Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

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  1. Thergarajan G, Govind SK, Bhassu S
    Parasitol. Res., 2018 Jan;117(1):177-187.
    PMID: 29188368 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-017-5688-3
    Blastocystis sp. is known to be the most commonly found intestinal protozoan parasite in human fecal surveys and has been incriminated to cause diarrhea and abdominal bloating. Binary fission has been widely accepted as the plausible mode of reproduction for this parasite. The present study demonstrates that subjecting the parasites in vitro to higher temperature shows the proliferation of parasite numbers in cultures. Transmission electron microscopy was used to compare the morphology of Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 isolated from a dengue patient having high fever (in vivo thermal stress) and Blastocystis sp. 3 maintained at 41 °C (in vitro thermal stress) and 37 °C (control). Fluorescence stains like acridine orange (AO) and 4',6'-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) were used to demonstrate the viability and nuclear content of the parasite for both the in vitro and in vivo thermal stress groups of parasites. Blastocystis sp. at 37 °C was found to be mostly vacuolar whereas the in vitro thermal stressed isolates at 41 °C were granular with electron dense material seen to protect the granules within the central body. Parasites of the in vivo thermal stressed group showed similar ultrastructure as the in vitro ones. AO and DAPI staining provided evidence that these granules are viable which develop into progenies of Blastocystis sp. These granular forms were then observed to rupture and release progenies from the mother cells whilst the peripheral cytoplasmic walls were seen to degrade. Upon exposure to high temperature both in vitro and in vivo, Blastocystis sp. in cultures show higher number of granular forms seen to be protected by the electron dense material within the central body possibly acting as a protective mechanism. This is possibly to ensure the ability to survive for the granules to be developed as viable progenies for release into the host system.
  2. Zuhaimy H, Leow SN, Vasudevan SK
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 Aug 09;2017.
    PMID: 28794092 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-221170
    We discuss the diagnostic challenge in an adult patient presented with purely ocular symptoms diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). A 38-year-old woman presented with bilateral painless blurring of vision. There were bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy and bilateral optic disc swelling. Optic nerve function tests were normal. Patient was lucid with no signs of meningism. Brain imaging were normal. She had a positive Mantoux test, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate but no clinical evidence of active pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Her Quantiferon-TB Gold in-tube test was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a high opening pressure but no biochemical parameters to suggest TBM, hence she was treated as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. A diagnosis of TBM was finally made following a positive PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Her vision improved with reduction in optic disc swelling following antituberculous treatment.
  3. Gaythri T, Suresh K, Subha B, Kalyani R
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(9):e95608.
    PMID: 25180903 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095608
    Protistan parasites in order to ensure their viability and demonstrate successful progression in their life cycle need to respond towards various environmental stressors. Blastocystis sp. is known to be the most commonly found intestinal protistan parasite in any human stool surveys and has been incriminated to be responsible for diarrhea and bloating stomach. The present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of HSP70 in subtypes of Blastocystis sp. when the cultures were subjected to temperature of 39 and 41 °C where the growth of parasites was reduced to a minimum to majority being granular forms. The growth of parasites exposed to higher temperatures however doubled compared to the controls when the parasites were re-cultured back at 37 °C. Upon thermal stress at 41 °C, subtype 3 and subtype 5 isolates' growth reached up to 2.97 × 10(6) and 3.05 × 10(6) cells/ml compared to their respective controlled culture tubes at 37 °C which peaked only at 1.34 × 10(6) and 1.70 × 10(6) cells/ml respectively. The designed primer set that amplified Blastocystis sp. subtype 7 HSP70 gene in subtypes 1, 3 and 5 was against a conserved region. The gene was amplified at 318 bp. The multiple sequence alignment showed that the targeted sequence length ranges from 291-295 bp. The pair wise alignment result showed that the sequence identity among the four sequence ranges from 88% to 96%. These findings were further evidenced by the up regulation of HSP70 gene in thermal stressed isolates of subtype 3 and 5 at 41 °C. Higher number of granular forms was significantly found in thermal stressed isolates of subtype 3 and 5 which implicates that this life cycle stage has a role in responding to thermal stress.
  4. Afzan MY, Suresh K
    Parasitol. Res., 2012 Jul;111(1):371-81.
