Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.
Microalgae cultivation using open cultivation systems requires large area and it is susceptible to contamination as well as weather changes. Meanwhile, the closed systems require large capital investment, and they are susceptible to the build-up of dissolved oxygen. Air-liquid interface culture systems with low water-footprint, but high packing density can be used for microalgae cultivation if low-cost culture scaffolds are available. In this study, cellulose-based scaffolds were synthesized using NaOH/urea aqueous solution as the solvent. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica gel and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) nanoparticles were added into the membrane scaffolds to increase the hydrophilicity of nutrient absorbing to support the growth of microalgae. The membrane scaffolds were characterized by FTIR, SEM, contact angle, porosity and porometry. All three nanoparticles additives showed their ability in reducing the contact angle of membrane scaffolds from 63.4 ± 2.3° to a range of 52.6 ± 1.2° to 38.8 ± 1.5° due to the hydrophilic properties of the nanoparticles. The decreasing in pore size when nanoparticles were added did not affect the porosity of membrane scaffolds. Cellulose membrane scaffold with TiO2 showed the highest percentage of microalgae Navicula incerta growth rate of 22.1% because of the antibacterial properties of TiO2 in lowering the risk of cell contamination and enhancing the growth of N. incerta. The results exhibited that cellulose-based scaffold with TiO2 added could be an effective support in plant cell culture field.
Culture scaffolds allow microalgae cultivation with minimum water requirement using the air-liquid interface approach. However, the stability of cellulose-based scaffolds in microalgae cultivation remains questionable. In this study, the stability of regenerated cellulose culture scaffolds was enhanced by adjusting TiO2 loading and casting gap. The membrane scaffolds were synthesized using cellulose dissolved in NaOH/urea aqueous solution with various loading of TiO2 nanoparticles. The TiO2 nanoparticles were embedded into the porous membrane scaffolds as proven by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopic images, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. Although surface hydrophilicity and porosity were enhanced by increasing TiO2 and casting gap, the scaffold pore size was reduced. Cellulose membrane scaffold with 0.05 wt% of TiO2 concentration and thickness of 100 μm attained the highest percentage of Navicula incerta growth rate, up to 37.4%. The membrane scaffolds remained stable in terms of weight, porosity and pore size even they were immersed in acidic solution, hydrogen peroxide or autoclaved at 121 °C for 15 min. The optimal cellulose membrane scaffold is with TiO2 loading of 0.5 wt% and thickness of 100 μm, resulting in supporting the highest N. incerta growth rate and and exhibits good membrane stability.
The immobilisation of Chlorella vulgaris 211/11B entrapped in combinations of natural matrices to simplify the harvesting process was demonstrated in this study. Three combinations of matrices composed of calcium alginate (CA) and sodium alginate (SA), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and SA, and mixed matrices (SA, CA, and CMC) were investigated. The number of cells grown for each immobilised matrix to microalgae volume ratios (0.2:1-1:1) were explored and compared with using SA solely as a control. The optimum volume ratios obtained were 1:1 for SA, 0.3:1 for CA and SA, 1:1 for CMC and SA, and 0.3:1 for mixed matrices. The immobilised microalgae of mixed matrices exhibited the highest number of cells with 1.72 × 109 cells/mL at day 10 and 30.43% of oil extraction yield followed by CA and SA (24.29%), CMC and SA (13.00%), and SA (6.71%). Combining SA, CA, and CMC had formed a suitable structure which improved the growth of C. vulgaris and increased the lipid production compared to the immobilisation using single matrix. Besides, the fatty acids profile of the oil extracted indicates a high potential for biodiesel production.
Microalgal lipids are promising and sustainable sources for the production of third-generation biofuels, foods, and medicines. A high lipid yield during the extraction process in microalgae could be influenced by the suitable pretreatment and lipid extraction methods. The extraction method itself could be attributed to the economic and environmental impacts on the industry. This review summarizes the pretreatment methods including mechanical and non-mechanical techniques for cell lysis strategy before lipid extraction in microalgae biomass. The multiple strategies to achieve high lipid yields via cell disruption techniques are discussed. These strategies include mechanical (shear forces, pulse electric forces, waves, and temperature shock) and non-mechanical (chemicals, osmotic pressure, and biological) methods. At present, two techniques of the pretreatment method can be combined to increase lipid extraction from microalgae. Therefore, the extraction strategy for a large-scale application could be further strengthened to optimize lipid recovery by microalgae.
