Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Sooryanarayana R, Sazlina SG
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:5-6.
    PMID: 33370857 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.14112
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2018)
  2. Sooryanarayana R, Choo WY, Hairi NN
    Trauma Violence Abuse, 2013 Oct;14(4):316-25.
    PMID: 23878148 DOI: 10.1177/1524838013495963
    Aging is a rising phenomenon globally and elder abuse is becoming increasingly recognized as a health and social problem. This review aimed to identify the prevalence of elder abuse in community settings, and discuss issues regarding measurement tools and strategies to measure elderly abuse by systematically reviewing all community-based studies conducted worldwide.
  3. Sahril N, Ahmad NA, Idris IB, Sooryanarayana R, Abd Razak MA
    Children (Basel), 2021 Feb 07;8(2).
    PMID: 33562212 DOI: 10.3390/children8020119
    Mental health problems are a major public health issue, particularly among children. They impair children's development, academic achievement, and ability to live a productive life. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with mental health problems among children aged 5 to 15 years old in Malaysia. Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015 were analyzed. A validated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used. The overall prevalence of mental health problems among children in Malaysia was 11.1%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that for every year increment in age, mental health problems decreased by 5%. Further analysis found that children who had fathers with a non-formal education and worked in the private sector, had parents who were widowed or divorced, and had either parent with mental health problems were more likely to have mental health problems themselves. Children from the lower socioeconomic group and who had either parent with mental health problems had higher odds of having mental health problems in Malaysia.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2015)
  4. Sooryanarayana R, Ganapathy SS, Wong NI, Rosman A, Choo WY, Hairi NN
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:85-91.
    PMID: 33370859 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.13989
    AIM: Elder abuse is a significant public health problem. This study aims to estimate its prevalence and associated factors, using representative national Malaysian data.

    METHODS: A nationwide population-based survey involving 3977 community-dwelling older persons aged ≥60 years was conducted via face-to-face interview, of whom 3466 older persons were eligible for screening using a locally validated tool. Elder abuse was defined as any one occurrence of neglect, financial, psychological, physical or sexual abuse perpetrated by someone in a position of trust that was experienced in the past 12 months.

    RESULTS: About 9.0% of older persons in Malaysia have experienced elder abuse in the past 12 months, with neglect being the commonest type experienced (7.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54, 10.07). There is no significant difference by age group and geographical location. Males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.60), poorer social support (aOR 5.0; 95% CI: 2.25, 11.22), dependency in activities of daily living (aOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.44) and a previous history of abuse (aOR 10.1; 95% CI: 4.50, 22.86) show higher odds of experiencing elder abuse. Almost 5% of abused older persons reported experiencing multiple types of abuse. Reporting is low at 19.3% with none reporting to healthcare personnel.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of elder abuse in this study is lower than global estimates, but similar to local studies. Preventive measures and programs are crucial to overcoming elder abuse and need to be carried out at multiple levels - the individual, community, healthcare and other stakeholders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 85-91.

  5. Sahril N, Shahein NA, Yoep N, Mahmud NA, Sooryanarayana R, Maw Pin T, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:33-37.
    PMID: 33370863 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.13980
    AIM: Falls are a common problem among older people, leading to major morbidity and increased mortality. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of falls among older persons in Malaysia and its associated factors.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2018 (NHMS 2018), a cross-sectional study using stratified cluster sampling design. Older persons were defined as aged ≥60 years in this study. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 25.0.

    RESULTS: Overall, 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.46, 15.84) of older persons reported having experienced at least one fall during the past 12 months. Univariate analyses revealed an association between the history of falls with not being employed (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35 [95% CI: 1.03, 1.77]), diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.33, 2.04]), limitation in activities of daily living (ADL) (OR: 1.90 [95% CI: 1.43, 2.54]) or instrumental ADL (OR: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.16, 1.84]). Multiple logistic regression revealed that falls were positively associated with those who had diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.55 [95% CI: 1.23, 1.94]) and limitation in ADL (OR: 1.56 [95% CI: 1.14, 2.15]); 43.9% of falls occurred outdoors.

    CONCLUSION: One in six older Malaysian people experience at least one fall over a 12-month period. Diabetes mellitus and limitation in ADL were the factors associated with falls among older persons. A comprehensive and targeted program designed to reduce risk of falls is urgently needed. Future research should identify suitable programs for our setting to reduce the potential society burden of falls in older Malaysians. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 33-37.