    PMID: 22398830 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-012-2848-3
    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan parasite causes a variety of adverse health consequences in both men and women. The parasite exists in the trophozoite and the pseudocystic stage. The study reports for the first time that pseudocyst forms of T. vaginalis isolated from cervical neoplasia (CN) patients demonstrated distinct, different and significant in vitro growth profiles when grown in vitro cultures from day 1 up to day 5 (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney test) when compared with the same life cycle stages isolated from non-cervical neoplasia but symptomatic patients (NCN). Pseudocysts from CN and NCN isolates remained viable in distilled water until 3 h 10 min and 2 h 10 min, respectively. The nucleus of pseudocysts in CN isolates using acridine orange and DAPI showed more intense staining revealing higher nuclear content. The FITC-labeled Concanavalin A stained stronger green fluorescence with surface of pseudocysts in CN isolates showing more rough and creased surface with higher numbers of deep micropores with larger numbers of chromatin masses, vacuoles, and hydrogenosomes. The study confirms that pseudocystic stage from CN, despite the uniformity in appearance of being rounded and showing no motility without a true cyst wall under light microscopy, demonstrated different biochemical, surface, and ultrastructural properties. The study provides evidence that phenotypic variant forms of pseudocysts does exist and possibly does play a role in exacerbating cervical cancer.
  5. Raman S, Samuel D, Suresh K
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 1991 Aug;31(3):217-20.
    PMID: 1804081
    In this study 24 patients who had conventional erect lateral X-ray pelvimetry had a CT pelvimetry done after delivery to complete the pelvimetry views. The erect lateral pelvimetry was read independently by a Consultant Radiologist, Consultant Obstetrician and a Medical Officer training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Using CT pelvimetry as the 'gold standard' (as the error of measurement was known with the machine used) the 3 readings were compared. There was no statistical difference in the values suggesting that X-ray pelvimetry is comparable to CT pelvimetry. However CT pelvimetry is preferred, if available, because of the lower dose of radiation involved, more comfort for the patient and shorter time in performing the procedure. Measurements done are easily read directly from the CT console.
  6. Zakuan ZD, Suresh K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):351-359.
    PMID: 30350826 MyJurnal
    Polymyxin B and colistin (polymyxin E) were introduced in clinical practice to treat Gram-negative infections in 1950s but their parenteral use waned in 1970s due to toxicity concerns. Resurgence of polymyxins use in Malaysia began approximately in 2009 due to a lack of treatment options for MDR Gram negative superbugs such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, limited experience and a lack of widespread availability of up-to-date dosing guidelines could potentially result in incorrect use of these last resort antibiotics by managing doctors. The recent report of polymyxin resistant strains is also a cause of concern. Herein, we discuss the importance of preserving the efficacy of polymyxins in hospitals, the similarities and differences between polymyxin B and colistin, issues pertaining to current use of polymxyins and strategies to improve polymyxins' prescription. Polymyxins should only be used to treat significant infections, in optimum doses and if possible, in combination with other antibiotics.
  7. Afzan MY, Sivanandam S, Suresh K
    J. Appl. Microbiol., 2012 Jan;112(1):132-7.
    PMID: 22040369 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05185.x
    We previously reported that Modified Field Stain (MF) can be used as a rapid stain for diagnosis. In the present study we extend the observation to include the stain as an alternative method to assess viability of the cells.
  8. Tan TC, Suresh KG
    Parasitol. Res., 2007 Nov;101(6):1521-5.
    PMID: 17701428
    Blastocystis hominis has been regarded as an enigmatic parasite as many aspects of its basic biology remain uncertain. Many reproductive processes have been suggested for the organism; however, to date, only the binary fission has been proven. Plasmotomy is one of the modes of reproduction previously suggested to be seen in in vitro cultures. The present study provides trichrome and acridine orange staining evidence for the existence of nucleic acid suggestive of division of nucleus into multinucleate forms with the respective cytoplasm dividing giving rise to two or three progeny B. hominis. Transmission electron micrographs further confirmed that these daughter cells had respective surrounding surface coat, mitochondria, and vacuoles.
  9. Tan TC, Suresh KG
    Parasitol. Res., 2006 Nov;99(6):737-42.
