Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

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  1. Zainal N.Z, Nor-Aziyan Y, Subramaniam P
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Interest in mindfulness and its enhancements have quietly exploded in recent years, bringing with it the need for validated instruments to assess mindfulness in the Malaysian population. The study aims to assess the reliability, factor structure and validity of the Malay version of The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MMAAS) in a group of nursing students. Methods: The MMAAS was ‘forward-backward’ translated from English to Malay. Two hundred and sixty six nursing students answered the MMAAS. At the same time, they responded to the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). We performed Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) with varimaxrotation to examine the factor structure of the MMAAS. Associations of retained factors were estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: Internal consistency reliability of MMAAS was good (Cronbach’s α = 0.851) and showed temporal stability in a 3-week period. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) suggested three factors labelled as “Attention related to generaldomain”, “Attention related to the physicaldomain” and “Attention related to psychological domain”. These factors explained 52.09% of the variance. The Malay MAAS and the English version was highly correlated (r=0.82, p
  2. Subramaniam P, Woods B
    Clin Interv Aging, 2016;11:1263-1276.
    PMID: 27698556
    There is increasing interest in using information and communication technology to help older adults with dementia to engage in reminiscence work. Now, the feasibility of such approaches is beginning to be established. The purpose of this study was to establish an evidence-base for the acceptability and efficacy of using multimedia digital life storybooks with people with dementia in care homes, in comparison with conventional life storybooks, taking into account the perspectives of people with dementia, their relatives, and care staff.
  3. Subramaniam P, Mohamad S, Alias Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(10):3675-85.
    PMID: 21152293 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11103675
    The supramolecular structure of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with 1,1',2,2'-tetramethyl-3,3'-(p-phenylenedimethylene) diimidazolium dibromide (TetraPhimBr), a dicationic ionic liquid, has been investigated. The inclusion complex with 1:1 molar ratio was prepared by a kneading method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, (1)H NMR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the formation of the inclusion complex. The results showed that the host-guest system is a fine crystalline powder. The decomposition temperature of the inclusion complex is lower than that of its parent molecules, TetraPhimBr and β-CD individually.
  4. Subramaniam P, Alias Y, Chandrasekaram K
    PMID: 21588775 DOI: 10.1107/S1600536810033490
    In the solid form of the title imidazolium-based ionic liquid salt, C(18)H(24)N(4) (2+)·2CF(3)SO(3) (-), the complete cation is generated by a crystallographic inversion centre. The five-membered imidazole ring is approximately perpendicular to the six-membered phenyl-ene ring [dihedral angle = 85.11 (11)°]. In the crystal, the components are linked by C-H⋯O interactions.
  5. Sinniah A, Maniam T, Oei TP, Subramaniam P
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:718367.
    PMID: 24672358 DOI: 10.1155/2014/718367
    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.
  6. Ho JJ, Subramaniam P, Davis PG
    PMID: 26141572 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002271.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. In infants with progressive respiratory insufficiency, intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant is the standard treatment for the condition, but it is invasive, potentially resulting in airway and lung injury. Continuous distending pressure (CDP) has been used for the prevention and treatment of RDS, as well as for the prevention of apnoea, and in weaning from IPPV. Its use in the treatment of RDS might reduce the need for IPPV and its sequelae.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of continuous distending pressure (CDP) on the need for IPPV and associated morbidity in spontaneously breathing preterm infants with respiratory distress.Subgroup analyses were planned on the basis of birth weight (> or < 1000 or 1500 g), gestational age (groups divided at about 28 weeks and 32 weeks), methods of application of CDP (i.e. CPAP and CNP), application early versus late in the course of respiratory distress and high versus low pressure CDP and application of CDP in tertiary compared with non-tertiary hospitals, with the need for sensitivity analysis determined by trial quality.At the 2008 update, the objectives were modified to include preterm infants with respiratory failure.

    SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2015 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 April 2015) and EMBASE (1980 to 30 April 2015) with no language restriction, as well as controlled-trials.com, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization (WHO).

