Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Lee SM, Wong NW
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Feb;35(1):53-6.
    PMID: 8009280
    A prospective comparative study was carried out on thirty-seven consecutive patients presenting with bleeding oesophageal varices at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. All patients received injection sclerotherapy if active bleeding was seen at the time of initial endoscopy, followed by repetitive courses of sclerotherapy to obliterate the varices. Predominant aetiological factors were hepatitis-B cirrhosis (43%) and alcoholic cirrhosis (30%). Chinese ethnic group accounted for 62.5% of hepatitis-B cirrhotics and Indian 73% of alcoholic cirrhotics. After excluding patients lost to follow-up, analysis of the remaining thirty-four patients showed reduced long-term survival in patients with Child's C disease. Log-rank analysis of survival curves between hepatitis-B cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis in patients with Child's C liver disease showed no significant difference in long-term survival (p = 0.07). However, six deaths were seen in hepatitis-B cirrhosis compared to one death in alcoholic cirrhosis in the first eight months of follow-up. Most patients died from progressive liver failure. Median survival for Child's C hepatitis-B cirrhosis was 7.5 months whereas this had not been reached for Child's C alcoholic cirrhosis (median follow-up 11.6 months). We conclude that variceal haemorrhage in Child's C hepatitis-B cirrhosis is a bad prognostic sign and is associated with reduced survival with a median survival of 7.5 months despite control of the variceal bleed.
  2. Chuah SY, Goh KL, Wong NW
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):216-24.
    PMID: 10972032
    To investigate the anxieties of patients undergoing oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (OGD), colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) in relation to their demographic features, their knowledge and understanding of the procedure, its indication, and their doctors' explanation. A standard questionnaire was filled in consecutively for 280 OGD patients, 64 colonoscopy patients and 50 ERCP patients.
  3. Yap SF, Wong NW, Goh KL
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Jun;16(1):57-62.
    PMID: 16329577
    The relationship between serum Hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA) and the Hepatitis B e-antigen/ anti-Hepatitis Be (HBeAg/anti-HBe) serological status in Malaysians was studied. 212 cases of asymptomatic HBV carriers were recruited for this study. 92 cases were positive for the HBeAg at the point of recruitment. 85 (92.4%) of these patients tested positive for HBV-DNA, of whom 55 (64.7%) had levels over 100pg/ml of serum. Three of the remaining 7 HBeAg positive cases who were negative for HBV-DNA subsequently seroconverted. The other 4 cases remained negative for HBV-DNA for periods of 6-12 months. Out of 113 cases who were anti-HBe positive, 12 (10.6%) gave a positive HBV-DNA result. 2 of these 12 patients were recent seroconverters; the remaining cases had transiently increased viral replicative activity which later subsided. 7 out of the 212 carriers were in the e-window period; all 7 tested negative for HBV-DNA. Our data confirm a high frequency of HBV-DNA in HBeAg positive carriers and a negative correlation between HBV-DNA and anti-HBe. An atypical profile of anti-HBe associated with HBV-DNA was observed in 10.6% of the carriers. An inverse relationship between serum HBV-DNA levels and age was also observed.
  4. Mohammed R, Goh KL, Wong NW
    Med J Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):99-102.
    PMID: 10967987
    Primary biliary cirrhosis is an uncommon disease amongst Malaysians. Over a 12-year period, between 1979 and 1991, only seven patients with clinical, biochemical and histologic evidence of primary biliary cirrhosis were identified in University Hospital Kuala Lumpur. All were Chinese females between the ages of 30 to 55 years. The presenting complaint was pruritus in 5 patients. All except one patient was jaundiced when the diagnosis was made. These patients were followed up from 1 to 11 years. Three deaths were reported, one from massive hemetemesis and two from liver failure.
  5. Jayalakshmi P, Malik AK, Wong NW
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Dec;16(2):145-50.
