, female: 9) having mean age of 41.4 years with closed intra-articular fracture (AO-13C) were surgically managed using olecranon osteotomy approach and were followed-up for a mean of 28.5 months (range: 22-35 months). Functional outcome was measured using Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) and complications were observed. Statistical analysis was done using Student t-test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: All fractures united by the end of three months. Mean elbow flexion achieved was 123°, mean extension lag was 9° and mean active arc of motion was 114°. Mean MEPS was 87 (excellent: 8, good: 14, fair: 1 and poor: 1). Post-operative transient ulnar nerve palsy was noted in two cases, heterotopic ossification (HO) was in one case, infection in two cases, implant prominence in five and elbow stiffness in three cases. Motion arc was higher in young adults and MEPS was comparable in both age group. Functional outcome was also dependent on fracture subtype. Conclusion: The olecranon osteotomy approach for distal humerus fractures had good functional outcome with fewer complications. Joint congruity and fixation could easily be assessed intraoperatively.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a well and widely recognized cause of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In the rheumatoid wrist, synovial expansion, joint erosions and ligamentous laxity result in compression of the median nerve due to increased intracarpal pressure. We evaluated the published studies to determine the prevalence of CTS and the characteristics of the median nerve in RA and its association with clinical parameters such as disease activity, disease duration and seropositivity. A total of 13 studies met the eligibility criteria. Pooled data from 8 studies with random selection of RA patients revealed that 86 out of 1561 (5.5%) subjects had CTS. Subclinical CTS, on the other hand, had a pooled prevalence of 14.0% (30/215). The cross sectional area of the median nerve of the RA patients without CTS were similar to the healthy controls. The vast majority of the studies (8/13) disclosed no significant relationship between the median nerve findings and the clinical or laboratory parameters in RA. The link between RA and the median nerve abnormalities has been overemphasized throughout the literature. The prevalence of CTS in RA is similar to the general population without any correlation between the median nerve characteristics and the clinical parameters of RA.