Displaying all 18 publications

  1. Yu H, Wang W, Fang S, Zhang YP, Lin FJ, Geng ZC
    Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 1999 Dec;13(3):556-65.
    PMID: 10620413
    The sequences of the mitochondrial ND4 gene (1339 bp) and the ND4L gene (290 bp) were determined for all the 14 extant taxa of the Drosophila nasuta subgroup. The average A + T content of ND4 genes is 76.5% and that of ND4L genes is 83.5%. A total of 114 variable sites were scored. The ND4 gene sequence divergence ranged from 0 to 5.4% within the subgroup. The substitution rate of the ND4 gene is about 1.25% per million years. The base substitution of the genes is strongly transition biased. Neighbor-joining and parsimony were used to construct a phylogeny based on the resultant sequence data set. According to these trees, five distinct mtDNA clades can be identified. D. niveifrons represents the most diverged lineage. D. sulfurigaster bilimbata and D. kepulauana form two independent lineages. The other two clades are the kohkoa complex and the albomicans complex. The kohkoa complex consists of D. sulfurigaster sulfurigaster, D. pulaua, D. kohkoa, and Taxon-F. The albomicans complex can be divided into two groups: D. nasuta, D. sulfurigaster neonasuta, D. sulfurigaster albostrigata, and D. albomicans from Chiangmai form one group; and D. pallidifrons, Taxon-I, Taxon-J, and D. albomicans from China form the other group. High genetic differentiation was found among D. albomicans populations. Based on our phylogenetic results, we hypothesize that D. niveifrons diverged first from the D. nasuta subgroup in Papua New Guinea about 3.5 Mya. The ancestral population spread to the north and when it reached Borneo, it diversified sequentially into the kohkoa complex, D. s. bilimbata, and D. kepulauana. About 1 Mya, another radiation occurred when the ancestral populations reached the Indo-China Peninsula, forming the albomicans complex. Discrepancy between morphological groupings and phylogenetic results suggests that the male morphological traits may not be orthologous.
  2. Chen M, Zhang B, Li C, Kulaveerasingam H, Chew FT, Yu H
    Plant Physiol., 2015 Sep;169(1):391-402.
    PMID: 26152712 DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.00943
    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process.
  3. Bao R, Liu M, Wang D, Wen S, Yu H, Zhong Y, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2019;10:1464.
    PMID: 31920654 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01464
    Background:Eurycoma longifolia is a tropical medicinal plant belonging to Simaroubaceae distributed in South East Asia. The stems are traditionally used for the treatment of sexual insufficiency, fever, hypertension, and malaria. Furthermore, it has antidiabetic and anticancer activities. Recently, it has been reported to reduce uric acid, but the mechanism is unclear. Hypothesis/Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore the effect and mechanism of E. longifolia stem 70% ethanol extract (EL) and its active compounds on uric acid excretion. Study Design and Methods: Potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia rats model and adenine-PO induced hyperuricemia mice model were used to evaluate the effects of EL. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography was used to determine the levels of plasma or serum uric acid and creatinine. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was applied to observe kidney pathological changes, and western blot was applied to detect protein expression levels of uric acid transporters. Effects of constituents on urate uptake were tested in hURAT1-expressing HEK293T cells. Results: EL significantly reduced serum and plasma uric acid levels at dosages of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg in hyperuricemia rats and mice, increased the clearance rate of uric acid and creatinine, and improved the renal pathological injury. The protein expression levels of urate reabsorption transporter 1 (URAT1) and glucose transporter 9 were down-regulated, while sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1 and ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 were up-regulated in the kidney after EL treatment. The quassinoids isolated from EL showed inhibitory effects on urate uptake in hURAT1-expressing HEK293T cells, and the effect of eurycomanol was further confirmed in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that EL significantly reduced blood uric acid levels, prevented pathological changes of kidney in PO induced hyperuricemia animal model, and improved renal urate transports. We partly clarified the mechanism was related to suppressing effect of URAT1 by quassinoid in EL. This study is the first to demonstrate that EL plays a role in hyperuricemia by promoting renal uric acid excretion.
  4. Yu EPK, Reinhold J, Yu H, Starks L, Uryga AK, Foote K, et al.
    Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2017 12;37(12):2322-2332.
    PMID: 28970293 DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.310042
    OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether endogenous levels of mtDNA damage are sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and whether decreasing mtDNA damage and improving mitochondrial respiration affects plaque burden or composition are unclear. We examined mitochondrial respiration in human atherosclerotic plaques and whether augmenting mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis.

