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  1. Yusoff N, Anuar NN, Reza MF
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 May;25(3):103-110.
    PMID: 30899191 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.3.10
    Background: Sex is a psychobiological factor that is important in the process of emotion. This study determines the effect of sex on the electropsychological process of various intensities of emotional arousal.

    Methods: In the Event-related Potential (ERP) session, electroencephalographic (EEG) data was recorded for 90 participants, 60% of whom were females. The participants responded to 30 universal emotional pictures, randomly chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which were classified as invoking high, moderate, and low intensity of emotional arousal.

    Results: From the analysis of variance of two-way mixed design, the interaction between sex and emotional intensity was observed in the occipital regions (O2), indexed by the amplitude of P300 and N200 components. Males exhibited higher amplitude of P300 and N200 components (in the occipital region) as responded to high and low emotional arousal stimuli than females.

    Conclusion: Sex is a fundamental factor that modulates psychological states in reaction to emotional stimuli.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  2. Saha, Srilekha, Saha, Soumendra
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2014;3(1):15-25.
    MyJurnal
    Psychobiological predictors of emotionality were evaluated in relations to complex reaction and movement performances have been considered as the significant aspect of research interest. Considerable research base confirms that the expert players employ more pertinent search strategies, eliminate irrelevant cues which enable them to effectively anticipate action requirements and they have superior ability to use cue-related information to reliably anticipate occurrence of relevant events. Present study was aimed at identification of intricate relationship between the ability of the high performing swimmers (National - level swimmers of Malaysia) in anticipatory cue-utilization and corresponding autonomic phasic skin conductance responses isolated from the tonic measures. Altogether two-hundred and twenty-five individuals having high athletic calibre, and holding top-positions in recently held (within the period March 2011 up to the June 2011) National and International (Mostly ASEAN level) meets volunteered as the participants in this study. Simultaneous evaluation of autonomic arousal modulation (habituation paradigm tonic and phasic measures of skin conductance) was done when the swimmers were engaged in cue-related anticipatory task, associated with complex reaction performance. For this purpose, participants were evaluated intermittently (twice within the calendar year August 2010 - June 2011) with the identical research paradigm. Perceived sense of competence as well as the subjective feelings of apprehension of loosing was explored, and attempts were made to identify the obscure subjective expression of cognitive-emotional make-up, in explaining differential performance outcomes evident in the participants. Findings of multiple linear and polynomial regression analyses however suggested direct, inverse and supportive relationships between decomposition of skin conductance tonic and phasic autonomic components related to cognitive-affective and affective motivational aspects of sports behaviour explaining pathways to both excellent and debilitative performance outcomes during practice sessions as well as in actual competitive situations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  3. Korner AF, Gabby T, Kraemer HC
    Early Hum. Dev., 1980 Mar;4(1):35-9.
    PMID: 7389624
    Chisholm et al. [4], using samples of Navajo and Malaysian newborns, found a significant positive relation between maternal normotensive blood pressures during the second trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and infant irritability in response to the Brazelton Examination. Measuring spontaneous crying with an electronic activity monitor and using a white middle-class American population, this relation was replicated for mothers with normotensive blood pressures during the third trimester of pregnancy. The combined findings of the 3 studies seem to suggest that maternal blood pressure in the latter part of pregnancy, even when within normal limits, is a factor in how irritable normal newborn infants are.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  4. Ismail AH, Bau R, Sidi H, Guan NC, Naing L, Nik Jaafar NR, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S34-7.
    PMID: 23375262 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.12.028
    This study compared the components of sexual responses between Malaysian women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and those without the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal/physiology
  5. Feroz FS, Leicht G, Steinmann S, Andreou C, Mulert C
    Brain Topogr, 2017 Jan;30(1):30-45.
    PMID: 27659288 DOI: 10.1007/s10548-016-0521-3
    Growing evidence from neuroimaging studies suggest that emotional and cognitive processes are interrelated. Anatomical key structures in this context are the dorsal and rostral-ventral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and rvACC). However, up to now, the time course of activations within these regions during emotion-cognition interactions has not been disentangled. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) region of interest (ROI) source localization analyses to explore the time course of neural activations within the dACC and rvACC using a modified emotional Stroop paradigm. ERP components related to Stroop conflict (N200, N450 and late negativity) were analyzed. The time course of brain activations in the dACC and rvACC was strikingly different with more pronounced initial responses in the rvACC followed by increased dACC activity mainly at the late negativity window. Moreover, emotional valence modulated the earlier N450 stage within the rvACC region with higher neural activations in the positive compared to the negative and neutral conditions. Emotional arousal modulated the late negativity stage; firstly in the significant arousal × congruence ERP effect and then the significant higher current density in the low arousal condition within the dACC. Using sLORETA source localization, substantial differences in the activation time courses in the dACC and rvACC could be found during the emotional Stroop task. We suggest that during late negativity, within the dACC, emotional arousal modulated the processing of response conflict, reflected in the correlation between the ex-Gaussian µ and the current density in the dACC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal/physiology