    PMID: 9053563
    A retrospective histological analysis of colonic biopsies received by the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya during the 4-year-period between 1990 and 1993 revealed nine cases of microscopic colitis (MC). The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 53 years. Seven patients were females with a female to male ratio of 3.5 :1. The main clinical symptom was chronic diarrhoea of duration varying from 4 months to 5 years. None of the patients had any systemic illness or were on any prior medication. Colonoscopy and barium enema observations in all the subjects were essentially normal. Colonic biopsies showed diffuse plasmacytic infiltration of the lamina propria, intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration and normal crypt pattern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report on MC from Malaysia. It is envisaged that better recognition of this condition by histopathologists would reduce the numbers in the often diagnosed category of "nonspecific colitis".
  6. Mohamed R, Tan CT, Wong NW
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):49-52.
    PMID: 8057991
    The clinical course of 18 patients with Wilson's disease is reported. There were 13 males and five females of whom one is Malay. The prevalence of Wilson's disease in Malaysia is probably the same as elsewhere. Being a genetic syndrome, the genetic carrier rate for Wilson's disease is probably lower amongst the Malays. At diagnosis, the clinical signs were predominantly hepatic in 10 patients, neurological in five patients with three asymptomatic cases. All patients were commenced on penicillamine but poor compliance was observed in many patients. Two patients defaulted follow-up and seven patients died. Out of the nine surviving patients, only four are well with no clinical symptoms.
  7. Goh KL, Peh SC, Wong NW
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Dec;41(4):347-51.
    PMID: 3670159
    Three cases of pseudomembranous colitis seen over the past one year in the Medical Unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, are reported.
    The historical background, spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the disease are discussed. Early and wider use of sigmoidoscopy in patients with predisposing factors to pseudomembranous colitis have resulted in increased diagnosis of the condition.
  8. Jalleh RP, Goh KL, Wong NW
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):213-7.
    PMID: 3266521
  9. Goh KL, Wong NW, Paramsothy M, Nojeg M, Somasundaram K
    Postgrad Med J, 1987 Jul;63(741):551-4.
    PMID: 3658864
    We reviewed 204 cases of liver abscess seen between 1970 and 1985. Ninety were found to be amoebic, 24 pyogenic and one tuberculous. The cause of the abscesses in the remaining 89 patients was not established. The patients were predominantly male, Indians, and in the 30-60 age group. The majority of patients presented with fever and right hypochondrial pain. The most common laboratory findings were leucocytosis, hypoalbuminaemia and an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. Amoebic abscesses were mainly solitary while pyogenic abscesses were mainly multiple. Complications were few in our patients and included rupture into the pleural and peritoneal cavities and septicaemic shock. An overall mortality of 2.9% was recorded. The difficulty in diagnosing the abscess type is highlighted. The single most important test in helping us diagnose amoebic abscess, presumably the most common type of abscess in the tropics, is the Entamoeba histolytica antibody assay. This test should be used more frequently in the tropics.
  10. Goh KL, Peh SC, Wong NW, Parasakthi N, Puthucheary SD
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1990 5 1;5(3):277-80.
    PMID: 2103410
    Over a 15-month period, 399 patients with dyspepsia were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter pylori infection. Half of the patients (50.6%) had Campylobacter organisms in the antrum of the stomach. C. pylori was found in 96.1% of patients with histological changes of chronic active gastritis in the antrum. Of patients with duodenal and gastric ulcers, 87.8% and 87.5%, respectively, had Campylobacter organisms, as did 39.3% of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. C. pylori infection was most commonly found in Chinese and Indians. Although the prevalence of infection appeared to increase with age, there was an equal distribution amongst the sexes.
  11. Goh KL, Pathmanathan R, Chang KW, Wong NW
    J Trop Med Hyg, 1987 Oct;90(5):255-7.
    PMID: 3669128
    Tuberculous liver abscess is uncommonly seen in our experience. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with typical clinical features of liver abscess, where a diagnosis of tuberculous liver abscess was made on laparotomy and biopsy of the abscess wall.
  12. Jayalakshmi P, Wong NW, Malik AK, Goh KL
    JUMMEC, 1996;1(2):39-42.