  6. Sazlina SG, Sooryanarayana R, Ho BK, Omar MA, Krishnapillai AD, Mohd Tohit N, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(10):e0240826.
    PMID: 33085718 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240826
    Study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and their prevalence among the older people in Malaysia is limited. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with CVD risk factors using the non-laboratory Framingham Generalized 10-Year CVD risk score among older people in Malaysia. This was a population-based cross-sectional study using data of 3,375 participants aged ≥60 years from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. Sociodemographic, health factors and clinical assessments (anthropometry and blood pressure) were included. Complex survey analysis was used to obtain prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We applied ordinal regression to determine the factors associated with CVD risk. The prevalence for the high 10-year CVD risk was 72.1%. Body mass index was higher among those aged 60-69 years in men (25.4kg/m2, 95%CI 25.1-25.8) and women (26.7kg/m2, 95%CI 26.3-27.1) than the other age groups. The factors associated with moderate and high 10-year CVD risk were Malay ethnicity (Odds Ratio(OR) 0.76, 95%CI 0.63-0.92, p = 0.004), unmarried status (OR 1.55, 95%CI 1.22-1.97, p<0.001) and physically inactive (OR 0.72, 95%CI 0.55-0.95, p = 0.020). There is a need for future study to evaluate preventive strategies to improve the health of older people in order to promote healthy ageing.
  7. Tan L, Ganapathy SS, Sooryanarayana R, Hasim MH, Saminathan TA, Mohamad Anuar MF, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 Nov;31(8_suppl):18S-29S.
    PMID: 31470742 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519870665
    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying victimization from a nationwide school-based survey among 27 458 students aged 13 to 17 years. The overall prevalence of having been bullied in the past 30 days was 16.2%; this decreased with age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that factors most strongly associated with bullying victimization were exposure to physical attacks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17-2.79), illicit drug use (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.78-3.34), involvement in physical fights (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.74-2.23), being younger than 14 years (aOR =1.95, 95% CI = 1.59-2.38), and having ever attempted suicide (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.51-2.21). Other significantly associated factors include loneliness, truancy, making suicidal plans, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Exposure to bullying victimization can result in negative lifelong sequelae and important associated factors should be considered in planning effective school-based anti-bullying interventions.
  8. Aziz FAA, Ahmad NA, Razak MAA, Omar M, Kasim NM, Yusof M, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2018 Dec 11;18(1):1363.
    PMID: 30537956 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-6266-z
    BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhoea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children under than 5 years of age. There is a scarcity of published data on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) prevalence in Malaysia among children. This study aims to determine factors associated with diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years in Malaysia.

    METHOD: Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2016 conducted by Ministry of Health was analysed. This nationwide survey involved 15,188 children below five years old. The survey was carried out using a two-stage stratified sampling design to ensure national representativeness. The Questionnaire from UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MCIS) was adapted to suit local requirements. Analysis was done using SPSS Version 23. Descriptive followed by multiple logistic regression were done to identify relevant factors.

    RESULT: The prevalence of diarrhoea among children under five in Malaysia was 4.4% (95% CI: 3.8,5.2). Analysis using logistic regression indicated that only ethnicity and usage of untreated water were significantly associated with diarrhoea among children after controlling for relevant factors. By ethnicity, children in the 'Other Bumiputera' group had 2.5 times the odds of having diarrhoea compared to children of Malay ethnicity. Children of Indian ethnicity were also at higher risk, at almost double the odds, as well as other ethnic groups (1.5 times). Children who used untreated water supply were two times more likely to develop diarrhoea.

    CONCLUSION: There is a higher risk of diarrhoea among children of 'Other Bumiputera' ethnicity, Indian ethnicities, and other ethnic groups and those who consume untreated water. Strategies to reduce diarrhoea among children should be targeted towards these at-risk populations. In addition, the Government must strive to ensure universal access to treated clean water in Malaysia and the Ministry of Health must focus on raising awareness on how to prevent diarrhoea.

