Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 81 in total

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  1. Bakrin IH, Hussain FA, Tuan Sharif SE
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Aug;38(2):117-22.
    PMID: 27568668 MyJurnal
    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumour of uncertain histogenesis which is defined by the translocation t(X;18) that produces the fusion oncogenes SYT-SSX. The emergence of transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) as a new immunohistochemical (IHC) marker for SS has offered an alternative to pathologists in differentiating SS from other histological mimics, especially in the setting of limited molecular facilities. We investigated the utility of IHC TLE1 expression against histomorphological features and other IHC markers in SS and non-SS tumours. Twenty-six cases of histologically diagnosed SS and 7 non-SS (for which SS was in the differential diagnosis) were subjected to TLE1 IHC staining, which was graded from 0 to 3+. Of the 26 SS cases, 12 each were biphasic and monophasic types and 2 were poorly-differentiated. TLE1 was expressed in 22/26 (84.6%) SS cases, of which 11/12 (91.7%) were biphasic, 10/12 (83.3%) monophasic and 1/2 (50%) poorly-differentiated tumours. Two of 7 (28.6%) non-SS cases were positive for TLE1. Immunopositivity of SS and non-SS cases for EMA were 20/26 (76.9%) and 2/7 (28.6%) respectively and for CK7 were 7/26 (26.9%) and 0/7 (0%) respectively. All cases were negative for CD34. Consistent histomorphological features for SS included mild nuclear pleomorphism, alternating tumour cellularity, fascicular growth pattern and thick ropy stromal collagen. In conclusion, TLE1 is not a stand-alone diagnostic IHC marker for SS. However, in the absence of molecular studies, it can contribute added diagnostic value in combination with morphological evaluation and other IHC markers such as EMA and CD34.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  2. De Los Reyes EVA, Rivera DI, Santos HM, Carlos RM
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Aug;40(2):175-183.
    PMID: 30173236
    INTRODUCTION: Intracranial teratomas account for 0.5% of all intracranial tumours and 2-4% of intracranial tumours in children. However, in terms of tumours of the pineal area, the exact incidence is not ascertained. Although, it is noted that 50-60% of central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumours are found in the pineal gland. The degree of difficulty in the sampling of lesions in the pineal gland during biopsy emphasizes the importance of correlating the imaging studies, histopathologic findings, and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumour markers.

    CASE REPORT: This case report is that of a 9-year-old male who presented with frontal headache of eight days, with associated photophobia, nausea and vomiting, and diplopia. Biopsy with intraoperative navigation was done and the specimen was referred for histopathologic evaluation. The biopsy showed findings consistent with a mature teratoma with no histologic findings of an immature component or secondary somatic malignancy. Comparison of the pre-operative and post-operative multiaxial cranial CT scan showed findings that was consistent with a residual lesion. This was correlated with the pre-operative serum tumour markers which showed alpha-fetoprotein of 22.5 ng/mL and beta-HCG of 1.0 mIU/mL(IU/L), and the post-operative tumour markers of the cerebrospinal fluid that showed alpha-fetoprotein of 3.28 ng/mL and beta-HCG of 18.9 mIU/mL (IU/L).