    APPROACH AND RESULTS: Human atherosclerotic plaques showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction, manifested as reduced mtDNA copy number and oxygen consumption rate in fibrous cap and core regions. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from plaques showed impaired mitochondrial respiration, reduced complex I expression, and increased mitophagy, which was induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice showed decreased mtDNA integrity and mitochondrial respiration, associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. To determine whether alleviating mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis, we studied ApoE-/- mice overexpressing the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle (Tw+/ApoE-/-). Tw+/ApoE-/- mice showed increased mtDNA integrity, copy number, respiratory complex abundance, and respiration. Tw+/ApoE-/- mice had decreased necrotic core and increased fibrous cap areas, and Tw+/ApoE-/- bone marrow transplantation also reduced core areas. Twinkle increased vascular smooth muscle cell mtDNA integrity and respiration. Twinkle also promoted vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and protected both vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous mtDNA damage in mouse and human atherosclerosis is associated with significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration. Reducing mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration decrease necrotic core and increase fibrous cap areas independently of changes in reactive oxygen species and may be a promising therapeutic strategy in atherosclerosis.

  5. Shaikh LH, Zhou J, Teo AE, Garg S, Neogi SG, Figg N, et al.
    J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2015 Jun;100(6):E836-44.
    PMID: 25915569 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2015-1734
    CONTEXT: Aldosterone synthesis and cellularity in the human adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) is sparse and patchy, presumably due to salt excess. The frequency of somatic mutations causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) may be a consequence of protection from cell loss by constitutive aldosterone production.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to delineate a process in human ZG, which may regulate both aldosterone production and cell turnover.

    DESIGN: This study included a comparison of 20 pairs of ZG and zona fasciculata transcriptomes from adrenals adjacent to an APA (n = 13) or a pheochromocytoma (n = 7).

    INTERVENTIONS: Interventions included an overexpression of the top ZG gene (LGR5) or stimulation by its ligand (R-spondin-3).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A transcriptome profile of ZG and zona fasciculata and aldosterone production, cell kinetic measurements, and Wnt signaling activity of LGR5 transfected or R-spondin-3-stimulated cells were measured.

    RESULTS: LGR5 was the top gene up-regulated in ZG (25-fold). The gene for its cognate ligand R-spondin-3, RSPO3, was 5-fold up-regulated. In total, 18 genes associated with the Wnt pathway were greater than 2-fold up-regulated. ZG selectivity of LGR5, and its absence in most APAs, were confirmed by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Both R-spondin-3 stimulation and LGR5 transfection of human adrenal cells suppressed aldosterone production. There was reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of transfected cells, and the noncanonical activator protein-1/Jun pathway was stimulated more than the canonical Wnt pathway (3-fold vs 1.3-fold). ZG of adrenal sections stained positive for apoptosis markers.

    CONCLUSION: LGR5 is the most selectively expressed gene in human ZG and reduces aldosterone production and cell number. Such conditions may favor cells whose somatic mutation reverses aldosterone inhibition and cell loss.

  6. Liu C, Kanazawa T, Tian Y, Mohamed Saini S, Mancuso S, Mostaid MS, et al.
    Transl Psychiatry, 2019 08 27;9(1):205.
    PMID: 31455759 DOI: 10.1038/s41398-019-0532-4
    Over 3000 candidate gene association studies have been performed to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. However, a comprehensive evaluation of these studies' findings has not been undertaken since the decommissioning of the schizophrenia gene (SzGene) database in 2011. As such, we systematically identified and carried out random-effects meta-analyses for all polymorphisms with four or more independent studies in schizophrenia along with a series of expanded meta-analyses incorporating published and unpublished genome-wide association (GWA) study data. Based on 550 meta-analyses, 11 SNPs in eight linkage disequilibrium (LD) independent loci showed Bonferroni-significant associations with schizophrenia. Expanded meta-analyses identified an additional 10 SNPs, for a total of 21 Bonferroni-significant SNPs in 14 LD-independent loci. Three of these loci (MTHFR, DAOA, ARVCF) had never been implicated by a schizophrenia GWA study. In sum, the present study has provided a comprehensive summary of the current schizophrenia genetics knowledgebase and has made available all the collected data as a resource for the research community.
  7. Lujan-Barroso L, Zhang W, Olson SH, Gao YT, Yu H, Baghurst PA, et al.
    Pancreas, 2016 11;45(10):1401-1410.
    PMID: 27088489
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relation between menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and risk of pancreatic cancer (PC).