  9. Abd Razak MA, Ahmad NA, Abd Aziz FA, Jamaluddin R, Sidik SM, Awaluddin SM, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 11;31(8_suppl):30S-37S.
    PMID: 31402682 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519867796
    Limited evidence on the association of being bullied with depression among adolescents was found in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the association of being bullied and depression among Malaysian school-going adolescents. Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017, a cross-sectional study conducted from March to May 2017, was analyzed using descriptive and multiple logistic regression analysis. A validated tool, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 was used to categorize those with moderate or higher levels of depressive symptoms as having depression. A total of 27 399 school-going adolescents participated and 18.3% were found depressed. Adolescents of Indian ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.02, P < .001), those with parents living apart (aOR = 1.41, P < .001), and those who were being bullied (aOR = 2.98, P < .001) were more likely to have depression. This study demonstrated the association between being bullied and having depression. Comprehensive preventive strategies should be implemented taking into consideration the findings from this study.
  10. Ganapathy SS, Tan L, Sooryanarayana R, Hashim MH, Saminathan TA, Ahmad FH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 11;31(8_suppl):38S-47S.
    PMID: 31617372 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519879339
    Body weight is a factor, with body weight perception a mediator, toward being a victim of bullying. This study aimed to explore the association between body weight, body weight perception, and bullying among students 13 to 17 years of age in Malaysia. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling design was used, and 212 schools across Malaysia were selected for this survey. Body weight was measured and body weight perception was the student's reflection of their body weight. The prevalence of being bullied among adolescents in Malaysia was 16.2%. Being too thin or being obese increased the probability of being bullied. Students with a normal body mass index, but with a misperception of their body weight, also had increased odds of being bullied. Obesity prevention, together with instilling positive body weight perception, should be part of all programs directed toward tackling the problem of bullying.
  11. Chan YY, Sooryanarayana R, Mohamad Kasim N, Lim KK, Cheong SM, Kee CC, et al.
    Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2018 11 26;81:74-83.
    PMID: 30521992 DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2018.11.012
    Malaysia has an increasingly aging population. Despite the substantial benefits of physical activity for healthy aging, older adults are considered the most physically inactive segment of the Malaysian population. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity among older adults in Malaysia and its correlates. We analysed data on adults aged ≥60 years (n = 3790) from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015, a cross-sectional, nationwide population-based survey covering information on socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity and other lifestyle-related variables, health conditions, and functional limitations. Individuals included in this study were classified as physically active or physically inactive. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity. The overall prevalence of physical inactivity among older adults aged ≥60 years old was 48.8%. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among females, older age groups, Indians, those being single/widowed/divorced, those with no formal education, those who reported high sedentary time (≥7 h/day), those with diabetes, anaemia, and functional limitations (p 
  12. Abdul Aziz FA, Abd Razak MA, Ahmad NA, Awaluddin SM, Lodz NA, Sooryanarayana R, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 11;31(8_suppl):73S-79S.
    PMID: 31353928 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519862161
    Various factors contribute to suicidal attempt. This study aims to determine the relationship between suicidal attempt and its associated factors among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the National Health and Morbidity 2017 survey were analyzed. This survey was implemented as a nationwide school-based survey targeting adolescents 13 to 17 years old. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS version 20. A total of 27 399 adolescents participated in this survey. The prevalence of suicidal attempt was 6.9% (95% confidence interval = 6.2-7.7). Multivariate analysis found that the odds of suicidal attempt among adolescent with depression is 4.3 (adjusted odds ratio = 4.3; 95% confidence interval = 3.9-4.8). Other significant factors are young adolescent, non-Malay ethnicities especially Indian, adolescent with parents living apart, and those without peer support and parental connectedness. A holistic approach for the planning of preventative strategies and public health policies should be made according to these risk factors.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2017)
  13. Ho BK, Omar MA, Sooryanarayana R, Ghazali SS, Zainal Abidin SBI, Krishnapillai A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(9):e0238780.
    PMID: 32911521 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0238780
    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Thus, it is an important public health challenge worldwide. In Malaysia, only a few studies have focused on the trends of hypertension specifically for the aging population. In view of the rapid growth of the elderly population in Malaysia, there is an urgent need to explore the condition of hypertension in this aging population. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine the trends of population mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) levels, the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, and its' associated factors among older persons in two cross-sectional national surveys that were conducted in 2006 and 2015 in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a subanalysis of secondary data collected from the two cross-sectional national population-based surveys conducted in Malaysia in 2006 and 2015. Adults aged 60 and older who had participated in these two surveys were included in the study.

    RESULTS: A total of 4954 (2295 males and 2659 females) and 3790 (1771 males and 2019 females) respondents completed the hypertension module surveys in 2006 and 2015, respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 68.5±6.9 years in 2006 and 68.6±7.1 years in 2015 and the difference was not significant. The prevalence of hypertension significantly reduced from 73.8% in 2006 to 69.2% in 2015 (p<0.001). Among the respondents with hypertension, the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension significantly increased from 49.7% to 60.2%, 86.7% to 91.5% and 23.3% to 44.8%, respectively, from 2006 to 2015. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex and unemployed/retiree were significantly associated with higher hypertension prevalence in both 2006 and 2015. Being unemployed/ retiree was significantly associated with higher awareness of hypertension in both 2006 and 2015. In both 2006 and 2015, Chinese ethnicity were significantly associated with higher awareness and control of hypertension.

    CONCLUSIONS: The mean population BP levels and hypertension prevalence among the elderly population in Malaysia have reduced significantly over the past decade. Although the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among older adults have improved significantly, the awareness and control rates remain suboptimal. As population aging is inevitable, appropriate public health programs and optimal treatment strategies targeting this vulnerable group are urgently needed to improve the overall awareness and control of hypertension and to prevent hypertension-related complications.