    SELECTION CRITERIA: All random or quasi-random trials of preterm infants with respiratory distress were eligible. Interventions were continuous distending pressure including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by mask, nasal prong, nasopharyngeal tube or endotracheal tube, or continuous negative pressure (CNP) via a chamber enclosing the thorax and the lower body, compared with spontaneous breathing with oxygen added as necessary.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group, including independent assessment of trial quality and extraction of data by each review author.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included six studies involving 355 infants - two using face mask CPAP, two CNP, one nasal CPAP and one both CNP (for less ill babies) and endotracheal CPAP (for sicker babies). For this update, we included no new trials.Continuous distending pressure (CDP) is associated with lower risk of treatment failure (death or use of assisted ventilation) (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.81; typical risk difference (RD) -0.20, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.10; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 5, 95% CI 4 to 10; six studies; 355 infants), lower overall mortality (typical RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.87; typical RD -0.15, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.04; NNTB 7, 95% CI 4 to 25; six studies; 355 infants) and lower mortality in infants with birth weight above 1500 g (typical RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.84; typical RD -0.28, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.08; NNTB 4, 95% CI 2.00 to 13.00; two studies; 60 infants). Use of CDP is associated with increased risk of pneumothorax (typical RR 2.64, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.04; typical RD 0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.17; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 17, 95% CI 17.00 to 25.00; six studies; 355 infants). We found no difference in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), defined as oxygen dependency at 28 days (three studies, 260 infants), as well as no difference in outcome at nine to 14 years (one study, 37 infants).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants with respiratory distress, the application of CDP as CPAP or CNP is associated with reduced respiratory failure and mortality and an increased rate of pneumothorax. Four out of six of these trials were done in the 1970s. Therefore, the applicability of these results to current practice is difficult to assess. Further research is required to determine the best mode of administration.

  7. Subramaniam P, Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG
    PMID: 16034858
    BACKGROUND: Cohort studies (Avery 1987; Jonsson 1997) have suggested that early post-natal nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) may be beneficial in reducing the need for intubation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and in preventing chronic lung disease in preterm or low birth weight infants.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if prophylactic nasal CPAP commenced soon after birth regardless of respiratory status in the very preterm or very low birth weight infant reduces the use of IPPV and the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) without adverse effects.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: The search was updated in April 2005. The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Library Issue 1 2005, MEDLINE 1966-April 2005, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences, symposia, proceedings, expert informants, journal hand searching mainly in the English language.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation of very preterm infants < 32 weeks gestation and / or < 1500 gms at birth were eligible. Comparison had to be between prophylactic nasal CPAP commencing soon after birth regardless of the respiratory status of the infant compared with "standard" methods of treatment where CPAP or IPPV is used for a defined respiratory condition.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group, including independent assessment of trial quality and extraction of data by each author, were used. Data were analysed using relative risk (RR). Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed effects model.

    MAIN RESULTS: There are no statistically significant differences in any of the outcomes studied in either of the eligible trials (Han 1987; Sandri 2004) reporting on 82 and 230 infants respectively. In Han 1987 there are trends towards increases in the incidence of BPD at 28 days [RR 2.27 (0.77, 6.65)], death [RR 3.63 (0.42, 31.08)] and any IVH [RR 2.18 (0.84, 5.62)] in the CPAP group. In Sandri 2004 there is a trend towards an increase in IVH grade 3 or 4 [RR 3.0 (0.96, 28.42)] in the CPAP group. No outcome was significantly different in any of the meta-analyses.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient information to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic nasal CPAP in very preterm infants. Neither of the included studies reviewed showed evidence of benefit in reducing the use of IPPV. The tendency for some adverse outcomes to be increased is of concern and further multicentre randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify this.

  8. Menon SP, Subramaniam P, Lim KG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1984 Dec;39(4):297-9.
    PMID: 6544937
    Four cases of tropical myositis seen over a period of four months at the Penang General Hospital are reported here. All were young local residents in whom large amounts of pus were found deep within skeletal muscles without an obvious aetiological factor.
  9. Toh HM, Ghazali SE, Subramaniam P
    Int J Alzheimers Dis, 2016;2016:5131570.
    PMID: 27478677 DOI: 10.1155/2016/5131570
    Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is an evidence-based therapy for individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia. Past reviews have only synthesized outcomes obtained through quantitative study which does not fully represent the understanding on the acceptability and usefulness of CST. Therefore, the present review aims to integrate outcomes obtained from both quantitative and qualitative studies to provide a deeper understanding on the acceptability and usefulness of CST for older adults with dementia. Findings of literature were retrieved from searches of computerized databases in relation to CST for people with dementia. Literatures were selected according to selection criteria outlined. Results obtained in previous studies pertaining to the effects of CST were discussed in relation to variables such as cognitive function, quality of life, and family caregivers' wellbeing. The review also explores the use of CST in different cultural context, the perception on its effectiveness, and individualized CST (iCST). There is considerable evidence obtained through quantitative and qualitative studies on the usefulness and acceptability of CST for older adults with dementia. Recommendations for future research are provided to strengthen the evidence of CST's effectiveness.
  10. Hmwe NT, Subramaniam P, Tan LP
    Holist Nurs Pract, 2016 Sep-Oct;30(5):283-93.
    PMID: 27501211 DOI: 10.1097/HNP.0000000000000165
    This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure in promoting sleep quality among adults. Study findings included in the review showed that acupressure significantly improved sleep quality compared with the control group, but no superior effect of acupressure was found compared with sham acupressure.
  11. Tay KW, Subramaniam P, Oei TP
    Psychogeriatrics, 2019 May;19(3):264-275.
    PMID: 30548731 DOI: 10.1111/psyg.12391
    Dementia is a neurocognitive disorder that affects a person's abilities in daily functioning. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common among persons with dementia. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been tested to manage their depression and anxiety symptoms. However, the purpose of CBT in managing these symptoms is unclear. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify whether CBT can be used to reduce depression and anxiety symptoms in persons with dementia. The electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were used to locate relevant studies. Eleven studies, which involved a total of 116 older adults, were identified. The findings suggest that CBT can be effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. Based on our current review, the findings from previous studies form a promising foundation on which to conduct a major randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size. This review discusses some of the most important considerations in applying CBT to persons with dementia, and these may be beneficial for future studies that explore this area and seek more conclusive evidence on the use of CBT.
  12. Ho JJ, Subramaniam P, Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG
    PMID: 12076445
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants (Greenough 1998, Bancalari 1992). Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant is the standard treatment for the condition. The major difficulty with IPPV is that it is invasive, resulting in airway and lung injury and contributing to the development of chronic lung disease.