    A review of all colonic biopsies received by the Department of Pathology during a 8-year period revealed 41 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC). The diagnosis was based on histological and clinical features. The age range of patients was between 14 - 76 years with a median age of 35.4 years. The disease was more prevalent among Indians. The common presenting sysmptoms were diarrhoea (100%) and haematochezia (83%). The extent of colonic involvement varied. Twelve patients (29.2%) had pancolitis and 8 (19.5%) had proctitis.Extraintestinal manifestations were rare and only one patient had pyoderma gangrenosum. One patient developed multifocal colorectal cancer 10 years after the inial diagnosis of UC and died 2 years later due to metastases. Histology plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with UC. We noted a good correlation between clinical and pathological features. The most recent colonic biopsy showed features of chronic UC with activity in 34 cases and features of remission in 4 cases.
  13. Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Peh SC, Puthucheary SD, Wong NW
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Apr;35(2):161-2.
    PMID: 7939811
    With the increasing recognition of the importance of H. pylori in gastrointestinal disease, there is a need for a reliable, efficient and yet inexpensive diagnostic test. The performance of the rapid urease test (RUT) as an endoscopy suite diagnostic test was compared to the established methods of culture, histology and Gram stain of tissue smear, in 274 gastric biopsy samples. Histology had the highest sensitivity of 99.3% followed by the RUT (96.6%). Culture and Gram stain of tissue smear had 100% specificity, while the rapid urease test had 99.2% specificity. The RUT had a positive predictive value of 99.3% and a negative predictive value of 96.2%. The RUT is an inexpensive, rapid and reliable diagnostic test of H. pylori infection.
  14. Wang CY, Ling LC, Cardosa MS, Wong AK, Wong NW
    Anaesthesia, 2000 Jul;55(7):654-8.
    PMID: 10919420
    In Study A, the incidence of arterial oxygen desaturation was studied using pulse oximetry (SaO2) in 100 sedated and 100 nonsedated patients breathing room air who underwent diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Hypoxia (SaO2 92% or less of at least 15 s duration) occurred in 17% and 6% of sedated patients and nonsedated patients, respectively (p < 0.03). Mild desaturation (SaO2 94% or less and less than 15 s duration) occurred in 47% of sedated patients compared with 12% of nonsedated patients (p < 0.001). In Study B, the effects of supplementary oxygen therapy and the effects of different pre-oxygenation times on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) in sedated patients were studied using pulse oximetry. One hundred and twenty patients who underwent diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with intravenous sedation were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to one of four groups: Group A (n = 30) received no supplementary oxygen while Groups B-D received supplementary oxygen at 4 1 x min(-1) via nasal cannulae. The pre-oxygenation time in Group B (n = 30) was zero minutes, Group C (n = 30) was 2 min and Group D (n = 30) was 5 min before sedation and introduction of the endoscope. Hypoxia occurred in seven of the 30 patients in Group A and none in groups B, C and D (p < 0.001). We conclude that desaturation and hypoxia is common in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with and without sedation. Sedation significantly increases the incidence of desaturation and hypoxia. Supplementary nasal oxygen at 4 1 x min(-1) in sedated patients abolishes desaturation and hypoxia. Pre-oxygenation confers no additional benefit.
  15. Ng KP, Saw TL, Wong NW, Goh KL, Chuah SY, Nagaratnam M
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):302-5.
    PMID: 8668047
    Anti-HCV antibody was detected in 1.9% of the blood donors in University Hospital. Among the risk groups, 33.3% of the patients with post-transfusion hepatitis were tested positive for anti-HCV antibody. The anti-HCV antibody was detected in 30% of the IDU. Haemodialysis patients, patients with acute and chronic hepatitis and patients with liver cirrhosis appeared to have increased risk of Hepatitis C virus infection. The results indicate that the frequency of HCV infection increases with the exposure to blood or blood products.
  16. Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Peh SC, Wong NW, Lo YL, Puthucheary SD
    Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 1991 Nov;26(11):1123-31.
