Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Gan S, Yap CL, Ng HK, Venny
    J Hazard Mater, 2013 Nov 15;262:691-700.
    PMID: 24121640 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.09.023
    This study aims to investigate the impacts of ethyl lactate (EL) based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. Accumulation of oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) was observed, but quantitative measurement on the most abundant compound 9,10-anthraquinone (ATQ) showed lower accumulation of the compound than that reported for ethanol (ET) based Fenton treatment. In general, as compared to conventional water (CW) based Fenton treatment, the EL based Fenton treatment exerted either a lower or higher negative impact on soil physicochemical properties depending on the property type and shared the main disadvantage of reduced soil pH. For revegetation, EL based Fenton treatment was most appropriately adopted for soil with native pH >/~ 6.2 in order to obtain a final soil pH >/~ 4.9 subject to the soil buffering capacity.
  2. Yap CL, Gan S, Ng HK
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(6):1064-75.
    PMID: 23505874
    Solubility data of recalcitrant contaminants in cosolvents is essential to determine their potential applications in enhanced soil remediation. The solubilities of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in ethyl lactate/water and ethanol/water mixtures were measured using equilibrium techniques. The cosolvency powers derived from solubility data were then applied to the model developed from the solvophobic approach to predict the capability of ethyl lactate and ethanol in enhancing the desorption of contaminants from soils. Both ethyl lactate and ethanol cosolvents were shown to be able to enhance the solubilisation of the tested four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by > 4 orders of magnitude above the levels obtained with water alone. However, ethyl lactate demonstrated a greater capacity to enhance PAH solubility than ethanol. The cosolvency powers of ethyl lactate/water system obtained from the end-to-end slope (sigma) and the end-to-half slope (sigma0.5) of the solubilisation curve were 1.0-1.5 and 2.0-2.9 higher than ethanol/water system respectively. In line with this, ethyl lactate/water was demonstrated to enhance the desorption of contaminants from soil by 20%-37% and 18%-61% higher compared to ethanol/water system in low organic content and high organic content soils respectively, with a 2:1 (V/W) ratio of solution:soil and with cosolvent fraction as low as 0.4. With the exception of benzo[a]pyrene, the experimental desorption results agreed fairly with the predicted values, under an applied solution:soil ratio that was enough to hold the capacity of released contaminants.
  3. Yap CL, Gan S, Ng HK
    Chemosphere, 2011 Jun;83(11):1414-30.
    PMID: 21316731 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.01.026
    This paper aims to review the applications of Fenton based treatments specifically for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils. An overview of the background and principles of Fenton treatment catalysed by both homogenous (conventional and modified Fenton) and heterogeneous (Fenton-like) catalysts is firstly presented. Laboratory and field soil remediation studies are then discussed in terms of efficiency, kinetics and associated factors. Four main scopes of integrated Fenton treatments, i.e. physical-Fenton, biological-Fenton, electro-Fenton and photo-Fenton are also reviewed in this paper. For each of these integrated remediation technologies, the theoretical background and mechanisms are detailed alongside with achievable removal efficiencies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soils compared to sole Fenton treatment. Finally, the environmental impacts of Fenton based soil treatments are documented and discussed.
  4. Yap CL, Gan S, Ng HK
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 May 15;177(1-3):28-41.
    PMID: 20006435 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.078
    A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.
  5. Noor H, Yap CL, Zolkepli O, Faridah M
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Mar;55(1):51-7.
    PMID: 11072491 MyJurnal
    Exposure to Portland cement dust has long been associated with the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and varying degrees of airway obstruction in man. Apart from respiratory diseases, it was also found to be the cause of lung and laryngeal cancer, gastrointestinal tumours and also dermatitis. This study was done to investigate the effect of dust exposure on ventilatory lung function of Portland cement factory workers in Rawang, Selangor. Spirometry tests of 62 male workers (exposed to total dust concentration of 10,180 micrograms/m3 and PM10 of 8049 micrograms/m3) and 70 subjects from UPM (exposed to mean total dust of 192 micrograms/m3 and PM10 of 177 micrograms/m3--controls) revealed significant differences in spirometry values between the groups. The workers showed i) significantly lower FEV1% and FEF25-75%, and higher FMFT, ii) reduced FEV1% with increasing level of dust exposure and iii) higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Therefore, we suggest that exposure to dust in the cement factory leads to higher incidence of respiratory symptoms and impaired lung function.
  6. Yap CL, Gan S, Ng HK
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Jan;22(1):329-42.
    PMID: 25065478 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3199-7
    This study focuses on the feasibility of treating aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils using ethyl lactate (EL)-based Fenton treatment via a combination of parametric and kinetic studies. An optimised operating condition was observed at 66.7 M H2O2 with H2O2/Fe(2+) of 40:1 for low soil organic carbon (SOC) content and mildly acidic soil (pH 6.2), and 10:1 for high SOC and very acidic soil (pH 4.4) with no soil pH adjustment. The desorption kinetic was only mildly shifted from single equilibrium to dual equilibrium of the first-order kinetic model upon ageing. Pretreatment with EL fc = 0.60 greatly reduced the mass transfer coefficient especially for the slow desorbed fraction (kslow) of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, largely contributed by the concentration gradient created by EL-enhanced solubility. As the major desorption obstacle was almost fully overcome by the pretreatment, the pseudo-first-order kinetic reaction rate constant of PAHs degradation of aged soils was statistically discernible from that of freshly contaminated soils but slightly reduced in high SOC and high acidity soil. Stabilisation of H2O2 by EL addition in combination with reduced Fe(2+) catalyst were able to slow the decomposition rate of H2O2 even at higher soil pH.
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