CASE REPORT: This case report is that of a 9-year-old male who presented with frontal headache of eight days, with associated photophobia, nausea and vomiting, and diplopia. Biopsy with intraoperative navigation was done and the specimen was referred for histopathologic evaluation. The biopsy showed findings consistent with a mature teratoma with no histologic findings of an immature component or secondary somatic malignancy. Comparison of the pre-operative and post-operative multiaxial cranial CT scan showed findings that was consistent with a residual lesion. This was correlated with the pre-operative serum tumour markers which showed alpha-fetoprotein of 22.5 ng/mL and beta-HCG of 1.0 mIU/mL(IU/L), and the post-operative tumour markers of the cerebrospinal fluid that showed alpha-fetoprotein of 3.28 ng/mL and beta-HCG of 18.9 mIU/mL (IU/L).
CONCLUSION: A review of the literature and comparison with current case in relation to the histopathologic, serum and CSF findings, and imaging studies was done to better understand the mechanism of this lesion.
METHODS: : A literature search was done for articles published between 2002 and 2017 on Medline electronic databases. Of 249 titles identified, 38 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with 14 articles related to quantifiable imaging parameters (heterogeneity, vascularity, diffusion, cell density, infiltrations, perfusion, and metabolite changes) and 24 articles relevant to molecular biomarkers linked to imaging.
RESULTS: : Genes found to correlate with various imaging phenotypes were EGFR, MGMT, IDH1, VEGF, PDGF, TP53, and Ki-67. EGFR is the most studied gene related to imaging characteristics in the studies reviewed (41.7%), followed by MGMT (20.8%) and IDH1 (16.7%). A summary of the relationship amongst glioma morphology, gene expressions, imaging characteristics, prognosis and therapeutic response are presented.
CONCLUSION:: The use of radiogenomics can provide insights to understanding tumour biology and the underlying molecular pathways. Certain MRI characteristics that show strong correlations with EGFR, MGMT and IDH1 could be used as imaging biomarkers. Knowing the pathways involved in tumour progression and their associated imaging patterns may assist in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment management, while facilitating personalised medicine.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: : Radiogenomics can offer clinicians better insight into diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic responses of glioma.