ABSTRACT A new black fly species, Simulium (Comphostilbia) langkawiense, is described based on adult female, adult male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Langkawi Island, Malaysia. This new species is similar in the configuration of the pupal gill to Simulium (Comphostilbia) gombakense Takaoka & Davies, 1995, originally described from Peninsular Malaysia, but differs from the latter species by the female genital fork with an anterolaterally angulated plate on each arm, the female tarsal claw tooth shorter than one half of the claw, the small number of male upper-eye large facets, the ventral plate with its ventral margin nearly flat in the middle when viewed posteriorly, and the inflated structure of the pupal gill with a less produced middle portion (width of middle inflated portion: length of inflated structure = 0.24). Taxonomic notes are also given to separate this new species from two other related species from Nepal and India. This represents another example of a unique species of black fly on one of the continental islands of Peninsular Malaysia.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) sofiani sp. nov. is described on the basis of reared adult female, male, pupal and larval specimens collected from Cameron Highlands, Pahang state, Malaysia. This new species is placed in the ceylonicum species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia and is easily distinguished from all the related known species by the combination of the following characteristics: an elongate sensory vesicle and yellow hair tuft on the stem vein of the wing in the female, the greater number of large upper-eye facets (15 or 16 vertical columns and 15 or 16 horizontal rows) and almost entirely darkened hind basitarsus in the male, and the gill bearing a long common basal stalk and 8 filaments arranged as [(1+2)+(1+2)] +2 filaments from dorsal to ventral in the pupa.
The incubation period of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was not influenced by the host plant, whereas larval development time and pupal period were affected. Larval development time was longest on shallot and lady's finger, followed by cabbage and long bean. Larvae did not develop beyond the first instar when fed on chilli. The pupal period was longer on lady's finger than on cabbage, shallot and long bean. Overall, adult longevity was not influenced by the host plant but there was a difference between female and male longevity among the host plants. Survival of S. exigua was affected by the host plant at the larval stage. The number of larval instars varied between 5 and 8 within and between the studied host plants. Long bean was found to be the most suitable host plant and provide the best food quality for S. exigua compared to the other host plants, as it allowed faster development, fewer larval instars and a higher survival rate.
Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) brinchangense and S. (G.) tanahrataense, are described on the basis of reared adult females, males, pupae and larvae from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. These new species are assigned to the asakoae species-group within Simulium (Gomphostilbia) and taxonomic notes are given to distinguish each new species from six known species in Malaysia. Revised keys to identify all 21 species including 13 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The species diversity of the asakoae species-group in Cameron's Highlands is briefly noted.
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) roslihashimisp. n. and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lurauensesp. n., are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal and larval specimens collected from Peninsular Malaysia. These two new species are placed in the ceylonicum species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) roslihashimisp. n. is most distinctive with the male having almost entirely yellow antennae, and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lurauensesp. n. is characterized in the female by having the elongate sensory vesicle and the yellowish-white hairs on the base of the costal vein and on the stem vein, in the male by the greater number of large upper-eye facets and the spindle-shaped hind basitarsi which are much narrower than the hind tibiae and femora and in the pupa by the small terminal hooks. Keys to species of the ceylonicum species-group reported from Peninsular Malaysia are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Simulium (Nevermannia) ledangense sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae and mature larvae from Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the Simulium feuerborni species-group of the subgenus Nevermannia, and is characterized by the pupa having a very long stalk of the ventral paired gill filaments, which is almost five times longer than the interspiracular trunk and female tergites of segments 2 and 5 to 7 shiny. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish this new species from three known species of the S. feuerborni species-group from Malaysia.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hiroyukii is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the Simulium darjeelingense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the darkened fore coxae and the pupal gill with eight long filaments, of which middle and dorsal triplets have elongated primary and secondary stalks, respectively.
Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities.
Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) tekamense and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) jerantutense, are described based on adult females emerged from pupae in Peninsular Malaysia, and assigned to the binuanense subgroup of the batoense species-group in the subgenus Gomphostilbia. Simulium (G.) tekamense sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the subcosta with 0-2 hairs, and presence of a deep notch on the apex of the mediolongitudinal ridge of the cibarium, and in the pupa by one of two paired gill filaments of the middle triplet much thicker than the counter filament. Simulium (G.) jerantutense sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the short claw tooth 0.46 times the length of the claw, and in the pupa by the gill filaments arranged as [2+1+(1+2)]+2 filaments from dorsal to ventral. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish these new species from related species.
Two new blackfly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) azhari and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) johorense, are described based on adult females, males, pupae, and larvae collected from Peninsular Malaysia, and assigned to the parahiyangum subgroup and the duolongum subgroup of the batoense species group of the subgenus Comphostilbia, respectively. S. (G.) azhari sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the narrow frons, and in the male by the broad style and the ventral plate moderately produced ventrally. S. (G.) johorense sp. nov. is also remarkable in having the female subcosta lacking hairs or bearing a reduced number of hairs ranging from one to five. The pupae of both new species share a similar arrangement of the eight gill filaments (i.e., stalks of dorsal and middle triplets and ventral pair arising at the same level from the short common basal stalk), although relative lengths of filaments of the ventral pair to those of the dorsal and middle triplets are different between the two new species. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish these new species from other related species. Keys to identify all 10 species of the batoense species group in Peninsular Malaysia are provided for adult females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.
Simulium (Comphostilbia) izuae sp. nov. is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the asakoae species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia. The pupa of this new species is characterized by the gill with eight long filaments arranged as (3 + 3) + 2 filaments, of which the ventral pair of filaments is borne on a stalk that is always shorter than the common basal stalk. Taxonomic notes to distinguish this new species from five other Malaysian species and 12 other species of the asakoae species-group from other countries are given. Keys to identify all 18 species of the asakoae species-group are also provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.
The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity.
Bioassay test against malathion had been carried out with larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti. The mosquitoes were under selection pressure against malathion for forty-five consecutive generations. The rate of resistance development was measured by LC(50) and LT(50) values. The larvae and adult females, after subjection to malathion selection for 45 generations, developed high resistance level to malathion, with resistance ratio of 52.7 and 3.24 folds, respectively over control mosquitoes. Cross-resistance towards the same and different groups of insecticides was determined using the F44 and F45 malathion-selected adult females. Insecticides tested were DDT (4.0%), permethrin (0.75%), propoxur (0.1%), fenitrothion (1%), λ-cyhalothrin (0.05%) and cyfluthrin (0.15%). Results indicated that the mosquitoes were highly resistant to DDT and fenitrothion, moderately resistant to propoxur, tolerant to permethrin and λ-cyhalothrin, and very low resistant to cyfluthrin.
Simulium (Simulium) kisapense sp. nov. is described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Langkawi Island, Peninsular Malaysia, and placed in the multi-striatum species-group in the subgenus Simulium. This new species is characterized by the bare basal section of the female radial vein, the male ventral plate with setae, the eight pupal gill filaments divergent at an angle of >90 degrees, and the shoe-shaped cocoon with small lateral window(s). Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from S. (S.) hirtinervis Edwards and S. (S.) malayense Takaoka and Davies, both from Peninsular Malaysia, and several other known species from Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Thailand.
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Simulium) murudense and Simulium (Simulium) cheedhangi, are described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. Both species belong to the Simulium melanopus Edwards species group. S. (S.) murudense sp. nov. is distinguished from most known species by a combination of the haired basal portion of the radial vein and the darkened fore coxae, and S. (S.) cheedhangi sp. nov. is characterized in the female by having a medium-sized claw tooth and in the pupa by six somewhat inflated gill filaments. Notes are given on the S. melanopus species-group in Sarawak and Sabah.