  6. Feroz FS, Leicht G, Rauh J, Mulert C
    Brain Topogr, 2019 01;32(1):161-177.
    PMID: 30288663 DOI: 10.1007/s10548-018-0677-0
    This paper aims to investigate the temporal dynamics within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the rostral-ventral (rv) ACC during the interaction of emotional valence and arousal with cognitive control in patients with Schizophrenia (SZ). Although cognitive deficits in SZ are highly relevant and emotional disturbances are common, the temporal relationship of brain regions involved in the interaction of emotional and cognitive processing in SZ is yet to be determined. To address this issue, the reaction time (RT), event-related potential (ERP) and temporal dynamics of the dACC and rvACC activity were compared between SZ subjects and healthy controls (HC), using a modified emotional Stroop experiment (with factors namely congruence, arousal and valence). EEG was recorded with 64 channels and source localisation was performed using the sLORETA software package. We observed slower initial increase and lower peaks of time course activity within the dACC and rvACC in the SZ group. In this particular group, the dACC activity during late negativity was negatively correlated with a significantly higher RT in the high arousal conflict condition. In contrast to HC subjects, at the N450 window, there was no significant valence (ERP and rvACC ROI) modulation effect in the SZ subjects. Using high density EEG and source localisation, it was possible to distinguish various disturbances within the dACC and rvACC in patients with SZ, during emotion-cognition processing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal/physiology
  7. Kuan G, Morris T, Terry P
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(4):e0175022.
    PMID: 28414741 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175022
    Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal/physiology*
  8. Pratap-Chand R, Sinniah M, Salem FA
    Acta Neurol. Scand., 1988 Sep;78(3):185-9.
    PMID: 3227804
    Cognitive impairment has been reported to occur in minor head injury (concussion). The value of the P300 evoked potential as a measure of cerebral concussion was studied in 20 patients with minor head injury and compared with the data from 20 normal subjects. Significant abnormalities of the P300 latency and amplitude were noted in these patients in the post-concussion period. The abnormalities improved completely on repeat testing. The correlation of the P300 to other parameters of head injury is discussed. The P300 constitutes a simple laboratory test that is sensitive measure of cerebral dysfunction in concussive head injuries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal/physiology*
  9. Medicine & Health, 2009;4(2):101-107.
    MyJurnal
    Although stress among nursing staff is common, adopting effective coping styles helps in minimizing the problem. The objectives of this study were to compare stress level among ursing staff working in the above disciplines, to identify common coping style used and to determine the relationship between stress and coping styles. This cross-sectional study involved 106 nursing staff who were universally sampled from psychiatric wards and emergency departments in two public hospitals in the Klang Valley. Self-rated questionnaires i.e. Stress Arousal Checklist (SACL) and Coping inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) were used to assess stress levels and coping styles respectively. There was insignificant difference in terms of stress level between the two nursing staffs. Stress dimension of SACL between the psychiatry (6.53 + 3.18, p=0.372) and emergency (6.02  + 2.67, p=0.372) nursing staffs were insignificant. Arousal dimension of SACL was also  insignificant between psychiatry (8.60  + 1.70, p=0.372) and emergency (9.19  + 1.61, p=0.07) nursing staff. Task coping was the most commonly used coping styles among the psychiatry (55.36  + 9.85) and emergency (57.73  + 9.87) nursing staff in this study. Stress dimension of SACL showed weak significant relationship with task coping (r=-0.313, p=0.001) and emotion coping (r=0.292, p=0.001). Arousal dimension of SACL was also found to have weak significant relationship with task coping  (r=0.271, p=0.003) and emotion coping (r=-0.251, p=0.005). While nursing was found to be a stressful profession, a significant relationship between stress and coping styles allows intervention to enable better adaptation to the stressful working environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  10. Simons RC
    J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1980 Apr;168(4):195-206.
    PMID: 7365478
    Latah is a culture-bound syndrome from Malaysia and Indonesia. Persons exhibiting the Latah syndrome respond to minimal stimuli with exaggerated startles, often exclaimning normally inhibited sexually denotative words. Sometimes Latahs after being startled obey the commands or imitate the actions of persons about them. Most episodes of Latah are intentionally provoked for the amusement of onlookers. Similar sets of interactive behaviors have been reported from genetically and culturally unrelated populations (e.g., Bantu, Ainu, and French Canadians). Since competent anthropological investigators have shown Latah to be intimately tied to specific factors in the cultural systems of the Southeast Asian societies in which it is found, its occurrence elswhere has been considered paradoxical. New data, including films and videotapes of hyperstartling persons from Malaysia, the Philippines, Japan, and the United States, suggest a model capable of resolving the apparent paradox by showing how the various forms of latah are culture-specific exploitations of a neurophysiological potential shared by humans and other mammals. Latah provides an especially revealing example of the complex ways in which neurophysiological, experiential, and cultural variables interact to produce a strongly marked and phenomenon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  11. Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Sharifah Ezat Wan Puteh, Norni Abdullah
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2007;8(2):97-105.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of genital arousal disorder and the potential risk
    factors that may impair genital arousal among women at a primary care setting in Malaysia.
    Methods: A validated questionnaire for sexual function was used to assess genital arousal
