The main focus of this study is exploring the spatial distribution of polyaromatics hydrocarbon links between oil spills in the environment via Support Vector Machines based on Kernel-Radial Basis Function (RBF) approach for high precision classification of oil spill type from its sample fingerprinting in Peninsular Malaysia. The results show the highest concentrations of Σ Alkylated PAHs and Σ EPA PAHs in ΣTAH concentration in diesel from the oil samples PP3_liquid and GP6_Jetty achieving 100% classification output, corresponding to coherent decision boundary and projective subspace estimation. The high dimensional nature of this approach has led to the existence of a perfect separability of the oil type classification from four clustered oil type components; i.e diesel, bunker C, Mixture Oil (MO), lube oil and Waste Oil (WO) with the slack variables of ξ ≠ 0. Of the four clusters, only the SVs of two are correctly predicted, namely diesel and MO. The kernel-RBF approach provides efficient and reliable oil sample classification, enabling the oil classification to be optimally performed within a relatively short period of execution and a faster dataset classification where the slack variables ξ are non-zero.
A new microextraction procedure termed agarose gel liquid phase microextraction (AG-LPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. The technique utilized an agarose gel disc impregnated with the acceptor phase (1-octanol). The extraction procedure was performed by allowing the solvent-impregnated agarose gel disc to tumble freely in the stirred sample solution. After extraction, the agarose gel disc was removed and subjected to centrifugation to disrupt its framework and to release the impregnated solvent, which was subsequently withdrawn and injected into the GC-MS for analysis. Under optimized extraction conditions, the new method offered high enrichment factors (89-177), trace level LODs (9-14ngL(-1)) and efficient extraction with good relative recoveries in the range of 93.3-108.2% for spiked drinking water samples. AG-LPME did not exhibit any problems related to solvent dissolution, and it provided high extraction efficiencies that were comparable to those of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and significantly higher than those of agarose film liquid phase microextraction (AF-LPME). This technique employed a microextraction format and utilized an environmentally compatible solvent holder that supported the green chemistry concept.
The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping.
Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g⁻¹ with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g⁻¹, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g⁻¹). The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic micropollutants which are resistant to environmental degradation due to their highly hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse health effects have resulted in extensive studies on the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs. This paper aims to provide a review of the remediation technologies specifically for PAH-contaminated soils. The technologies discussed here include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, photocatalytic degradation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal treatment and integrated remediation technologies. For each of these, the theories are discussed in conjunction with comparative evaluation of studies reported in the specialised literature.
Polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and toxic pollutants that are dangerous to humans and living organism in aquatic environment. Normally, PAHs has lower molecular weight such as phenanthrene and naphthalene that are easy and efficient to degrade, but high-molecular-weight PAHs such as chrysene and pyrene are difficult to be biodegraded by common microorganism. This study investigated the isolation and characterization of a potential halophilic bacterium capable of utilizing two high-molecular-weight PAHs. At the end of the experiment (25-30 days of incubation), bacterial counts have reached a maximum level (over 40 × 1016 CFU/mL). The highest biodegradation rate of 77% of chrysene in 20 days and 92% of pyrene in 25 days was obtained at pH 7, temperature 25 °C, agitation of 150 rpm and Tween 80 surfactant showing to be the most impressive parameters for HMWPAHs biodegradation in this research. The metabolism of initial compounds revealed that Hortaea sp. B15 utilized pyrene to form phthalic acid while chrysene was metabolized to form 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The result showed that Hortaea sp. B15 can be promoted for the study of in situ biodegradation of high molecular weight PAH.
Abundance of fine particulate-bound 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated to ascertain its sources and potential carcinogenic health risks in Varanasi, India. The city represents a typical urban settlement of South Asia having particulate exposure manyfold higher than standard with reports of pollution induced mortalities and morbidities. Fine particulates (PM2.5) were monitored from October 2019 to May 2020, with 32% of monitoring days accounting ≥100 μgm-3 of PM2.5 concentration, frequently from November to January (99% of monitoring days). The concentration of 16 priority PAHs varied from 24.1 to 44.6 ngm-3 (mean: 33.1 ± 3.2 ngm-3) without much seasonal deviations. Both low (LMW, 56%) and high molecular weight (HMW, 44%) PAHs were abundant, with Fluoranthene (3.9 ± 0.4ngm-3) and Fluorene (3.5 ± 0.3ngm-3) emerged as most dominating PAHs. Concentration of Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P, 0.5 ± 0.1ngm-3) was lower than the national standard as it contributed 13% of total PAHs mass. Diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers indicate predominance of pyrogenic sources including emissions from biomass burning, and both from diesel and petrol-driven vehicles. Source apportionment using receptor model revealed similar observation of major PAHs contribution from biomass burning and fuel combustion (54% of source contribution) followed by coal combustion for residential heating and cooking purposes (44%). Potential toxicity of B[a]P equivalence ranged from 0.003 to 1.365 with cumulative toxicity of 2.13ngm-3. Among the PAH species, dibenzo[h]anthracene contributed maximum toxicity followed by B[a]P, together accounting 86% of PAH induced carcinogenicity. Incremental risk of developing cancer through lifetime exposure (ILCR) of PAHs was higher in children (3.3 × 10-4) with 56% contribution from LMW PAHs, primarily through ingestion and dermal contact. Adults in contrast, were more exposed to inhale airborne PAHs with cumulative ILCR of 2.2 × 10-4. However, ILCR to PM2.5 exposure is probably underestimated considering unaccounted metal abundance thus, require source-specific control measures.