Allergy to house dust mites (HDM) is an important cause of asthma and rhinitis in Malaysia. This study was carried out to evaluate the dust mite fauna in the Klang Valley. Dust samples were collected from 20 houses from March 1994 to February 1995. Thirty-three dust samples from mattresses were examined monthly for the occurrence of HDM. A total of 22 species in 9 families of HDM was identified. The most common and densely populated species was Blomia tropicalis with an average density of 8,934 mites/g of dust. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the next in abundance, followed by Malayoglyphus intermedius. All houses surveyed were found to be infested with HDM and every house had at least 6 species of HDM. B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus were found in all mattresses. HDM in the Klang Valley were found to be highly prevalent and present in high densities. In this study, counts of D. pteronyssinus was found to exceed the proposed exposure threshold of 500 mites/g dust, for triggering acute asthma. Although counts of B. tropicalis exceeded D. pteronyssinus, no conclusion could be made because there is currently no exposure threshold for triggering acute asthma, for this species. Monthly distribution of B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus showed 2 peaks and 4 peaks, respectively. The major peak for D. pteronysinus was in January 1995 whereas for B. tropicalis, the major peak was more variable and occurred between November 1994 to January 1995. Both the species showed minor peak in April 1994.
An entomological study was conducted in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia in May until September 2007 revealing five species of butterflies (all from family Nymphalidae) were attracted to pig carcasses placed in an oil palm plantation. Euploea mulciber (Cramer 1777), Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus 1758), Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus 1763), Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus 1758) and Ypthima baldus (Fabricius 1775) came to the carcasses at different stages of decomposition. From this study, we know that nymphalid butterflies are attracted to carcasses but their roles are most probably unimportant in post-mortem estimation.
The classification, annotated list and keys for the black fly species from Peninsular Malaysia are updated. The number of black fly species increased from 38 in 1995 to 62 (including a new species herein described) in 2018. The 62 species are classified in four subgenera of the genus Simulium: one species in Daviesellum, 35 species in Gomphostilbia, five species in Nevermannia and 21 species in Simulium. Species in the latter three subgenera are further placed in species-groups or subgroups. Keys are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. Simulium (S.) perakense sp. nov. is described and placed in the S. striatum species-group. The males of S. (G.) decuplum, S. (G.) tahanense, S. (S.) malayense, the female of S. (G.) adleri, and the female and larva of S. (G.) varicorne are described for the first time. The female, male, pupa and larva of S. (G.) trangense, the male and pupa of S. (G.) varicorne and the pupa of S. (G.) adleri are redescribed. Simulium (G.) sp. A is identified as S. (G.) pegalanense. Brief notes for each species are given on morphological characteristics, aquatic habitats and geographical distributions.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) leparense sp. nov. is described from females, males, and pupae collected from Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the ceylonicum species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the female and male scuta covered with dark-brown short hairs, smaller number of male upper-eye facets, presence of shiny paired spots on the male abdominal segments 2-8, and absence of grapnel-shaped hooklets on the pupal abdominal segment 9. The male and pupa of S. capillatum Takaoka, which was originally described from larvae collected from Sarawak and Sabah, are described for the first time. Keys to identify all 32 species of the Simulium ceylonicum species-group including 27 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.
Selected physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored at the vegetative and reproductive growth stages in potted Bougainvillea plants treated with five different concentrations of TRIA. Advanced flowering, flower bud number, and blooming rate increased significantly with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Similarly, photosynthetic rate, pigment content, quantum yield, and stomatal conductance increased significantly with 2.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Higher levels of N, P, and K, as well as increased total soluble solids (TSS) and higher sugar and protein contents, were recorded in treated plants. Furthermore, 46% more flowers, a 1.5-fold increase in bract weight, increased longevity, and 40% less leaf abscission were recorded following 2.5 mg/L TRIA treatment. Phenol and flavonoid contents, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and antioxidant activities were also markedly increased with 2.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. However, ethylene production was significantly lower in the treated plants. Positive correlations were observed between leaf TSS and flowering time and flower number, between leaf sugar content and bract weight, and between net photosynthesis and bract growth and dry matter production. It can be concluded that the foliar spray of TRIA stimulates growth, enhances flowering, and improves the quality of potted Bougainvillea plants.