    PMID: 1754846
    A study was undertaken to determine the role of Helicobacter pylori in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) and to determine the efficacy of colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) in the treatment of NUD. Seventy-one patients were randomly allocated (double blind) to CBS or placebo, two tablets twice daily for 4 weeks. The severity of dyspepsia was scored and endoscopies performed before and after treatment, and antral biopsy specimens were taken for bacteriologic and histologic examination. Forty patients had H. pylori infection, and all had changes of chronic active gastritis. H. pylori was cleared from 17 to 21 patients (81%) treated with CBS, whereas none of the 19 patients treated with placebo cleared the bacteria. Improvement in histology was noted in 15 of 21 patients (71.4%) treated with CBS, whereas no improvement was noted in any of the placebo controls. Thirty-one patients were negative for H. pylori. All had either normal gastric histology or minor degrees of inflammation. Seventeen of these patients received CBS, and 14 received placebo. All groups reported improvement in the symptom score; however, the H. pylori-positive, CBS-treated group recorded a significantly higher improvement than the other groups (p less than 0.001). Relapse of H. pylori infection after initial clearance of the bacteria was high. Twelve of 16 patients evaluated relapsed 1 month after withdrawal of CBS.
  17. Goh KL, Peh SC, Parasakthi N, Wong NW, Tan KK, Lo YL
    Am J Gastroenterol, 1994 Oct;89(10):1789-92.
    PMID: 7942668
    OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the effect of dual therapy with omeprazole and amoxicillin and of triple therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and to study the long-term results of eradication in these patients.
    METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed. Patients who were recruited had unequivocal evidence of HP infection based on culture, histology, rapid urease test, and Gram's stain of a tissue smear. Eradication was defined as the absence of bacteria in all tests performed on both corpus and antral biopsies.
    RESULTS: The infection was eradicated in 15 of 19 (78.9%) patients randomized to receive dual therapy and in 19 of 22 (86.4%) patients who received triple therapy. We followed the course of 30 patients in whom HP had been eradicated for a prolonged term (up to 12 months). All remained clear of HP. Twenty-five of 28 patients (89.3%) with duodenal ulcers in whom HP was successfully eradicated remained healed at 12 months. Fewer side effects were reported among patients who received the dual therapy.
    CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with omeprazole and amoxicillin with or without metronidazole is effective in the eradication of HP. In particular, the dual therapy regimen with amoxicillin is not only effective but is also well tolerated by patients.
  18. Goh KL, Navaratnam P, Peh SC, Wong NW, Chuah SY, Rahman NA, et al.
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1996 May;8(5):421-3.
    PMID: 8804868
    To determine whether duodenal ulcers continue to heal following successful Helicobacter pylori eradication with short-term eradication therapy without further acid suppression therapy.
  19. Chelvam P, Goh KL, Leong YP, Leela MP, Yin TP, Ahmad H, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1989;4 Suppl 2:53-61.
    PMID: 2491362
    A double-blind randomized study in 230 Malaysian patients with duodenal ulcer was conducted to compare the proton-pump inhibitor, omeprazole 20 mg, given once daily in the morning, with ranitidine 300 mg, administered once daily at night. After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, 222 and 220 patients, respectively, were evaluable according to the study protocol. Omeprazole produced significantly higher healing rates than ranitidine at both 2 weeks (75% versus 46%, respectively, P less than 0.0001) and 4 weeks (97% versus 83%, respectively, P = 0.001). Ulcer symptoms were relieved more rapidly by omeprazole than ranitidine. After 2 weeks, daytime epigastric pain was reported by 30% of ranitidine-treated patients but only by 15% of omeprazole-treated patients, which is a statistically significant difference (P = 0.004). No major clinical or biochemical side effects were recorded for either omeprazole or ranitidine. In conclusion, omeprazole 20 mg was found to be superior to ranitidine 300 mg administered once daily for the treatment of duodenal ulcer as measured by ulcer healing and pain relief.
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