    PMID: 16816959
    The amoeboid form of Blastocystis hominis has been reported infrequently, and its morphological descriptions have yielded conflicting and confusing reports. In the present study, we used the amoeboid forms seen predominantly in symptomatic patients infected with Blastocystis to provide detailed descriptions on the fine surface structure and intracellular morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the irregular shape of the amoeboid form, with an intercalated fibrillar structure and a highly convoluted surface with deep indentations and projected pseudopodia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the existence of two types of amoeboid forms of B. hominis in in vitro culture, one with a large central vacuole containing tiny electron-dense particles while the other contains multiple small vacuoles in the cytoplasm. A surface coat with varying thickness surrounded the amoeboid form, which also showed prominent, extended pseudopodia of varying shape. Irregularly shaped mitochondrion-like organelles with prominent cristae, lipid inclusions, and multiple vacuoles were frequently seen in close proximity with the pseudopodia. The characteristic nucleus with a crescentic band of electron-dense chromatin material was also seen.
  10. Tan TC, Suresh KG
    Parasitol. Res., 2006 Feb;98(3):189-93.
    PMID: 16323025
    Blastocystis hominis is one of the most common human parasites that inhabit the intestinal tract. Conflicting reports continue to exist regarding the existence and the functional role of the amoeboid forms in the life cycle of the parasite. The present study investigates the presence of these forms in 20 isolates obtained from ten symptomatic and asymptomatic patients respectively. A total of 10,000 parasite cells per ml from each isolate were inoculated into three culture tubes each containing 3 ml of Jones' medium supplemented with 10% horse serum, incubated at 37 degrees C. The contents were examined daily for 10 days. Irregular and polymorphic amoeboid forms with multiple extended pseudopodia were observed in all isolates from symptomatic patients, while none of the isolates from asymptomatic patients showed the presence of the amoeboid forms. The amoeboid forms were initially noted on day 2 and the percentages increased from 2% to 28%, with peak percentages from day 3 to day 6. Transmission electron microscopy revealed two types of amoeboid forms; one containing a large central vacuole completely filled with tiny electron-dense granules, and the other which revealed multiple small vacuoles within the central body. The cytoplasm contained strands of electron-dense granules resembling rough endoplasmatic reticulum, which is suggestive of active protein synthesis. The surface coat of the amoeboid form surrounding the parasite showed uneven thickness. Acridine orange stained the central body yellow and the periphery orange, indicating activity at the level of nucleic acids. The amoeboid form could either be an indicator of pathogenicity of B. hominis, or the form likely to contribute to pathogenicity and be responsible for the symptoms seen in patients.
  11. Haresh K, Suresh K, Khairul Anus A, Saminathan S
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1999 Apr;4(4):274-7.
    PMID: 10357863
    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.
  12. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Kuppusamy UR
    Parasitol. Res., 2010 Mar;106(4):941-5.
    PMID: 20165878 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-1764-7
    Blastocystis hominis is one of the most common intestinal protozoan parasites in humans, and reports have shown that blastocystosis is coupled with intestinal disorders. In the past, researchers have developed an in vitro model using B. hominis culture filtrates to investigate its ability in triggering inflammatory cytokine responses and transcription factors in human colonic epithelial cells. Studies have also correlated the inflammation by parasitic infection with cancer. The present study provides evidence of the parasite facilitating cancer cell growth through observing the cytopathic effect, cellular immunomodulation, and apoptotic responses of B. hominis, especially in malignancy. Here we investigated the effect of solubilized antigen from B. hominis on cell viability, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116). The gene expressions of cytokines namely interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (a gene transcription factor), and proapoptotic genes namely protein 53 and cathepsin B were also studied. Results exhibited favor the fact that antigen from B. hominis, at a certain concentration, could facilitate the growth of HCT116 while having the ability to downregulate immune cell responses (PBMCs). Therefore, there is a vital need to screen colorectal cancer patients for B. hominis infection as it possesses the ability to enhance the tumor growth.
  13. Tan TC, Ong SC, Suresh KG
    Parasitol. Res., 2009 Oct;105(5):1283-6.
    PMID: 19603182 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1551-5
    This represents the first study to determine the genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. among cancer and HIV/AIDS patients. Forty Blastocystis sp. isolates obtained from 20 cancer and 20 HIV/AIDS patients were genotyped by PCR using seven pairs of known sequenced-tagged site primers. Out of the 40 isolates, 38 were identified as one of the known genotypes and two isolates were negative with all the STS primers. Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 which is reported to be associated with disease was found to be predominant among the study subjects.
  14. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Shuba S, Mahmood A, Kuppusamy UR
    Parasitology, 2010 Apr;137(4):605-11.