    OBJECTIVES: In spontaneously breathing preterm infants with RDS, to determine if continuous distending pressure (CDP) reduces the need for IPPV and associated morbidity without adverse effects.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review group was used. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2002), MEDLINE (1966-January 2002), and EMBASE (1980-January 2002), previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, expert informants, journal hand searching mainly in the English language.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: All trials using random or quasi-random allocation of preterm infants with RDS were eligible. Interventions were continuous distending pressure including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by mask, nasal prong, nasopharyngeal tube, or endotracheal tube, or continuous negative pressure (CNP) via a chamber enclosing the thorax and lower body, compared with standard care.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group were used, including independent assessment of trial quality and extraction of data by each author.

    MAIN RESULTS: CDP is associated with a lower rate of failed treatment (death or use of assisted ventilation) [summary RR 0.70 (0.55, 0.88), RD -0.22 (-0.35, -0.09), NNT 5 (3, 11)], overall mortality [summary RR 0.52 (0.32, 0.87), RD -0.15 (-0.26, -0.04), NNT 7 (4, 25)], and mortality in infants with birthweights above 1500 g [summary RR 0.24 (0.07, 0.84), RD -0.281 (-0.483, -0.078), NNT 4 (2, 13)]. The use of CDP is associated with an increased rate of pneumothorax [summary RR 2.36 (1.25, 5.54), RD 0.14 (0.04, 0.23), NNH 7 (4, 24)].

    REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants with RDS the application of CDP either as CPAP or CNP is associated with benefits in terms of reduced respiratory failure and reduced mortality. CDP is associated with an increased rate of pneumothorax. The applicability of these results to current practice is difficult to assess, given the intensive care setting of the 1970s when four out of five of these trials were done. Where resources are limited, such as in developing countries, CPAP for RDS may have a clinical role. Further research is required to determine the best mode of administration and its role in modern intensive care settings

  13. Ho JJ, Subramaniam P, Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG
    PMID: 10908543
    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants (Greenough 1998, Bancalari 1992). Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant is the standard treatment for the condition. The major difficulty with IPPV is that it is invasive, resulting in airway and lung injury and contributing to the development of chronic lung disease.
  14. Zamri-Saad M, Subramaniam P, Sheikh-Omar AR, Sani RA, Rasedee A
    Vet. Res. Commun., 1994;18(2):119-22.
    PMID: 7975196
  15. Mohd Zulkifly MF, Ghazali SE, Che Din N, Subramaniam P
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Mar;23(2):53-64.
    PMID: 27547115 MyJurnal
    This study aims to estimate the prevalence and explore the predictors for post-stroke cognitive impairment at the community level in Malaysia.
  16. Tan K, Chong MC, Subramaniam P, Wong LP
    Nurse Educ Today, 2018 May;64:180-189.
    PMID: 29500999 DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt.2017.12.030
    BACKGROUND: Outcome Based Education (OBE) is a student-centered approach of curriculum design and teaching that emphasize on what learners should know, understand, demonstrate and how to adapt to life beyond formal education. However, no systematic review has been seen to explore the effectiveness of OBE in improving the competencies of nursing students.

    OBJECTIVE: To appraise and synthesize the best available evidence that examines the effectiveness of OBE approaches towards the competencies of nursing students.

    DESIGN: A systematic review of interventional experimental studies.

    DATA SOURCES: Eight online databases namely CINAHL, EBSCO, Science Direct, ProQuest, Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS were searched.