    CONCLUSION: A review of the literature and comparison with current case in relation to the histopathologic, serum and CSF findings, and imaging studies was done to better understand the mechanism of this lesion.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  3. Cheo FF, Sittampalam K
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):305-309.
    PMID: 29279595
    Pseudomyogenic (epithelioid sarcoma-like) hemangioendothelioma is a rare, low grade vascular (endothelial) neoplasm typically presenting as multicentric, superficial to deep nodules in extremities with a slight tendency of affecting young adult males. We report a case of pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma in a 15-year-old boy presenting initially with a 1 cm right thigh painless cutaneous lump. The lump was excised with the clinical impression of a sebaceous cyst. On microscopy, a poorly circumscribed, mild to moderately atypical spindle cell lesion in fascicular and storiform patterns with strikingly myoid-like eosinophilic cytoplasm was identified. The spindle cells were highlighted by pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, CD31, and ERG with retained INI-1, while being negative for MNF116, S100, CD34, EMA, desmin, SMA, caldesmon, myogenin, MyoD1, HHV-8 and CD163. Following the first diagnostic report, a positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan revealed another 4 cm ill-defined nodule accompanied by a smaller adjacent 0.7 cm ipsilateral satellite nodule within the right psoas muscle that displayed similar morphology and immunophenotype as the cutaneous lump, supporting the multicentric feature of this unique entity. It is an uncommon yet increasingly recognised neoplasm of endothelial origin possessing a misleading myoid morphology and distinctive immunophenotype worth notifying.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  4. Chang SW, Abdul-Kareem S, Merican AF, Zain RB
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2013;14:170.
    PMID: 23725313 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-14-170
    Machine learning techniques are becoming useful as an alternative approach to conventional medical diagnosis or prognosis as they are good for handling noisy and incomplete data, and significant results can be attained despite a small sample size. Traditionally, clinicians make prognostic decisions based on clinicopathologic markers. However, it is not easy for the most skilful clinician to come out with an accurate prognosis by using these markers alone. Thus, there is a need to use genomic markers to improve the accuracy of prognosis. The main aim of this research is to apply a hybrid of feature selection and machine learning methods in oral cancer prognosis based on the parameters of the correlation of clinicopathologic and genomic markers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  5. Fathinul F, Nordin AJ, Lau WF
    Cell Biochem. Biophys., 2013 May;66(1):37-43.
    PMID: 22790883 DOI: 10.1007/s12013-012-9395-5
    Molecular imaging employing (18)[F]FDG-PET/CT enables in-vivo visualization, characterisation and measurement of biological process in tumour at the molecular and cellular level. In oncology, this approach can be directly applied as translational biomarkers of disease progression. In this article, the improved roles of FDG as an in-vivo glycolytic marker which reflect biological changes across in-vitro cellular environment are discussed. New understanding in how altered metabolism via glycolytic downstream drivers of malignant transformation as reviewed below offers unique promise as to monitor tumour aggressiveness and hence optimize the therapeutic management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  6. Hussaini HM, Angel CM, Speight PM, Firth NA, Rich AM
    Head Neck Pathol, 2012 Dec;6(4):471-5.
    PMID: 22427262 DOI: 10.1007/s12105-012-0350-y
    The hallmark of the histology of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is the presence of a regular repetitive mixture of bilayered duct-like structures with an outer layer of myoepithelial cells and inner ductal epithelial cells. Clear cell change in the myoepithelial component is common, but clearing of both cell types, giving an impression of a monocellular neoplasm, is rare. A parotid biopsy was received from an 83-year-old male and subject to routine histologic processing for conventional staining and immunohistochemistry. The encapsulated tumour was composed of sheets of PAS/diastase negative clear cells, separated by fibrous septae. The clear myoepithelial cells were positive for S-100 protein, SMA, and p63 and negative for CK19 and surrounded CK19-positive luminal cells. It is important to utilise immunohistochemistry to differentiate this tumour from others with a similar histologic pattern. Information about the behaviour of the double-clear EMC is limited since there are few cases reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  7. Yeoh LC, Dharmaraj S, Gooi BH, Singh M, Gam LH
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2011 Apr 28;17(16):2096-103.
    PMID: 21547128 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i16.2096
    To evaluate the usefulness of differentially expressed proteins from colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues for differentiating cancer and normal tissues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  8. Yip CH, Bhoo-Pathy N, Uiterwaal CS, Taib NA, Tan GH, Mun KS, et al.
    Breast, 2011 Apr;20 Suppl 2:S60-4.
    PMID: 21349715 DOI: 10.1016/j.breast.2011.02.004
    Estrogen receptor (ER) positive rates in breast cancer may be influenced by grade, stage, age and race. This study reviews the ER positive rates over a 15-year period at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data on ER status of 3557 patients from 1994 to 2008 was analyzed. ER status was determined by immunohistochemistry with a cut-off point of 10%. ER positivity increased by about 2% for every 5-year cohort, from 54.5% in 1994-1998 to 58.4% in 2004-2008. Ethnicity and grade were significantly associated with ER positivity rates: Malay women were found to have a higher risk of ER negative tumors compared with Chinese women. Grade 1 cancers were nine times more likely to be ER positive compared with grade 3 cancers. In summary, the proportion of ER positive cancers increased with each time period, and ethnicity and grade were independent factors that influenced ER positive rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  9. Mahmoodian H, Hamiruce Marhaban M, Abdulrahim R, Rosli R, Saripan I
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2011 Apr;34(1):41-54.
    PMID: 21327594 DOI: 10.1007/s13246-011-0054-8
    The classification of the cancer tumors based on gene expression profiles has been extensively studied in numbers of studies. A wide variety of cancer datasets have been implemented by the various methods of gene selection and classification to identify the behavior of the genes in tumors and find the relationships between them and outcome of diseases. Interpretability of the model, which is developed by fuzzy rules and linguistic variables in this study, has been rarely considered. In addition, creating a fuzzy classifier with high performance in classification that uses a subset of significant genes which have been selected by different types of gene selection methods is another goal of this study. A new algorithm has been developed to identify the fuzzy rules and significant genes based on fuzzy association rule mining. At first, different subset of genes which have been selected by different methods, were used to generate primary fuzzy classifiers separately and then proposed algorithm was implemented to mix the genes which have been associated in the primary classifiers and generate a new classifier. The results show that fuzzy classifier can classify the tumors with high performance while presenting the relationships between the genes by linguistic variables.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  10. Jayaram G, Elsayed EM
    Acta Cytol., 2005 Nov-Dec;49(6):605-10.
    PMID: 16450899
    To type breast carcinomaon on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and correlate the results with histologic typing, to grade breast carcinoma on FNAC material and correlate the findings with Bloom-Richardson histologic grading, and to determine the estrogen receptor (ER) status in cases of breast carcinoma by immunocytochemical (ICC) staining of FNA cytologic material and correlate the findings with ER status, as determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tissue sections.

    STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-seven cases of breast carcinoma diagnosed on FNAC formed the basis of this study. Typing was done in all cases on the basis of cytologic features and grading in 62. (Fifteen cases were special types of breast carcinoma). In all cases, ER status was determined by immunostaining of cytologic smears. Results of tumor typing, grading and ER status on cytologic material were compared with the results of histologic typing, grading and immunostaining of histologic material obtained from mastectomy or wide excision specimens.

    RESULTS: Tumor typing was accurate in 73 of 77 cases (94.8%). Fifteen of 18 cases that were cytologically grade 3 were confirmed on histology, while 3 proved to be grade 2. Of 40 cytologic grade 2 cases, 26 were confirmed on histology, while 14 cases were grade 3. Three of 4 cytologically grade 1 cases were confirmed on histology while 1 was grade 2. The overall accuracy for cytologic grading was 71% (44 of 62 cases). Thirty-seven of 40 ER-positive cases (92.5%) were labeled ER positive on ICC. One case was ER negative on cytology, while in 2 cases the cellularity of the cytologic smear was insufficient to assess ER expression. Thirty-seven cases were negativefor ER on IHC. Nine of these showed ER positivity on ICC, 26 were negative, and 2 had cellularity that was inadequate for assessment of ER. Sensitivity and specificity rates for ER detection on ICC were 97.4% and 74.3%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Tumor typing, grading and evaluation of ER status on FNA C material in breast carcinomas are simple, quick and moderately reliable techniques that compare and correlate favorably with histologic typing, grading and ER status on IHC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  11. Sthaneshwar P, Yap SF, Jayaram G
    Malays J Pathol, 2002 Jun;24(1):53-8.
    PMID: 16329556
    Pleural effusion is a common diagnostic problem. The analysis of serum and pleural fluid for tumour markers is widely used as a diagnostic aid in clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to determine the usefulness of simultaneous quantification of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA-125) in distinction of malignant from benign effusion. Data from a total of 78 patients including 53 patients with benign and 25 patients with malignant effusion was evaluated. The cut-off values for differentiating benign from malignant effusions were determined using results obtained from patients with known benign effusions (mean + 2 SD, 95% confidence interval). The cut-off for CEA and CA-125 were 5.1 ng/ml and 1707 IU/ml respectively. CEA assay in pleural fluid had an acceptable sensitivity and good specificity of 64% and 98% respectively. CA-125 had a sensitivity of 36% and specificity of 94%. The combination of the two tumour markers gave a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 92.4%. We suggest a good clinical strategy may be to begin with CEA measurement (assay specificity 98%); if CEA is below the cut-off value (negative), CA-125 could then be measured to improve the sensitivity of detection of malignant effusions. However, measurement of these tumour markers is not cost effective from the point of view that it does not give information on the type of malignancy present. The latter has to be determined either by histological or cytological study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  12. Ismail FW, Shamsudin AM, Wan Z, Daud SM, Samarendra MS
    PMID: 20226047 DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-29-25
    Giant cell tumor is an infrequent and unpredictable bony lesion. Although numerous attempts have been made to predict the behaviour of GCT, there are no definite biological or histological parameters to determine the prognosis or aggressiveness of this lesion
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  13. Ng KH, Siar CH
    J Laryngol Otol, 1996 Aug;110(8):757-62.
    PMID: 8869610
    We reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 13 cases of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) (Pindborg tumour) diagnosed in the Division on Stomatology, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, over a 29-year period. There were eight female and five male patients. These consisted of eight (61.5 per cent) Malays, three (23.1 per cent) Chinese, one (7.7 per cent) Indian and one (7.7 per cent) Melanau. Their ages at presentation ranged from 19-61 years (mean age, 31.8 years). There were 12 central and one peripheral CEOT. Of these, 76.9 per cent of cases were located in the maxilla, the remaining in the mandible. The commonest clinical diagnosis was a dentigerous cyst (66.7 per cent). Enucleation was the main mode of treatment. Histologically, sheets and strands of polyhedral epithelial cells containing eosinophilic, homogeneous globules with Liesegang rings were observed. One case also showed extensive calcification and clear cell differentiation. Immunohistochemistry revealed a variable keratin staining of the CEOT epithelium, confirming its heterogeneity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  14. Yap SF, Peh SC