    PMID: 19961647 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182009991351
    Numerous studies have revealed the presence of oxidative stress in parasitic infections. However, such studies were lacking in the Malaysian population. Previously, we have provided evidence that oxidative stress is elevated in Malaysians infected with intestinal parasites. Stool examinations revealed that about 47.5% of them were infected with the polymorphic protozoa, Blastocystis hominis. However, they were found to have mixed infection with other intestinal parasites.
  15. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Anita ZB, Kuppusamy UR
    J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 2009 Feb;135(2):319-23.
    PMID: 18758816 DOI: 10.1007/s00432-008-0462-7
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to use non-invasive methods to assess and compare the levels of oxidative indices and non-enzymatic antioxidants in breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Various studies have reported on lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) levels in the serum of cancer patients but this is the first report that highlights the significance of urinary-advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) in cancer patients.
    METHODS: The levels of advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), malondialdehyde (MDA) which is a marker for lipid peroxidation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in urine samples of breast (n = 101) and colorectal cancer (n = 49) patients attending the Oncology Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur and were compared with 95 age-matched healthy individuals.
    RESULTS: AOPP, H(2)O(2) and MDA levels in the urine were significantly higher in the CRC patients compared to the control subjects and breast cancer patients. In breast cancer patients, only AOPP level was elevated. FRAP level did not differ between breast and colorectal cancer patients but the levels were significantly lower compared to control subjects.
    CONCLUSION: Urinary oxidative indices such as AOPP, H(2)O(2), and MDA as well as FRAP could serve as useful non-invasive oxidative stress markers in colorectal cancer but only AOPP serves as a useful urinary oxidative biomarker in breast cancer.
    Study site: Oncology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  16. Suresh K, Venilla GD, Tan TC, Rohela M
    Parasitol. Res., 2009 Jun;104(6):1373-80.
    PMID: 19238443 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1340-1
    Blastocystis from infected stools of a person who showed chronic symptoms of abdominal discomfort and diarrhea were examined over a 6-month period, using transmission electron microscopy, for the ultrastructural changes from vacuolar to cystic stage. The study confirms the irregular shedding phenomenon of the organism previously reported, and for the first time, records sequential changes in encystation in stools collected over a time period. The study also confirms the existence of a precystic stage which has an immature cell wall consisting of a layer of a homogenous electron-dense mass surrounding the cell which acts as a intermediatory stage between the vacuolar and cystic stage.
  17. Tan TC, Suresh KG, Smith HV
    Parasitol. Res., 2008 Dec;104(1):85-93.
    PMID: 18795333 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-008-1163-5
    Despite frequent reports on the presence of Blastocystis hominis in human intestinal tract, its pathogenicity remains a matter of intense debate. These discrepancies may be due to the varying pathogenic potential or virulence of the isolates studied. The present study represents the first to investigate both phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of B. hominis obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Symptomatic isolates had a significantly greater size range and lower growth rate in Jones' medium than asymptomatic isolates. The parasite cells of symptomatic isolates exhibited rougher surface topography and greater binding affinity to Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) and Helix pomatia (HPA). The present study also identifies further phenotypic characteristics, which aided in differentiating the pathogenic forms from the non-pathogenic forms of B. hominis. Blastocystis subtype 3 was found to be correlated well with the disease.
  18. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Anita ZB, Kuppusamy UR
    Parasitology, 2009 Mar;136(3):359-63.
    PMID: 19154644 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182008005465
    Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important pathogenic factor in the pathophysiology of various life-threatening diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. It occurs when the production of free radicals (generated during aerobic metabolism, inflammation, and infections) overcome the antioxidant defences in the body. Although previous studies have implied that oxidative stress is present in serum of patients with parasitic infection there have been no studies confirming oxidative stress levels in the Malaysian population infected with intestinal parasites. Three biochemical assays namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (LP) and advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) assays were carried out to measure oxidative stress levels in the urine of human subjects whose stools were infected with parasites such as Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm and microsporidia. The levels of H2O2, AOPP and LP were significantly higher (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.05 respectively) in the parasite-infected subjects (n=75) compared to the controls (n=95). In conclusion, the study provides evidence that oxidative stress is elevated in humans infected by intestinal parasites. This study may influence future researchers to consider free radical-related pathways to be a target in the interventions of new drugs against parasitic infection and related diseases.
  19. Suresh K, Smith HV, Tan TC
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005 Sep;71(9):5619-20.
    PMID: 16151162
    Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis.
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