MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 46 histologically proven glioma (WHO grades II-IV) patients using standard 3T magnetic resonance imaging brain tumor protocol and IOP sequence. Lipid fraction was derived from the IOP sequence signal-loss ratio. The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region of glioma was analyzed, using a three-group analysis approach based on volume under surface of receiver-operating characteristics to stratify the prognostic factors into three groups of low, medium, and high lipid fraction. The survival outcome was evaluated, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression model.
RESULTS: Significant differences were seen between the three groups (low, medium, and high lipid fraction groups) stratified by the optimal cut-off point for overall survival (OS) (p ≤ 0.01) and time to progression (p ≤ 0.01) for solid nonenhancing region. The group with high lipid fraction had five times higher risk of poor survival and earlier time to progression compared to the low lipid fraction group. The OS plot stratified by lipid fraction also had a strong correlation with OS plot stratified by WHO grade (R = 0.61, p < 0.01), implying association to underlying histopathological changes.
CONCLUSION: The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region showed potential for prognostication of glioma. This method will be a useful adjunct in imaging protocol for treatment stratification and as a prognostic tool in glioma patients.
CASE REPORT: This case report is that of a 9-year-old male who presented with frontal headache of eight days, with associated photophobia, nausea and vomiting, and diplopia. Biopsy with intraoperative navigation was done and the specimen was referred for histopathologic evaluation. The biopsy showed findings consistent with a mature teratoma with no histologic findings of an immature component or secondary somatic malignancy. Comparison of the pre-operative and post-operative multiaxial cranial CT scan showed findings that was consistent with a residual lesion. This was correlated with the pre-operative serum tumour markers which showed alpha-fetoprotein of 22.5 ng/mL and beta-HCG of 1.0 mIU/mL(IU/L), and the post-operative tumour markers of the cerebrospinal fluid that showed alpha-fetoprotein of 3.28 ng/mL and beta-HCG of 18.9 mIU/mL (IU/L).
CONCLUSION: A review of the literature and comparison with current case in relation to the histopathologic, serum and CSF findings, and imaging studies was done to better understand the mechanism of this lesion.
METHODS: : A literature search was done for articles published between 2002 and 2017 on Medline electronic databases. Of 249 titles identified, 38 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with 14 articles related to quantifiable imaging parameters (heterogeneity, vascularity, diffusion, cell density, infiltrations, perfusion, and metabolite changes) and 24 articles relevant to molecular biomarkers linked to imaging.
RESULTS: : Genes found to correlate with various imaging phenotypes were EGFR, MGMT, IDH1, VEGF, PDGF, TP53, and Ki-67. EGFR is the most studied gene related to imaging characteristics in the studies reviewed (41.7%), followed by MGMT (20.8%) and IDH1 (16.7%). A summary of the relationship amongst glioma morphology, gene expressions, imaging characteristics, prognosis and therapeutic response are presented.
CONCLUSION:: The use of radiogenomics can provide insights to understanding tumour biology and the underlying molecular pathways. Certain MRI characteristics that show strong correlations with EGFR, MGMT and IDH1 could be used as imaging biomarkers. Knowing the pathways involved in tumour progression and their associated imaging patterns may assist in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment management, while facilitating personalised medicine.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: : Radiogenomics can offer clinicians better insight into diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic responses of glioma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin blocks of 133 CRCs were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Immunostaining was done using antibody to clusterin. Staining expression in 10% of malignant cells was used as a cut-off to determine low immunostaining and high immunostaining. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the association of clusterin immunostaining with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical results showed clusterin low immunostaining in CRC and nodal metastases. No association was found between clusterin immunostaining and tumour grade, age, tumour invasiveness, distant metastases, vascular invasion, nodal metastases, relapse, and survival.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed low clusterin immunostaining in CRC with lack of association with prognostic indicators in CRC. These results raise the controversy of understanding the role of clusterin in CRC. Further molecular studies are required to explore more about possible mechanisms of clusterin association with tumorigenicity, apoptosis, tumour growth progression, local and vascular invasion, and metastasis of CRC.