    METHODS: Eleven case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium took part in the present study, including in total 2838 case and 4748 control women. Pooled estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a 2-step logistic regression model and adjusting for relevant covariates.

    RESULTS: An inverse OR was observed in women who reported having had hysterectomy (ORyesvs.no, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), remaining significant in postmenopausal women and never-smoking women, adjusted for potential PC confounders. A mutually adjusted model with the joint effect for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hysterectomy showed significant inverse associations with PC in women who reported having had hysterectomy with HRT use (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our large pooled analysis suggests that women who have had a hysterectomy may have reduced risk of PC. However, we cannot rule out that the reduced risk could be due to factors or indications for having had a hysterectomy. Further investigation of risk according to HRT use and reason for hysterectomy may be necessary.

  8. Sosnay PR, Siklosi KR, Van Goor F, Kaniecki K, Yu H, Sharma N, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2013 Oct;45(10):1160-7.
    PMID: 23974870 DOI: 10.1038/ng.2745
    Allelic heterogeneity in disease-causing genes presents a substantial challenge to the translation of genomic variation into clinical practice. Few of the almost 2,000 variants in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene CFTR have empirical evidence that they cause cystic fibrosis. To address this gap, we collected both genotype and phenotype data for 39,696 individuals with cystic fibrosis in registries and clinics in North America and Europe. In these individuals, 159 CFTR variants had an allele frequency of ł0.01%. These variants were evaluated for both clinical severity and functional consequence, with 127 (80%) meeting both clinical and functional criteria consistent with disease. Assessment of disease penetrance in 2,188 fathers of individuals with cystic fibrosis enabled assignment of 12 of the remaining 32 variants as neutral, whereas the other 20 variants remained of indeterminate effect. This study illustrates that sourcing data directly from well-phenotyped subjects can address the gap in our ability to interpret clinically relevant genomic variation.
  9. Haldeman S, Johnson CD, Chou R, Nordin M, Côté P, Hurwitz EL, et al.
    Eur Spine J, 2018 09;27(Suppl 6):901-914.
    PMID: 30151811 DOI: 10.1007/s00586-018-5721-y
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this report is to describe the development of an evidence-based care pathway that can be implemented globally.

    METHODS: The Global Spine Care Initiative (GSCI) care pathway development team extracted interventions recommended for the management of spinal disorders from six GSCI articles that synthesized the available evidence from guidelines and relevant literature. Sixty-eight international and interprofessional clinicians and scientists with expertise in spine-related conditions were invited to participate. An iterative consensus process was used.

    RESULTS: After three rounds of review, 46 experts from 16 countries reached consensus for the care pathway that includes five decision steps: awareness, initial triage, provider assessment, interventions (e.g., non-invasive treatment; invasive treatment; psychological and social intervention; prevention and public health; specialty care and interprofessional management), and outcomes. The care pathway can be used to guide the management of patients with any spine-related concern (e.g., back and neck pain, deformity, spinal injury, neurological conditions, pathology, spinal diseases). The pathway is simple and can be incorporated into educational tools, decision-making trees, and electronic medical records.

