METHODS: A nationwide population-based survey involving 3977 community-dwelling older persons aged ≥60 years was conducted via face-to-face interview, of whom 3466 older persons were eligible for screening using a locally validated tool. Elder abuse was defined as any one occurrence of neglect, financial, psychological, physical or sexual abuse perpetrated by someone in a position of trust that was experienced in the past 12 months.
RESULTS: About 9.0% of older persons in Malaysia have experienced elder abuse in the past 12 months, with neglect being the commonest type experienced (7.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54, 10.07). There is no significant difference by age group and geographical location. Males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.60), poorer social support (aOR 5.0; 95% CI: 2.25, 11.22), dependency in activities of daily living (aOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.44) and a previous history of abuse (aOR 10.1; 95% CI: 4.50, 22.86) show higher odds of experiencing elder abuse. Almost 5% of abused older persons reported experiencing multiple types of abuse. Reporting is low at 19.3% with none reporting to healthcare personnel.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of elder abuse in this study is lower than global estimates, but similar to local studies. Preventive measures and programs are crucial to overcoming elder abuse and need to be carried out at multiple levels - the individual, community, healthcare and other stakeholders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 85-91.
METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2018 (NHMS 2018), a cross-sectional study using stratified cluster sampling design. Older persons were defined as aged ≥60 years in this study. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 25.0.
RESULTS: Overall, 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.46, 15.84) of older persons reported having experienced at least one fall during the past 12 months. Univariate analyses revealed an association between the history of falls with not being employed (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35 [95% CI: 1.03, 1.77]), diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.33, 2.04]), limitation in activities of daily living (ADL) (OR: 1.90 [95% CI: 1.43, 2.54]) or instrumental ADL (OR: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.16, 1.84]). Multiple logistic regression revealed that falls were positively associated with those who had diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.55 [95% CI: 1.23, 1.94]) and limitation in ADL (OR: 1.56 [95% CI: 1.14, 2.15]); 43.9% of falls occurred outdoors.
CONCLUSION: One in six older Malaysian people experience at least one fall over a 12-month period. Diabetes mellitus and limitation in ADL were the factors associated with falls among older persons. A comprehensive and targeted program designed to reduce risk of falls is urgently needed. Future research should identify suitable programs for our setting to reduce the potential society burden of falls in older Malaysians. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 33-37.
METHOD: Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2016 conducted by Ministry of Health was analysed. This nationwide survey involved 15,188 children below five years old. The survey was carried out using a two-stage stratified sampling design to ensure national representativeness. The Questionnaire from UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MCIS) was adapted to suit local requirements. Analysis was done using SPSS Version 23. Descriptive followed by multiple logistic regression were done to identify relevant factors.
RESULT: The prevalence of diarrhoea among children under five in Malaysia was 4.4% (95% CI: 3.8,5.2). Analysis using logistic regression indicated that only ethnicity and usage of untreated water were significantly associated with diarrhoea among children after controlling for relevant factors. By ethnicity, children in the 'Other Bumiputera' group had 2.5 times the odds of having diarrhoea compared to children of Malay ethnicity. Children of Indian ethnicity were also at higher risk, at almost double the odds, as well as other ethnic groups (1.5 times). Children who used untreated water supply were two times more likely to develop diarrhoea.
CONCLUSION: There is a higher risk of diarrhoea among children of 'Other Bumiputera' ethnicity, Indian ethnicities, and other ethnic groups and those who consume untreated water. Strategies to reduce diarrhoea among children should be targeted towards these at-risk populations. In addition, the Government must strive to ensure universal access to treated clean water in Malaysia and the Ministry of Health must focus on raising awareness on how to prevent diarrhoea.
METHODS: This was a subanalysis of secondary data collected from the two cross-sectional national population-based surveys conducted in Malaysia in 2006 and 2015. Adults aged 60 and older who had participated in these two surveys were included in the study.
RESULTS: A total of 4954 (2295 males and 2659 females) and 3790 (1771 males and 2019 females) respondents completed the hypertension module surveys in 2006 and 2015, respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 68.5±6.9 years in 2006 and 68.6±7.1 years in 2015 and the difference was not significant. The prevalence of hypertension significantly reduced from 73.8% in 2006 to 69.2% in 2015 (p<0.001). Among the respondents with hypertension, the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension significantly increased from 49.7% to 60.2%, 86.7% to 91.5% and 23.3% to 44.8%, respectively, from 2006 to 2015. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex and unemployed/retiree were significantly associated with higher hypertension prevalence in both 2006 and 2015. Being unemployed/ retiree was significantly associated with higher awareness of hypertension in both 2006 and 2015. In both 2006 and 2015, Chinese ethnicity were significantly associated with higher awareness and control of hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: The mean population BP levels and hypertension prevalence among the elderly population in Malaysia have reduced significantly over the past decade. Although the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among older adults have improved significantly, the awareness and control rates remain suboptimal. As population aging is inevitable, appropriate public health programs and optimal treatment strategies targeting this vulnerable group are urgently needed to improve the overall awareness and control of hypertension and to prevent hypertension-related complications.
METHODS: A nationwide survey was conducted among individuals aged ≥60 years. Cognition was assessed with the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) tool. QoL of older caregivers was assessed using the Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization and Pleasure (CASP-19) questionnaire.
RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia among older adults aged ≥60 years in Malaysia was found to be 8.5%. The prevalence was found to be higher among females, those with no formal education and those in rural areas in Malaysia. The mean QoL of family caregivers of PLwD was significantly lower than the caregivers of older adults without dementia were (P
METHODS: The survey included 3977 community-dwelling respondents, aged ≥60 years across Malaysia. Two-stage stratified random sampling with selection of enumeration blocks from both urban and rural areas ensured the findings were representative of the Malaysian older population.
RESULTS: Complex sampling analyses ensured that findings on various geriatric syndromes, non-communicable diseases, nutritional status, functional status, social well-being and quality of life are representative of the Malaysian older population. Among the limitations are that the composition of older persons varied slightly from the general older population.
CONCLUSIONS: This article presents the methodology of the survey, and a baseline of the major health issues for older persons in Malaysia to provide clear guidance to researchers, program managers and policymakers to fully utilize the data from the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey toward achieving healthy aging. The findings might stimulate more research on the health problems faced by older people to provide inputs for policymaking and program implementation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 7-15.
METHODS: We used the 19-item Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure scale, a validated instrument that measures psychological well-being related to QoL in older persons. Scores range from 0 to 57, and higher scores indicate better QoL. We included several factors as covariates. Analysis of complex samples was carried out using Stata 15. Descriptive analysis was carried out to determine QoL by sociodemographic characteristics and other factors. Linear regression analysis was used to identify psychosocial factors that influence QoL.
RESULTS: A total of 3444 individuals aged ≥60 years completed all 19-item Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure items. The estimated mean QoL score was 47.01 (95% CI 46.30-47.72). Adjusted for confounders, QoL was lower among individuals with no formal education (-2.554, 95% CI -3.684, -1.424), probable depression (-1.042, 95% CI -1.212, -0.871) and food insecurity (-0.815, 95% CI -1.083, -0.548). QoL continued to improve with improved ADL score (0.302, 95% CI 0.052, 0.552), IADL score (0.646, 95% CI 0.382, 0.909) and better social support (0.308, 95% CI 0.187, 0.429).
CONCLUSIONS: Lower education, depression, food insecurity, presence of limited functional status and poor social support negatively influenced QoL in older Malaysians. This study identified potentially modifiable factors that could be targeted for interventions to enhance QoL of older persons in Malaysia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 92-97.
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