Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Chan WT, Nieto C, Harikrishna JA, Khoo SK, Othman RY, Espinosa M, et al.
    J Bacteriol, 2011 Sep;193(18):4612-25.
    PMID: 21764929 DOI: 10.1128/JB.05187-11
    Type II (proteic) toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) are ubiquitous among bacteria. In the chromosome of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, there are at least eight putative TAS, one of them being the yefM-yoeB(Spn) operon studied here. Through footprinting analyses, we showed that purified YefM(Spn) antitoxin and the YefM-YoeB(Spn) TA protein complex bind to a palindrome sequence encompassing the -35 region of the main promoter (P(yefM2)) of the operon. Thus, the locus appeared to be negatively autoregulated with respect to P(yefM2), since YefM(Spn) behaved as a weak repressor with YoeB(Spn) as a corepressor. Interestingly, a BOX element, composed of a single copy (each) of the boxA and boxC subelements, was found upstream of promoter P(yefM2). BOX sequences are pneumococcal, perhaps mobile, genetic elements that have been associated with bacterial processes such as phase variation, virulence regulation, and genetic competence. In the yefM-yoeB(Spn) locus, the boxAC element provided an additional weak promoter, P(yefM1), upstream of P(yefM2) which was not regulated by the TA proteins. In addition, transcriptional fusions with a lacZ reporter gene showed that P(yefM1) was constitutive albeit weaker than P(yefM2). Intriguingly, the coupling of the boxAC element to P(yefM1) and yefM(Spn) in cis (but not in trans) led to transcriptional activation, indicating that the regulation of the yefM-yoeB(Spn) locus differs somewhat from that of other TA loci and may involve as yet unidentified elements. Conservation of the boxAC sequences in all available sequenced genomes of S. pneumoniae which contained the yefM-yoeB(Spn) locus suggested that its presence may provide a selective advantage to the bacterium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis*
  2. Nicolas L, Charles JF, de Barjac H
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1993 Oct 01;113(1):23-8.
    PMID: 8243978
    The toxicity of Clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia to mosquito larvae is due to protein toxins, belonging to a novel class of insecticidal toxins. Toxic extracts contains three major proteins of 66, 18 and 16 kDa. The 18-kDa and 16-kDa proteins are probably involved in toxicity. They are synthesised during sporulation, concomitant with activity. They are absent from non-toxic strains of C. bifermentans and are present at very low levels in non-toxic C. bifermentans serovar malaysia cultures produced at 42 degrees C. The 66-kDa protein is present throughout the growth phases of C. bifermentans serovar malaysia, and an immunologically related 66-kDa protein is present in non-toxic C. bifermentans strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis
  3. Tee TS, Devi S, Puthucheary SD, Kautner IM
    PMID: 7777904
    Approximately 57% of clinical and 33% of poultry isolates examined produced a cytotoxin. Cytotoxic activity was detected in 25 (50%) isolates of Campylobacter of which 12 were isolated from bloody diarrhea and 9 from watery stools. The cytotoxin titers were low, ranging from 2 to 16. The crude filtrates from 50 Campylobacter isolates showed no cytotoxic effect in Vero cells, no fluid accumulation in suckling mice and no hemolytic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis*
  4. Cheong YM, Jegathesan M, Ansary A, Othman M
    Med J Malaysia, 1990 Mar;45(1):42-8.
    PMID: 2152068
    The prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in 433 stool samples from diarrhoeal cases of all ages was studied using two commercially available test kits for the detection of heat labile toxin (LT) and the infant mouse assay for the heat stable toxin (ST). 16 samples (3.7%) were positive for ETEC, of which nine were producing ST alone, six LT alone and only one was producing both LT and ST. Although the percentage of isolation rate was low, its occurrence was almost as common as the Shigella spp and Salmonella spp in the same study. Of the two test kits examined, the Phadebact ETEC-LT Test 50 (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Uppsala, Sweden) was found to be more suitable for use in a routine diagnostic laboratory. Ten out of 12 (83%) of the strains tested were resistant to one or more antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis*
  5. Leong CL, Norazah A, Azureen A, Lingam R
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 12;72(6):378-379.
    PMID: 29308781
    A 61-year-old male presented with community-onset pneumonia not responding to treatment despite given appropriate antibiotics. Computed tomography scan of the thorax showed large multiloculated pleural effusion with multiple cavitating foci within collapsed segments; lesions which were suggestive of necrotising pneumonia. Drainage of the effusion and culture revealed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which had the same antibiotic profile with the blood isolate and PVL gene positive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis*
  6. Kim YB, Okuda J, Matsumoto C, Morigaki T, Asai N, Watanabe H, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1998 Sep 01;166(1):43-8.
    PMID: 9741083
    Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with diarrhea or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) at Pusan University Hospital, South Korea, between 1990 and 1996 were examined for traits of the O157:H7 serogroup. One strain isolated from a patient with HUS belonged to the O157:H7 serotype, possessed a 60-MDa plasmid, the eae gene, and ability to produce Shiga toxin 1 but not Shiga toxin 2. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis suggested that this strain is genetically very close to a O157:H7 strain isolated in Japan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis*
  7. Al-Talib H, Hasan H, Yean CY, Al-Ashwal SM, Ravichandran M
    Jpn J Infect Dis, 2011;64(1):58-60.
    PMID: 21266757
    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin which causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. Although it is produced by fewer than 5% of Staphylococcus aureus strains, PVL-producing S. aureus is emerging as a serious problem worldwide. There has been a marked increase in the incidence of necrotizing lung infections with a very high mortality associated with these strains. This report describes a fatal case of hospital-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus in a patient with a brain tumor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis*
  8. Ghafourian S, Raftari M, Sadeghifard N, Sekawi Z
    Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2014;16:9-14.
    PMID: 23652423
    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are systems in which an unstable antitoxin inhibits a stable toxin. This review aims to introduce the TA system and its biological application in bacteria. For this purpose, first we introduce a new classification for the TA systems based on how the antitoxin can neutralize the toxin, we then describe the functions of TA systems and finally review the application of these systems in biotechnology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis
  9. Al-Haddawi MH, Jasni S, Israf DA, Zamri-Saad M, Mutalib AR, Sheikh-Omar AR
    Res Vet Sci, 2001 Jun;70(3):191-7.
    PMID: 11676614
    Sixteen 8- to 9-week-old Pasteurella multocida-free New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two equal groups. The first group was inoculated intranasally with P multocida serotype D:1 strain and the second group that was inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) only was used as a control group. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from the nasal cavity of all infected rabbits in group 1 and from tracheal swabs of seven rabbits in this group. Four rabbits in group 1 died with clinical signs of septicaemia, two rabbits had mucopurulent nasal discharge and pneumonic lesions and the other two did not show any clinical signs or gross lesions. The ultrastructural changes detected were deciliation or clumping of cilia of ciliated epithelium, cellular swelling, vacuolation and sloughing. The subepithelial capillaries showed congestion, intravascular fibrin deposition, platelets aggregation and endothelial injury. Pasteurella multocida was observed attached to the injured endothelial cells. Heterophils, mast cells, vacuolated monocytes and macrophages infiltrated the lamina propria and between the degenerated epithelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis
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