    CONCLUSION: A care pathway for the management of individuals presenting with spine-related concerns includes evidence-based recommendations to guide health care providers in the management of common spinal disorders. The proposed pathway is person-centered and evidence-based. The acceptability and utility of this care pathway will need to be evaluated in various communities, especially in low- and middle-income countries, with different cultural background and resources. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  10. Childs EJ, Mocci E, Campa D, Bracci PM, Gallinger S, Goggins M, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2015 Aug;47(8):911-6.
    PMID: 26098869 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3341
    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the developed world. Both inherited high-penetrance mutations in BRCA2 (ref. 2), ATM, PALB2 (ref. 4), BRCA1 (ref. 5), STK11 (ref. 6), CDKN2A and mismatch-repair genes and low-penetrance loci are associated with increased risk. To identify new risk loci, we performed a genome-wide association study on 9,925 pancreatic cancer cases and 11,569 controls, including 4,164 newly genotyped cases and 3,792 controls in 9 studies from North America, Central Europe and Australia. We identified three newly associated regions: 17q25.1 (LINC00673, rs11655237, odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.34, P = 1.42 × 10(-14)), 7p13 (SUGCT, rs17688601, OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.92, P = 1.41 × 10(-8)) and 3q29 (TP63, rs9854771, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85-0.93, P = 2.35 × 10(-8)). We detected significant association at 2p13.3 (ETAA1, rs1486134, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09-1.19, P = 3.36 × 10(-9)), a region with previous suggestive evidence in Han Chinese. We replicated previously reported associations at 9q34.2 (ABO), 13q22.1 (KLF5), 5p15.33 (TERT and CLPTM1), 13q12.2 (PDX1), 1q32.1 (NR5A2), 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT), 16q23.1 (BCAR1) and 22q12.1 (ZNRF3). Our study identifies new loci associated with pancreatic cancer risk.
  11. Haldeman S, Nordin M, Chou R, Côté P, Hurwitz EL, Johnson CD, et al.
    Eur Spine J, 2018 09;27(Suppl 6):776-785.
    PMID: 30151809 DOI: 10.1007/s00586-018-5722-x
    PURPOSE: Spinal disorders, including back and neck pain, are major causes of disability, economic hardship, and morbidity, especially in underserved communities and low- and middle-income countries. Currently, there is no model of care to address this issue. This paper provides an overview of the papers from the Global Spine Care Initiative (GSCI), which was convened to develop an evidence-based, practical, and sustainable, spinal healthcare model for communities around the world with various levels of resources.

    METHODS: Leading spine clinicians and scientists around the world were invited to participate. The interprofessional, international team consisted of 68 members from 24 countries, representing most disciplines that study or care for patients with spinal symptoms, including family physicians, spine surgeons, rheumatologists, chiropractors, physical therapists, epidemiologists, research methodologists, and other stakeholders.

    RESULTS: Literature reviews on the burden of spinal disorders and six categories of evidence-based interventions for spinal disorders (assessment, public health, psychosocial, noninvasive, invasive, and the management of osteoporosis) were completed. In addition, participants developed a stratification system for surgical intervention, a classification system for spinal disorders, an evidence-based care pathway, and lists of resources and recommendations to implement the GSCI model of care.

    CONCLUSION: The GSCI proposes an evidence-based model that is consistent with recent calls for action to reduce the global burden of spinal disorders. The model requires testing to determine feasibility. If it proves to be implementable, this model holds great promise to reduce the tremendous global burden of spinal disorders. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  12. Johnson CD, Haldeman S, Chou R, Nordin M, Green BN, Côté P, et al.
    Eur Spine J, 2018 09;27(Suppl 6):925-945.
    PMID: 30151805 DOI: 10.1007/s00586-018-5720-z
    PURPOSE: Spine-related disorders are a leading cause of global disability and are a burden on society and to public health. Currently, there is no comprehensive, evidence-based model of care for spine-related disorders, which includes back and neck pain, deformity, spine injury, neurological conditions, spinal diseases, and pathology, that could be applied in global health care settings. The purposes of this paper are to propose: (1) principles to transform the delivery of spine care; (2) an evidence-based model that could be applied globally; and (3) implementation suggestions.

    METHODS: The Global Spine Care Initiative (GSCI) meetings and literature reviews were synthesized into a seed document and distributed to spine care experts. After three rounds of a modified Delphi process, all participants reached consensus on the final model of care and implementation steps.

    RESULTS: Sixty-six experts representing 24 countries participated. The GSCI model of care has eight core principles: person-centered, people-centered, biopsychosocial, proactive, evidence-based, integrative, collaborative, and self-sustaining. The model of care includes a classification system and care pathway, levels of care, and a focus on the patient's journey. The six steps for implementation are initiation and preparation; assessment of the current situation; planning and designing solutions; implementation; assessment and evaluation of program; and sustain program and scale up.

    CONCLUSION: The GSCI proposes an evidence-based, practical, sustainable, and scalable model of care representing eight core principles with a six-step implementation plan. The aim of this model is to help transform spine care globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries and underserved communities. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  13. Johnson CD, Haldeman S, Nordin M, Chou R, Côté P, Hurwitz EL, et al.
    Eur Spine J, 2018 09;27(Suppl 6):786-795.
    PMID: 30151808 DOI: 10.1007/s00586-018-5723-9
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this report is to describe the Global Spine Care Initiative (GSCI) contributors, disclosures, and methods for reporting transparency on the development of the recommendations.