    function. A total of 230 married women aged 18–70 years old participated in this study. Their sociodemographic and marital profiles were compared between those who had genital arousal disorder and those who did not. The risk factors were examined. Results: The prevalence of genital arousal disorder in the primary care population was 50.4% (116/230). Women with genital arousal disorder were found to be significantly higher in groups of more than 45 years old (p55) (p=.001), those having 4 children or more (p=.028), those having less sexual intercourse (less than 1–2 times a week) (p=.001), and those at post-menopausal state (p=.002). There was no significant difference between these two groups in term of salary (p=.29), suffering from medical problems (p=.32), dysmenorrhea (p=.95), menarche (p=.5) and hormonal replacement therapy (p=.6). Conclusion: Women with infrequent sexual intercourse are less likely to be sexually aroused (OR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.74).
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  12. Elklit, A., Ghazali, S.R
    MyJurnal
    Background: Most PTSD screening tools for children and adolescents have been validated in Western contexts which is not necessarily generalizable to non-western cultures. Therefore, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) within a Malaysian population. Methods: Eighty-five adolescents aged 13- to 14-years-old completed the CPTS-RI, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and Hopkins Symptom Checklist scale (HSCL). Results: Results showed a good internal consistency for the overall scale (α =.92), for the subscale -re-experience, avoidance and arousal subscales (α = .89, α = .73, α = .56 respectively) and for different gender groups and ethnicity. CPTS-RI demonstrated good construct and divergent validity, and showed good concurrent validity with the use of HTQ and HSCL as the criterion measure. Conclusion: Findings suggest that CPTS-RI is a valid and reliable instrument to assess PTSD symptoms among Malaysian adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  13. Rafidah Bahari, Muhammad N Mohamad Alwi, Muhammad R Ahmad, Ismail Mohd Saiboon
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2015;16(2):203-211.
    MyJurnal
    There are a number of validated questionnaires available for the screening of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the PTSD Checklist for Civilians is one of them. However, none was translated into the Malay Language and validated for use in the Malaysian population. The aim of this study is to translate and validate the Malay PTSD Checklist for Civilians (MPCL-C). Methods: The PCL-C was translated into the Malay Language and back-translated. The reliability and validity of the MPCL-C were then determined by administering them to those who presented at the emergency department for motor vehicle accident at least one month before. Results: The MPCL-C has good face and content validity. In terms of reliability, it is also good, with Chronbach’s alpha values of 0.90, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.74 for the full scale, re-experiencing, avoidance and arousal domains respectively. Conclusions: The MPCL-C is a valid and reliable instrument to screen for PTSD in motor vehicle accident victims for the studied population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  14. Aina Razlin Mohammad Roose
    MyJurnal
    This paper presents a case study of a 22-year-old female client who came for counselling sessions for the purpose of overcoming her pedaphobia. Symptoms, such as, dizziness, nausea, arousal, sweating palm and body shaking were noticed to be visible not only by the presence of a real child, but also by pictures, stories and imaginations of infants. Systematic desensitization technique, a form of Exposure Therapy, was applied to treat the client. It involved relaxation and breathing techniques, and supported by the application of live modelling guided participation. Along with the interventions, Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy techniques were also applied, such as, thought recording, irrational thoughts identification and disputation, Rational Emotive Imagery (REI), coping self-statement, and forceful self-statement. By the end of the therapy, the client reported to have experienced a decline in the occurrences of symptoms and demonstrated the ability to overcome her phobia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  15. Armour C, Raudzah Ghazali S, Elklit A
    Psychiatry Res, 2013 Mar 30;206(1):26-32.
    PMID: 23017656 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.012
    The underlying latent structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is widely researched. However, despite a plethora of factor analytic studies, no single model has consistently been shown as superior to alternative models. The two most often supported models are the Emotional Numbing and the Dysphoria models. However, a recently proposed five-factor Dysphoric Arousal model has been gathering support over and above existing models. Data for the current study were gathered from Malaysian Tsunami survivors (N=250). Three competing models (Emotional Numbing/Dysphoria/Dysphoric Arousal) were specified and estimated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The Dysphoria model provided superior fit to the data compared to the Emotional Numbing model. However, using chi-square difference tests, the Dysphoric Arousal model showed a superior fit compared to both the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the Dysphoric Arousal model better represents PTSD's latent structure and that items measuring sleeping difficulties, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties form a separate, unique PTSD factor. These results are discussed in relation to the role of Hyperarousal in PTSD's on-going symptom maintenance and in relation to the DSM-5.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal*
  16. Navaratnam V, Jamaludin A, Raman N, Mohamed M, Mansor SM
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 1994 Feb;34(3):231-6.
    PMID: 8033761
    Thirty-eight, adult, male, detoxified, Malaysian opiate addicts participated in this double-blind clinical evaluation of naltrexone. Addicts from three ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays, and Indians received a weekly regimen of naltrexone (100 mg on Days 1 and 3, and 150 mg on Day 5). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive intravenous challenge with either 25 mg heroin or placebo 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after the third naltrexone dose. Physiological and subjective parameters were measured at each challenge interval. Results indicated that naltrexone was effective in blocking the physiological and psychological effects of heroin for at least 48 and 72 h, respectively, in detoxified Malaysian opiate addicts. The efficacy of naltrexone did not differ among the three ethnic groups evaluated in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal/drug effects
  17. Loft MH, Cameron LD
    Ann Behav Med, 2013 Dec;46(3):260-72.
    PMID: 23640130 DOI: 10.1007/s12160-013-9503-9
    BACKGROUND: Poor sleep habits and insufficient sleep represent significant workplace health issues.

