METHOD: We searched PubMed, Embase, EBSCOhost and ClinicalTrials.gov for the eligible RCTs which compared the efficacy and safety of combined atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel with nab-paclitaxel alone. The outcomes analyzed included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and treatment-related adverse effects (AEs).
RESULTS: A total of six RCTs were included in this MA. For efficacy, although OS was not significantly prolonged with combined atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel (HR 0.90, 95% CI [0.79, 1.01], p=0.08), this combination therapy significantly improved PFS (HR 0.72, 95% CI [0.59, 0.87], p=0.0006) and ORR (RR 1.25, 95% CI [0.79, 1.01] p<0.00001). For safety, any AEs, haematological, gastrointestinal, and liver AEs showed no statistically significant differences between the atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel combination group and nab-paclitaxel alone group. However, serious AEs, high grade, dermatological, pulmonary, endocrine, and neurological AEs were significantly lower with nab-paclitaxel alone compared to atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel combined (p-value range from <0.00001 to 0,02).
CONCLUSION: Atezolizumab combined with nab-paclitaxel was associated with improved outcomes in the treatment of TNBC; however, this combination resulted in more toxicity compared to nab-paclitaxel alone. While nab-paclitaxel alone produced chemotherapy-related AEs, the combination of atezolizumab with nab-paclitaxel produced AEs, especially immune-related AEs such as haematological, pulmonary, endocrine, and neurological AEs.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This research work of systematic review has been registered on PROSPERO (Registration number: CRD42022297952).
METHODS: The PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE databases were systematically searched up to December 2019 to identify relevant studies. Random-effects model was used to calculate summary ORs and 95%CI for I 2 >50%. If the heterogeneity is not significant, the fixed-effects model was used. Overall analysis of the studies, inverse variance weighting after transforming the estimates of each study into log OR and its standard error were used.
RESULTS: 21 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results showed that aspirin significantly reduced the GC risk (OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.54-0.76) with substantial heterogeneity (I 2 =96%). Effect of GC risk reduction in low dose (OR=0.80, 95%CI=0.59-1.09) is slightly greater than high dose aspirin (OR=1.08, 95%CI=0.77-1.52). Protective effect of aspirin uses >5 years (OR=0.67, 95%CI=0.34-1.31) was greater than <5 years (OR=1.01, 95%CI=0.72-1.43) Conclusion: In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that low dose aspirin with longer duration of more than 5 years were associated with a statistically significant reduction in GC risk. However, due to possible confounding variables and bias, these results should be cautiously treated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted by identifying all histologically confirmed colitis cases diagnosed at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2015 until December 2019. Clinicodemographic data was retrieved from case notes of patients.
RESULTS: Of the 299 cases with histological colitis, 23 (7.7%) were initially identified as MC. Two cases had incomplete data, while two others were excluded as the diagnoses were revised to inflammatory bowel disease. An incidence of 14 MC cases/1000 case-year was obtained using the 21 MC cases seen within the five-year period. MC subtypes for the 19 analysed cases i.e., lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis accounted for 13 (68.4%) and 6 (31.6%) cases, respectively. Eleven patients (57.9%) were females (M:F ratio 1:1.5) with a median age of 51 years. Only nine (47.3%) presented with diarrhoea; one subject (5.4%) had an autoimmune condition (Hashimoto thyroiditis). Normal endoscopic findings were found in 89.5% of patients.
CONCLUSION: Approximately half of the subjects in our study who had histologically confirmed MC did not present with diarrhoea. Adequate biopsy samples despite normal colonoscopy findings are important in order to not miss the diagnosis of MC.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among 349 staff of a public university in Sarawak. Data were collected using questionnaire, blood sampling, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurement. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.
Results: A total of 349 respondents participated with majority females (66.8%), aged 38.5 ± 7.82 years. Nearly 80% of the respondents were overweight and obese, 87.1% with high and very high body fat, and 46.9% with abnormal visceral fat. For AIP category, 8.9% were found to be in intermediate and 16.4% were at high risk. Elevated lipid profile showed that total cholesterol (TC) is 15.5%, low density lipoprotein (LDL) is 16.1%, and triglyceride (TG) is 10.6%. AIP was significantly correlated with body mass index (r=0.25), visceral fat (r=0.37), TC (r=0.22), LDL (0.24), HDL (r=-0.72), TG (r=0.84), glucose (r=0.32), systolic blood pressure (r=0.22), and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.28).
Conclusion: It indicated that AIP is associated with other CVD risk factors. Modification of lifestyle is strongly recommended.
METHODS: In-depth interviews, observations, informal conversational interviews, mystery client and critical incident technique were used. We estimated the size of FEW population using the census enumeration technique. The findings were used to inform intervention development and implementation.
RESULTS: We estimated 376 Vietnamese and 330 Thai FEWs in 2 geographical sites where they operated in Singapore. Their reasons for non-condom use included misconceptions on the transmission and consequences of STI/HIV, low risk perception of contracting HIV/STI from paid/casual partner, lack of skills to negotiate or to persuade partner to use condom, unavailability of condoms in entertainment establishments and fear of the police using condom as circumstantial evidence. They faced difficulties in accessing health services due to fear of identity exposure, stigmatisation, cost and language differences. To develop the intervention, we involved FEWs and peer educators, and ensured that the intervention was non-stigmatising and met their needs. To foster their participation, we used culturally-responsive recruitment strategies, and ensured that the trial was anonymous and acceptable to the FEWs. These strategies were effective as we achieved a participation rate of 90.3%, a follow-up rate of 70.5% for the comparison and 66.8% for the intervention group. The interventions group reported a significant increase in consistent condom use with a reduction in STI incidence compared to no significant change in the comparison group.
CONCLUSIONS: The qualitative inquiry approaches to gain access, to foster participation and to develop a culturally appropriate intervention, along with the census enumeration technique application to estimate the FEW population sizes has led to successful intervention implementation as well as safer sexual behaviour and STI incidence reduction.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02780986 . Registered 23 May 2016 (retrospectively registered).
Design: Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was performed to induce OA in thirty-three male New Zealand white rabbits and were randomly divided into three groups: Channa, glucosamine, and control group. The control group received drinking water and the Channa and glucosamine groups were orally administered with 51.4 mg/kg of Channa extract and 77.5 mg/kg of glucosamine sulphate in drinking water, respectively, for eight weeks and then sacrificed. The articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically using semiquantitative and quantitative methods. Serum cartilage oligomeric matric protein (COMP), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were also determined.
Results: Macroscopic analysis revealed that Channa group have a significantly lower severity grade of total macroscopic score compared to the control (p < 0.001) and glucosamine (p < 0.05) groups. Semiquantitative histology scoring showed that both Channa and glucosamine groups had lower severity grading of total histology score compared to the control group (p < 0.001). In comparison with the control, Channa group had lower histopathological changes in three compartments of the joint compared to glucosamine group which had lower histological scoring in two compartments only. The cartilage thickness, area, and roughness of both Channa (p < 0.05) and glucosamine (p < 0.05) groups were superior compared to the control group. However, the Channa group demonstrated significantly less cartilage roughness compared to the glucosamine group (p < 0.05). Serum COMP levels were lower in both Channa (p < 0.05) and glucosamine (p < 0.05) groups compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Both oral administration of Channa extract and glucosamine exhibited chondroprotective action on an ACLT OA-induced rabbit model. However, Channa was superior to glucosamine in maintaining the structure of the cartilage.
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