    REVIEW METHODS: Relevant studies were identified using combined approaches of electronic database search without geographical or language filters but were limited to articles published from 2006 to 2016, handsearching journals and visually scanning references from retrieved studies. Two reviewers independently conducted the quality appraisal of selected studies and data were extracted.

    RESULTS: Six interventional studies met the inclusion criteria. Two of the studies were rated as high methodological quality and four were rated as moderate. Studies were published between 2009 and 2016 and were mostly from Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Results showed that OBE approaches improves competency in knowledge acquisition in terms of higher final course grades and cognitive skills, improve clinical skills and nursing core competencies and higher behavioural skills score while performing clinical skills. Learners' satisfaction was also encouraging as reported in one of the studies. Only one study reported on the negative effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although OBE approaches does show encouraging effects towards improving competencies of nursing students, more robust experimental study design with larger sample sizes, evaluating other outcome measures such as other areas of competencies, students' satisfaction, and patient outcomes are needed.

  17. Sinniah A, Oei TPS, Maniam T, Subramaniam P
    Psychiatry Res, 2017 08;254:179-189.
    PMID: 28463716 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.04.026
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) in treating patients with mood disorders with suicidal ideation. A total of 69 patients (48 females, 21 males) with the diagnoses above were randomly allocated to either the group of Treatment As Usual (TAU)+ICBT (n=33) or the TAU group (n=36). All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS), Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation Inventory (PANSI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). These questionnaires were administered at pre-treatment, midway through treatment (week 4), post-treatment (week 8), and at follow-ups after three months (week 20) and six months (week 32). Factorial ANOVA results showed that the TAU+ICBT patients improved significantly and at faster rate as compared to the TAU group, which showed improvement only from pre to mid treatment on DASS-D and BHS-T measures. The effect size (Cohen's d), for the TAU+ICBT group showed large effect (1.47) for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation (1.00). These findings suggest that ICBT used in addition to the TAU, was effective in enhancing treatment outcome of patients with unipolar mood disorders as well as, reducing risk for suicide behavior.
  18. Ho JJ, Subramaniam P, Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG
    PMID: 11034747
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants (Greenough 1998, Bancalari 1992). Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant is the standard treatment for the condition. The major difficulty with IPPV is that it is invasive, resulting in airway and lung injury and contributing to the development of chronic lung disease.

    OBJECTIVES: In spontaneously breathing preterm infants with RDS, to determine if continuous distending pressure (CDP) reduces the need for IPPV and associated morbidity without adverse effects.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review group was used. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE (1966-Jan. 2000), previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, expert informants, journal hand searching mainly in the English language.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation of newborn infants with RDS were eligible. Interventions were continuous distending pressure including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by mask, nasal prong, nasopharyngeal tube, or endotracheal tube, or continuous negative pressure (CNP) via a chamber enclosing the thorax and lower body, compared with standard care.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group, including independent assessment of trial quality and extraction of data by each author, were used.

    MAIN RESULTS: CDP is associated with a lower rate of failed treatment (death or use of assisted ventilation), overall mortality, and mortality in infants with birthweights above 1500 g. The use of CDP is associated with an increased rate of pneumothorax.

    REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants with RDS the application of CDP either as CPAP or CNP is associated with some benefits in terms of reduced respiratory failure and reduced mortality. CDP is associated with an increased rate of pneumothorax. The applicability of these results to current practice is difficult to assess, given the outdated methods to administer CDP, low use of antenatal corticosteroids, non-availability of surfactant and the intensive care setting of the 1970s when these trials were done. Where resources are limited, such as in developing countries, CPAP for RDS may have a clinical role. Further research is required to determine the best mode of administration and its role in modern intensive care settings

  19. Baharudin AD, Din NC, Subramaniam P, Razali R
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Jun 13;19(Suppl 4):447.
    PMID: 31196141 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6868-0
    BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study was to determine the association between Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) and caregiver burden, and the mediating role of coping strategy and personality style of caregivers to patients with dementia (PWD).

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 caregivers to PWD in home-based settings. Recruited caregivers were administered questionnaires regarding BPSD which was measured using Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q), caregiver burden using Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Brief COPE for coping strategies and Big-Five Inventory which measured personality traits.

    RESULTS: Majority of the caregivers were female (71.3%), aged 50 and above (55%), single (46%), married (43.6%), working full time (45%) while the rest work part time (22.3%), unemployed (7.4%) and retiree (25.2%), and majority were parents (58.9%) and spouse (18.3%). The duration of caregiving was less than a year (33.7%) while the rest are more than a year. Results demonstrated that the most frequent types of BPSD exhibited by PWD was irritability, followed by apathy and agitation. All of the types of BPSD showed to be significantly correlated to caregiver burden except for anxiety, elation and appetite. Of personality traits, only conscientiousness was found to mediate the relationship between BPSD and caregiver burden (p

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