Magnetic collection of the microalgae Chlorella sp. from culture media facilitated by low-gradient magnetophoretic separation is achieved in real time. A removal efficiency as high as 99% is accomplished by binding of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to microalgal cells in the presence of the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) as a binder and subsequently subjecting the mixture to a NdFeB permanent magnet with surface magnetic field ≈6000 G and magnetic field gradient <80 T m(-1) . Surface functionalization of magnetic NPs with PDDA before exposure to Chlorella sp. is proven to be more effective in promoting higher magnetophoretic removal efficiency than the conventional procedure, in which premixing of microalgal cells with binder is carried out before the addition of NPs. Rodlike NPs are a superior candidate for enhancing the magnetophoretic separation compared to spherical NPs due to their stable magnetic moment that originates from shape anisotropy and the tendency to form large NP aggregates. Cell chaining is observed for nanorod-tagged Chlorella sp. which eventually fosters the formation of elongated cell clusters.
The stimulant and toxicity effects of reported organic (acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, formic acid, oil & grease) and inorganic (copper) by-products presented in palm oil mill effluent on anaerobic bacterial population were examined in this paper. The toxicity test had shown that acetic, propionic and butyric acids tend to stimulate the bacterial density level (survival rate more than 50%), while formic acid, copper, oil and grease were shown to have suppressed the density level (survival rate less than 50%). The highest biomass recorded was 1.66 mg/L for the concentration of acetic acid at 216 mg/L and lowest biomass concentration, 0.90 mg/L for copper at 1.40 mg/L. Biohydrogen-producing bacteria have a favourable growth rate around pH 5.5. The comparison of half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values between two test duration on the effects of organic and inorganic by-products postulate that bacteria had a higher tolerance towards volatile fatty acids. While acetic, butyric and propionic acids had exhibited higher tolerance EC50 values for bacteria, but the opposite trend was observed for formic acid, copper and oil & grease.
Microbial electrodialysis cells (MEDCs) offer simultaneous wastewater treatment, water desalination, and hydrogen production. In a conventional design of MEDCs, the overall performance is retarded by the accumulation of protons on the anode due to the integration of an anion exchange membrane (AEM). The accumulation of protons reduces the anolyte pH to become acidic, affecting the microbial viability and thus limiting the charge carrier needed for the cathodic reaction. This study has modified the conventional MEDC with an internal proton migration pathway, known as the internal proton migration pathway-MEDC (IP-MEDC). Simulation tests under abiotic conditions demonstrated that the pH changes in the anolyte and catholyte of IP-MEDC were smaller than the pH changes in the anolyte and catholyte without the proton pathways. Under biotic conditions, the performance of the IP-MEDC agreed well with the simulation test, showing a significantly higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, desalination rate, and hydrogen production than without the migration pathway. This result is supported by the lowest charge transfer resistance shown by EIS analysis and the abundance of microbes on the bioanode through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) observation. However, hydrogen production was diminished in the second-fed batch cycle, presumably due to the active diffusion of high Cl¯ concentrations from desalination to the anode chamber, which was detrimental to microbial growth. Enlarging the anode volume by threefold improved the COD removal rate and hydrogen production rate by 1.7- and 3.4-fold, respectively, owing to the dilution effect of Cl¯ in the anode. This implied that the dilution effect satisfies both the microbial viability and conductivity. This study also suggests that the anolyte and catholyte replacement frequencies can be reduced, typically at a prolonged hydraulic retention time, thus minimizing the operating cost (e.g., solution pumping). The use of a high concentration of NaCl (35 g L-1) in the desalination chamber and catholyte provides a condition that is close to practicality.
Traditionally existing 2D culture scaffold has been inappropriately validated due to the failure in generating the precise therapeutic response. Therefore, this leads to the fabrication of 3D culture scaffold resolving the limitations in the in vivo environment. In recent years, tissue engineering played an important role in the field of bio-medical engineering. Biopolymer material, a novel natural material with excellent properties of nontoxic and biodegradable merits can be served as culture scaffold. This review summarizes the modifications of natural biopolymeric culture scaffold with different crosslinkers and their application. In addition, this review provides the recent progress of natural biopolymeric culture scaffold mainly focusing on their properties, synthesizing and modification and application.