    PURPOSE: Applying self-regulation theory, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial testing the efficacy of mental imagery techniques promoting arousal reduction and implementation intentions to improve sleep behavior.

    METHOD: We randomly assigned 104 business employees to four imagery-based interventions: arousal reduction, implementation intentions, combined arousal reduction and implementation intentions, or control imagery. Participants practiced their techniques daily for 21 days. They completed online measures of sleep quality, behaviors, and self-efficacy at baseline and Day 21; and daily measures of sleep behaviors.

    RESULTS: Participants using implementation intention imagery exhibited greater improvements in self-efficacy, sleep behaviors, sleep quality, and time to sleep relative to participants using arousal reduction and control imagery.

    CONCLUSIONS: Implementation intention imagery can improve sleep behavior for daytime employees. Use of arousal reduction imagery was unsupported. Self-regulation imagery techniques show promise for improving sleep behaviors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  18. Nik Jaafar NR, Midin M, Wan Puteh SE, Musa R
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;10(1):43-53.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between sexual desire and sexual arousal among Malaysian women in a primary care setting. Methods: The Malay Version of Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSI) was used to assess low sexual desire and lack of sexual arousal among the respondents. A total of 230 married women aged 18 – 70 years old participated in this study. Their sociodemographic, marital profiles and correlation between low sexual desire and lack of sexual arousal were examined. Results: More than 60% respondents with low sexual desire have co-exist low sexual arousal and 94.4% respondents with high sexual desire do have high sexual arousal ( χ²= 79.6, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  19. Normah Che Din, Soo, Siew Bee, Subramaniam, Ponnusamy, Ng, Lai Oon
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(2):158-170.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence and factors influencing PTSD among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey study of 40 women in two shelters in Malaysia from 2007 to 2008. Measures include the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress; the Measure of Wife Abuse; the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory; the Coping Scale for Adults; and the Provision of Social Relations. Results: Results showed that 60% of subjects
    exhibited patterns of symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of PTSD. The most prominent posttraumatic symptoms reported were re-experience, avoidance, dissociative responses, and symptoms of increased arousal. Both negative appraisals about themselves and self blame for the abusive situations were positively associated with increased tendency to develop PTSD. The greater use of optimism coping style and the higher quality social
    support appeared to lead to a significantly reduced tendency of developing PTSD. Negative appraisals about themselves were found to be the strongest positive predictor of PTSD [R² = 0.32, F(1,38)=17.67, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal
  20. Malik AS, Khairuddin RN, Amin HU, Smith ML, Kamel N, Abdullah JM, et al.
    Biomed Eng Online, 2015;14:21.
    PMID: 25886584 DOI: 10.1186/s12938-015-0006-8
    Consumer preference is rapidly changing from 2D to 3D movies due to the sensational effects of 3D scenes, like those in Avatar and The Hobbit. Two 3D viewing technologies are available: active shutter glasses and passive polarized glasses. However, there are consistent reports of discomfort while viewing in 3D mode where the discomfort may refer to dizziness, headaches, nausea or simply not being able to see in 3D continuously.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arousal/physiology
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