    Malays J Pathol, 1991 Dec;13(2):115-8.
    PMID: 1726642
    Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and its expression in liver tissue was studied in 50 cases of histologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum AFP levels were elevated (greater than 20iu/ml) in 35/50 (70%) of the cases, 28 of whom had levels greater than 500 iu/ml, which is highly suggestive of HCC. These results indicate that serum AFP, by itself, is a relatively insensitive diagnostic test for HCC. Although elevated levels in high risk patients provide a specific clue, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis of HCC. Expression of AFP by tumour cells paralleled that of serum in the majority of cases. However, tissue AFP was negative in 7 patients who had markedly elevated serum AFP. This observation may be a reflection of preferential excretion of the tumour antigen or differential expression of the antigen by the tumour cells. None of the patients with normal serum AFP demonstrated a reaction for tissue AFP. There was no correlation between AFP production and tumour differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  15. Pailoor J, Iyengar KR, Chan KS, Sumithra S
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Dec;30(2):115-9.
    PMID: 19291921
    Follicular dendritic cell sarcomas (FDCS) are rare neoplasms that involve lymph nodes or extranodal sites. They show varied histological features and thus can be mistaken for carcinoma or sarcoma. Correct identification is important for further management. A 43-year-old Indian female presented with a three-month history of progressive swelling at the right inguinal region. It was excised completely and was reported as lymph node with metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma based on Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain findings. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of thorax, abdomen and pelvis were normal and did not reveal a primary site. Following this, the case was referred to one of the authors. The slides were reviewed and a variety of immunocytochemical markers were done. The tumour cells were negative for epithelial, melanocytic, neural, leucocyte and soft tissue tumour markers. They were immunopositive for CD21, CD35 and negative for CD68. Based on the immunocytochemical findings, a final diagnosis of FDCS was made. This case highlights the histological and immunophenotypical profile of a rare tumour which requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  16. Seow P, Wong JHD, Ahmad-Annuar A, Mahajan A, Abdullah NA, Ramli N
    Br J Radiol, 2018 Dec;91(1092):20170930.
    PMID: 29902076 DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20170930
    OBJECTIVE: : The diversity of tumour characteristics among glioma patients, even within same tumour grade, is a big challenge for disease outcome prediction. A possible approach for improved radiological imaging could come from combining information obtained at the molecular level. This review assembles recent evidence highlighting the value of using radiogenomic biomarkers to infer the underlying biology of gliomas and its correlation with imaging features.

    METHODS: : A literature search was done for articles published between 2002 and 2017 on Medline electronic databases. Of 249 titles identified, 38 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with 14 articles related to quantifiable imaging parameters (heterogeneity, vascularity, diffusion, cell density, infiltrations, perfusion, and metabolite changes) and 24 articles relevant to molecular biomarkers linked to imaging.

    RESULTS: : Genes found to correlate with various imaging phenotypes were EGFR, MGMT, IDH1, VEGF, PDGF, TP53, and Ki-67. EGFR is the most studied gene related to imaging characteristics in the studies reviewed (41.7%), followed by MGMT (20.8%) and IDH1 (16.7%). A summary of the relationship amongst glioma morphology, gene expressions, imaging characteristics, prognosis and therapeutic response are presented.

    CONCLUSION:: The use of radiogenomics can provide insights to understanding tumour biology and the underlying molecular pathways. Certain MRI characteristics that show strong correlations with EGFR, MGMT and IDH1 could be used as imaging biomarkers. Knowing the pathways involved in tumour progression and their associated imaging patterns may assist in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment management, while facilitating personalised medicine.

    ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: : Radiogenomics can offer clinicians better insight into diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic responses of glioma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  17. Wong YP, Affandi KA, Tan GC, Muhammad R
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2017 9 25;60(3):430-432.
    PMID: 28937391 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_287_16
    Metastatic disease involving the thyroid gland is uncommon. Solitary thyroid metastases from various primary sites particularly kidney, lung, and breast had been previously described. To the best of our knowledge, metastases from two topographically separate primary malignancies to the thyroid have never been documented hitherto. This is the first reported case of cancer-to-cancer metastasis involving an invasive breast carcinoma metastasized within a metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nonneoplastic thyroid in a 58-year-old woman. Distinguishing a secondary thyroid metastases from a primary thyroid malignancy is utmost crucial as treatment differs. The possibility of tumor metastases from two separated primaries should always be considered in a tumor exhibiting malignant cell populations with two distinctive histomorphological appearances. The role of immunohistochemistry stains in equivocal cases cannot be overemphasized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  18. Marutha Muthu AK, Cheah PL, Koh CC, Chew MF, Toh YF, Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):251-255.
    PMID: 29279587 MyJurnal
    Over the years, adenocarcinoma (ADC), which has a worse prognosis than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix, has shown an increasing trend. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression which has been associated with worse prognosis in several solid cancers was studied for its association with SCC and ADC of the cervix. 35 histologically re-confirmed SCC and 35 ADC were immunohistochemically stained for COX2 using a mouse monoclonal antibody to COX2 (1:100; Dako: Clone CX-294) on a Ventana Benchmark XT. The histoscore was computed as intensity of staining, semi-quantitated on a scale of 0-3 with 0 = negative, 1 = weak, 2 = moderate and 3 = strong staining intensity; multiplied by percentage of immunopositivity on a scale of 0-4 with 0 = <1%, 1 = 1-25%, 2 = 26-50%, 3 = 51-75% and 4 = ≥75% of immunopositive tumour cells. Histoscore 1-3/12 was considered as low and ≥4/12 as high COX2 expression. SCC affected Chinese more than Malays, while Malays had more ADC (p = 0.032). Mean age at presentation of SCC (57.5 years) was about a decade later than ADC at 47.9 years (p = 0.002). 30/35 (85.7%) of SCC and 34/35 (97.1%) of ADC expressed COX2. Histoscores of ADC (median = 4.0, IQR = 3.0-6.0) was significantly higher (p = 0.014) than those of SCC (median = 3.0, IQR = 2.0-3.0). High histoscores (≥4/12) were more frequent in ADC (55.9%) compared with SCC (26.7%) (p = 0.018), implicating COX2, either directly or indirectly, as a possible player in influencing the poorer outcome of ADC compared with SCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  19. Kaur M, Verma S, Gupta R, Pant L, Singh S
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Apr;40(1):57-60.
    PMID: 29704385
    CD10, a transmembrane endopeptidase, has been shown to be lost as an early event in prostate cancer. We aimed at evaluating the pattern of expression of CD10 in various Gleason's grades of prostatic adenocarcinoma in comparison with nodular hyperplasia of prostate. This retrospective study included 30 cases of nodular hyperplasia and 30 of prostatic adenocarcinoma of various Gleason's grades. Immunohistochemical staining for CD10 was performed on all cases and positivity evaluated as percentage of cells as well as location (membranous or cytoplasmic or both). Of prostatic adenocarcinomas, grade 3 was seen in 10 foci, grade 4 in 28 and grade 5 in 22 foci. CD10 positivity in carcinoma was lower than in nodular hyperplasia, with the lowest positivity in grade 5. The pattern of expression of CD10 also changed from membranous in grade 3 to cytoplasmic in grade 5. Loss of CD10 expression appears to be associated with increasing tumour grade in carcinoma prostate and this can potentially be useful in stratification of such patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  20. Lee PY, Chin SF, Low TY, Jamal R
    J Proteomics, 2018 09 15;187:93-105.
    PMID: 29953962 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2018.06.014
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Biomarkers that can facilitate better clinical management of CRC are in high demand to improve patient outcome and to reduce mortality. In this regard, proteomic analysis holds a promising prospect in the hunt of novel biomarkers for CRC and in understanding the mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. This review aims to provide an overview of the current progress of proteomic research, focusing on discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. We will summarize the contributions of proteomic strategies to recent discoveries of protein biomarkers for CRC and also briefly discuss the potential and challenges of different proteomic approaches in biomarker discovery and translational applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
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