In this work, crude oil biodegradation has been optimized in a solid-liquid two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) by applying a response surface methodology based d-optimal design. Three key factors including phase ratio, substrate concentration in solid organic phase, and sodium chloride concentration in aqueous phase were taken as independent variables, while the efficiency of the biodegradation of absorbed crude oil on polymer beads was considered to be the dependent variable. Commercial thermoplastic polyurethane (Desmopan®) was used as the solid phase in the TPPB. The designed experiments were carried out batch wise using a mixed acclimatized bacterial consortium. Optimum combinations of key factors with a statistically significant cubic model were used to maximize biodegradation in the TPPB. The validity of the model was successfully verified by the good agreement between the model-predicted and experimental results. When applying the optimum parameters, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a significant reduction in n-alkanes and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This consequently highlights the practical applicability of TPPB in crude oil biodegradation.
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples were measured at five different sites within Klang Valley, Malaysia. The results showed that the total concentrations of the fourteen priority PAHs ranged from 64 to 155 μg/kg. Irrespective of the land use, all the measured soil PAH concentrations in this study were significantly lower than that found in soil samples in temperate regions. The profile of PAHs in the soils was dominated by the LMW PAHs. The PAHs in Klang Valley soils originated from pyrogenic sources, with a combination of petroleum and biomass combustion in vehicles, industries and non-point sources.
A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment core collected from Langkawi Island of the Andaman Sea, Malaysia were determined by GC/MS, the vertical variations of concentration and distributions of PAHs were investigated. In combining with 210Pb-dating, the PAHs sedimentary record in the last 100 years was reconstructed and their possible sources were also discussed. The sigmaPAH concentration ranged from 13.2-60.1 ng x g(-1) in the whole sedimentary section (0-56 cm) with the dominant compounds of phenanthrene, naphthalene and perylene. The sediments contaminated to a lesser extent comparing with the surrounding waters. Before the 1920s, the concentrations of PAHs were considered to be the background level, which was implied from the natural inputs. The historical records of PAHs in the core showed that two distinct peaks which represented the input time of 1960s and 1980s, respectively, inferred that there were some relatively dramatically land-based inputs, and human activities leaded a clear impact to these waters during these periods. Furthermore, PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that PAHs in the core sediments were mainly of pyrolytic origin (combustion), accompanied with minor petroleum origin. These were related with agriculture, industry, ocean import and export, and shipping activities in the surrounding regions. Meanwhile as the vital communication line, the marine transportation of the Strait of Malacca had influenced the environmental quality of the Andaman Sea. Meanwhile, based on the sedimentary record, PAHs concentrations were found to correlate positively with humanism activities and socioeconomic development (Gross Domestic Production) in the surrounding regions.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia.
The concentrations and distributions of particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) collected over a 10 month period in ambient environment, at street levels as well as during a hazy episode are reported. Ambient and street level distributions of PAHs were similar and their occurrence was attributed to vehicular emissions. However, in haze particles, a different pattern of PAHs was observed, characterized by relatively low levels of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and high levels of benzofluoranthenes (BFs). The BaP equivalency results showed that the potential health risk associated with haze smoke particles was 4 times higher than that of street level particles whereas the lowest health risk was associated with ambient atmospheric particles.