    METHODS: World Spine Care convened the GSCI to develop an evidence-based, practical, and sustainable healthcare model for spinal care. The initiative aims to improve the management, prevention, and public health for spine-related disorders worldwide; thus, global representation was essential. A series of meetings established the initiative's mission and goals. Electronic surveys collected contributorship and demographic information, and experiences with spinal conditions to better understand perceptions and potential biases that were contributing to the model of care.

    RESULTS: Sixty-eight clinicians and scientists participated in the deliberations and are authors of one or more of the GSCI articles. Of these experts, 57 reported providing spine care in 34 countries, (i.e., low-, middle-, and high-income countries, as well as underserved communities in high-income countries.) The majority reported personally experiencing or having a close family member with one or more spinal concerns including: spine-related trauma or injury, spinal problems that required emergency or surgical intervention, spinal pain referred from non-spine sources, spinal deformity, spinal pathology or disease, neurological problems, and/or mild, moderate, or severe back or neck pain. There were no substantial reported conflicts of interest.

    CONCLUSION: The GSCI participants have broad professional experience and wide international distribution with no discipline dominating the deliberations. The GSCI believes this set of papers has the potential to inform and improve spine care globally. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  14. Zhong J, Jermusyk A, Wu L, Hoskins JW, Collins I, Mocci E, et al.
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2020 Jan 09.
    PMID: 31917448 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djz246
    BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown.

    METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) in Europeans using three approaches, FUSION, MetaXcan and SMulTiXcan. We integrated GWAS summary statistics from 9,040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12,496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics, LTG (n = 95) and Genotype-Tissue Expression, GTEx v7 (n = 174) datasets), and data from 48 different tissues (GTEx v7, n = 74-421 samples).

    RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (FDR < 0.05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12:, PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at 6 known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci, and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1 and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction.

    CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

  15. Zhang M, Wang Z, Obazee O, Jia J, Childs EJ, Hoskins J, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2016 Oct 11;7(41):66328-66343.
    PMID: 27579533 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.11041
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common pancreatic cancer susceptibility variants at 13 chromosomal loci in individuals of European descent. To identify new susceptibility variants, we performed imputation based on 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project data and association analysis using 5,107 case and 8,845 control subjects from 27 cohort and case-control studies that participated in the PanScan I-III GWAS. This analysis, in combination with a two-staged replication in an additional 6,076 case and 7,555 control subjects from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control (PanC4) Consortia uncovered 3 new pancreatic cancer risk signals marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2816938 at chromosome 1q32.1 (per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 4.88x10 -15), rs10094872 at 8q24.21 (OR = 1.15, P = 3.22x10 -9) and rs35226131 at 5p15.33 (OR = 0.71, P = 1.70x10 -8). These SNPs represent independent risk variants at previously identified pancreatic cancer risk loci on chr1q32.1 ( NR5A2), chr8q24.21 ( MYC) and chr5p15.33 ( CLPTM1L- TERT) as per analyses conditioned on previously reported susceptibility variants. We assessed expression of candidate genes at the three risk loci in histologically normal ( n = 10) and tumor ( n = 8) derived pancreatic tissue samples and observed a marked reduction of NR5A2 expression (chr1q32.1) in the tumors (fold change -7.6, P = 5.7x10 -8). This finding was validated in a second set of paired ( n = 20) histologically normal and tumor derived pancreatic tissue samples (average fold change for three NR5A2 isoforms -31.3 to -95.7, P = 7.5x10 -4-2.0x10 -3). Our study has identified new susceptibility variants independently conferring pancreatic cancer risk that merit functional follow-up to identify target genes and explain the underlying biology.
  16. Klein AP, Wolpin BM, Risch HA, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Mocci E, Zhang M, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2018 02 08;9(1):556.
    PMID: 29422604 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-02942-5
    In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10-8). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10-14), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10-10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10-8), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10-8). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.
  17. Walsh N, Zhang H, Hyland PL, Yang Q, Mocci E, Zhang M, et al.
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2018 Dec 12.
    PMID: 30541042 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djy155
    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes.

    Methods: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided.

    Results: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets.

    Conclusion: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.

  18. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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