  14. Ganapathy SS, Sooryanarayana R, Ahmad NA, Jamaluddin R, Abd Razak MA, Tan MP, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:16-20.
    PMID: 33370858 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.14031
    AIM: Dementia is the major cause of disability among older persons and leading physical and psychological sequelae for both the person living with dementia (PLwD) and their caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dementia in Malaysia and identify the factors influencing quality of life (QoL) of caregivers of PLwD.

    METHODS: A nationwide survey was conducted among individuals aged ≥60 years. Cognition was assessed with the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) tool. QoL of older caregivers was assessed using the Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization and Pleasure (CASP-19) questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia among older adults aged ≥60 years in Malaysia was found to be 8.5%. The prevalence was found to be higher among females, those with no formal education and those in rural areas in Malaysia. The mean QoL of family caregivers of PLwD was significantly lower than the caregivers of older adults without dementia were (P 

  15. Sooryanarayana R, Wong NI, Ahmad NA, Razak MAA, Yusoff MFM, Chan YY, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:7-15.
    PMID: 33370855 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.14094
    AIM: This article describes the methodology of the 2018 Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey, and provides an overview of the sociodemographic details of the respondents and key findings on the health of older adults.

    METHODS: The survey included 3977 community-dwelling respondents, aged ≥60 years across Malaysia. Two-stage stratified random sampling with selection of enumeration blocks from both urban and rural areas ensured the findings were representative of the Malaysian older population.

    RESULTS: Complex sampling analyses ensured that findings on various geriatric syndromes, non-communicable diseases, nutritional status, functional status, social well-being and quality of life are representative of the Malaysian older population. Among the limitations are that the composition of older persons varied slightly from the general older population.

    CONCLUSIONS: This article presents the methodology of the survey, and a baseline of the major health issues for older persons in Malaysia to provide clear guidance to researchers, program managers and policymakers to fully utilize the data from the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey toward achieving healthy aging. The findings might stimulate more research on the health problems faced by older people to provide inputs for policymaking and program implementation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 7-15.

  16. Abdul Mutalip MH, Abdul Rahim FA, Mohamed Haris H, Yoep N, Mahmud AF, Salleh R, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:92-97.
    PMID: 33370851 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.13961
    AIM: Quality of life (QoL) among the older persons provides valuable insights into the potential modifiable risk factors that affect well-being in later life. This study aimed to describe the QoL and psychosocial factors of QoL of older persons in Malaysia.

    METHODS: We used the 19-item Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure scale, a validated instrument that measures psychological well-being related to QoL in older persons. Scores range from 0 to 57, and higher scores indicate better QoL. We included several factors as covariates. Analysis of complex samples was carried out using Stata 15. Descriptive analysis was carried out to determine QoL by sociodemographic characteristics and other factors. Linear regression analysis was used to identify psychosocial factors that influence QoL.

    RESULTS: A total of 3444 individuals aged ≥60 years completed all 19-item Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure items. The estimated mean QoL score was 47.01 (95% CI 46.30-47.72). Adjusted for confounders, QoL was lower among individuals with no formal education (-2.554, 95% CI -3.684, -1.424), probable depression (-1.042, 95% CI -1.212, -0.871) and food insecurity (-0.815, 95% CI -1.083, -0.548). QoL continued to improve with improved ADL score (0.302, 95% CI 0.052, 0.552), IADL score (0.646, 95% CI 0.382, 0.909) and better social support (0.308, 95% CI 0.187, 0.429).

    CONCLUSIONS: Lower education, depression, food insecurity, presence of limited functional status and poor social support negatively influenced QoL in older Malaysians. This study identified potentially modifiable factors that could be targeted for interventions to enhance QoL of older persons in Malaysia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 92-97.

  17. Yunus RM, Hairi NN, Choo WY, Hairi FM, Sooryanarayana R, Ahmad SN, et al.
    J Elder Abuse Negl, 2017;29(1):59-71.
    PMID: 27841737 DOI: 10.1080/08946566.2016.1260083
    Our study aims at describing mortality among reported elder abuse experiences in rural Malaysia. This is a population-based cohort study with a multistage cluster sampling method. Older adults in Kuala Pilah (n = 1,927) were interviewed from November 2013 to May 2014. Mortality was traced after 2 years using the National Registration Department database. Overall, 139 (7.2%) respondents died. Fifteen (9.6%) abuse victims died compared to 124 (7.0%) not abused. Mortality was highest with financial abuse (13%), followed by psychological abuse (10.8%). There was a dose-response relationship between mortality and clustering of abuse: 7%, 7.7%, and 14.0% for no abuse, one type, and two types or more, respectively. Among abuse victims, 40% of deaths had ill-defined causes, 33% were respiratory-related, and 27% had cardiovascular and metabolic origin. Results suggest a link between abuse and mortality. Death proportions varied according to abuse subtypes and gender.
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