PM10 airborne particles and soot deposit collected after a fire incident at a chemical store were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples were extracted with 1:1 hexane-dichloromethane by ultrasonic agitation. The extracts were then subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The total PAHs concentrations in airborne particles and soot deposit were found to be 3.27 +/- 1.55 ng/m3 and 12.81 +/- 24.37 microg/g, respectively. Based on the molecular distributions of PAHs and the interpretation of their diagnostic ratios such as PHEN/(PHEN + ANTH), FLT/(FLT + PYR) and BeP/(BeP + BaP), PAHs in both airborne particles and soot deposit may be inferred to be from the same source. The difference in the value of IP/(IP + BgP) for these samples indicated that benzo[g, h, i] perylene and coronene tend to be attached to finer particles and reside in the air for longer periods. Comparison between the molecular distributions of PAHs and their diagnostic ratios observed in the current study with those reported for urban atmospheric and roadside soil particles revealed that they are of different sources.
The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g -1 dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.
The fast pyrolysis of waste lignin derived from biobutanol production process was performed to determine the optimal pyrolysis conditions and pyrolysis product properties. Four types of pyrolysis reactors, e.g.: micro-scale pyrolyzer-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, lab and bench scale fixed bed (FB) reactors, and bench scale rotary kiln (RK) reactor, were employed to compare the pyrolysis reaction conditions and product properties obtained from different reactors. The yields of char, oil, and gas obtained from lab scale and bench scale reactor were almost similar compared to FB reactor. RK reactor produced desirable bio-oil with much reduced yield of poly aromatic hydrocarbons (cancer precursor) due to its higher cracking reaction efficiency. In addition, char agglomeration and foaming of lignin pyrolysis were greatly restricted by using RK reactor compared to the FB reactor.
In this study, the distributions and sources of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in the Malaysian rivers and estuaries were evaluated. The concentrations of 16 USEPA PAHs varied from 225.5 to 293.9 (Perlis River), 195.2 to 481.2 (Kedah River), 791.2 to 1995.4 (Merbok River), 231.2 to 426.7 (Perak River), and 3803.2 to 7442.7 ng g(-1) (Klang River) dry weight. PAHs can be classified as moderate in the Perlis, Kedah, and Perak Rivers, moderate to high in the Merbok River, and high to very high in the Klang River. The comparison of PAHs with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicates that occasionally adverse biological effects may occur from total PAHs, low molecular weight (LMW), and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs at stations 1, 2, and 3 of the Klang River and from total PAHs at station 2 of the Merbok River. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic origin PAHs with significant dominance of pyrogenic sources in the study areas. The results suggest that Malaysian sediments had hopane ratios (C29/C30) similar to MECO suggesting MECO as a major source of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sediments, which is consistent with results reported in previous studies. These findings demonstrate that effective and improved environmental regulations in Malaysia have shifted the source of petroleum hydrocarbons from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin.
This paper aims to review the applications of Fenton based treatments specifically for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils. An overview of the background and principles of Fenton treatment catalysed by both homogenous (conventional and modified Fenton) and heterogeneous (Fenton-like) catalysts is firstly presented. Laboratory and field soil remediation studies are then discussed in terms of efficiency, kinetics and associated factors. Four main scopes of integrated Fenton treatments, i.e. physical-Fenton, biological-Fenton, electro-Fenton and photo-Fenton are also reviewed in this paper. For each of these integrated remediation technologies, the theoretical background and mechanisms are detailed alongside with achievable removal efficiencies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soils compared to sole Fenton treatment. Finally, the environmental impacts of Fenton based soil treatments are documented and discussed.
The reconstruction of fire history is essential to understand the palaeoclimate and human history. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively used as a fire marker. In this work, the distribution of PAHs in Borneo peat archives was investigated to understand how PAHs reflect the palaeo-fire activity. In total, 52 peat samples were analysed from a Borneo peat core for the PAH analysis. Pyrogenic PAHs consist of 2-7 aromatic rings, some of which have methyl and ethyl groups. The results reveal that the concentration of pyrogenic PAHs fluctuated with the core depth. Compared to low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs had a more similar depth variation to the charcoal abundance. This finding also suggests that the HMW PAHs were mainly formed at a local fire near the study area, while the LMW PAHs could be transported from remote locations.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were used as anthropogenic markers of organic chemical pollution of sediments in the Selangor River, Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted on sediment samples from the beginning of the estuary to the upstream river during dry and rainy seasons. The concentrations of ƩPAHs and ƩLABs ranged from 203 to 964 and from 23 to 113 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. In particular, the Selangor River was found to have higher sedimentary levels of PAHs and LABs during the wet season than in the dry season, which was primarily associated with the intensity of domestic wastewater discharge and high amounts of urban runoff washing the pollutants from the surrounding area. The concentrations of the toxic contaminants were determined according to the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The PAH levels in the Selangor River did not exceed the SQGs, for example, the effects range low (ERL) value, indicating that they cannot exert adverse biological effects.