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  1. Rampal S, Yang MH, Sung J, Son HJ, Choi YH, Lee JH, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2014 Jul;147(1):78-87.e3.
    PMID: 24632359 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.03.006
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diabetes is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. We studied the association between markers of glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome and the presence of colorectal adenomas in a large number of asymptomatic men and women attending a health screening program in South Korea. We also investigated whether these associations depend on adenoma location.
    METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we measured fasting levels of glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, and C-peptide and calculated homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) values (used to quantify insulin resistance) for 19,361 asymptomatic South Korean subjects who underwent colonoscopy examinations from January 2006 to June 2009. Participants completed a standardized self-administered health questionnaire and a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Blood samples were collected on the day of the colonoscopy; fasting blood samples were also collected. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the associations of glucose markers with the prevalence of any adenoma.
    RESULTS: Using detailed multivariable-adjusted dose-response models, the prevalence ratios (aPR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) for any adenoma, comparing the 90th with the 10th percentile, were 1.08 (1.00-1.16; P = .04) for fasting glucose, 1.07 (0.99-1.15; P = .10) for insulin, 1.09 (1.02-1.18, P = .02) for HOMA, 1.09 (1.01-1.17; P = .02) for hemoglobin A1c, and 1.14 (1.05-1.24; P = .002) for C-peptide. The corresponding ratios for nonadvanced adenomas were 1.11 (0.99-1.25; P = .08), 1.10 (0.98-1.24; P = .12), 1.15 (1.02-1.29; P = .02), 1.14 (1.01-1.28; P = .03), and 1.20 (1.05-1.37; P = .007), respectively. The corresponding ratios for advanced adenomas were 1.32 (0.94-1.84; P = .11), 1.23 (0.87-1.75; P = .24), 1.30 (0.92-1.85; P = .14), 1.13 (0.79-1.61; P = .50), and 1.67 (1.15-2.42; P = .007), respectively. Metabolic syndrome was associated with the prevalence of any adenoma (aPR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24; P < .001), nonadvanced adenoma (aPR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20-1.40; P < .001), and advanced adenoma (aPR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.78; P = .002). Associations were similar for adenomas located in the distal versus proximal colon.
    CONCLUSIONS: Increasing levels of glucose, HOMA values, levels of hemoglobin A1c and C-peptide, and metabolic syndrome are significantly associated with the prevalence of adenomas. Adenomas should be added to the list of consequences of altered glucose metabolism.
  2. Yang MH, Rampal S, Sung J, Choi YH, Son HJ, Lee JH, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2014 Mar;23(3):499-507.
    PMID: 24443404 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0682
    Colorectal cancer incidence is rapidly rising in many Asian countries, with rates approaching those of Western countries. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and trends of colorectal adenomas by age, sex, and risk strata in asymptomatic Koreans.
  3. Sung JJ, Ng SC, Chan FK, Chiu HM, Kim HS, Matsuda T, et al.
    Gut, 2015 Jan;64(1):121-32.
    PMID: 24647008 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306503
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations.
    DESIGN: Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements.
    RESULTS: Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening.
    CONCLUSIONS: Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region.
  4. Ooi CJ, Makharia GK, Hilmi I, Gibson PR, Fock KM, Ahuja V, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2016 Jan;31(1):56-68.
    PMID: 25819311 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12958
    The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.
  5. Ooi CJ, Makharia GK, Hilmi I, Gibson PR, Fock KM, Ahuja V, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2016 Jan;31(1):45-55.
    PMID: 25819140 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12956
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.
  6. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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