An open biopsy has minimal sampling error, but is a major procedure, with its inherent complications and morbidity. The complications of paraspinal needle biopsy of vertebral lesions are well known. Needle biopsies have a high incidence of false negatives, especially for tumors. Percutaneous transpedicular bopsy is efficacious, safe, and cost effective, and mostly performed under local anesthesia. Fluoroscopic monitoring enables real time positioning of the needle. Serious needle complications from percutaneous needle biopsy are uncommon. More than 50% of vertebral body tissue, including the disc is accessible via a unilateral transpedicular approach and amenable for biopsy.
A total of 676 palpable breast lumps seen in the Breast Clinic, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from August 1993 to August 1994 were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Fifty-four were reported as inadequate, 501 benign, 95 malignant and 26 suspicious. One hundred and eighty-seven aspirates had histological correlation, while 34 of the malignant aspirates had clinical correlation. The majority of the other 455 patients were followed up for a period of 60 to 72 months without any malignancies becoming apparent. For analysis, only the 221 cases with histological or clinical correlation were included, (the suspicious category was included into the positive group and the inadequate cases were excluded), giving a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 91.7% and a diagnostic accuracy of 91.7%. Breast cytology was an accurate and rapid method of diagnosis of breast diseases, and in a busy surgical unit with limited operating time, it allowed for the triage of patients with breast complaints in deciding which cases needed early open biopsy. A negative cytology does not exclude the possibility of cancer, as there was a false negative rate of 11%. However by utilising a diagnostic triad of clinical examination, radiological assessment and fine needle aspiration cytology, the risk of missing a malignancy is small.
Our experience with 1,094 consecutive fine needle aspirations (FNAs) of the breast in 918 cases is presented. Correlation between the FNA cytology and subsequent histology of the lesions was available in 211 cases. FNA had a sensitivity rate of 87.3%, a specificity rate of 99.3% and a positive predictive value of 98.2%. A false negative diagnosis rate of 5.1% occurred. The overall diagnostic accuracy rate was 95.7%.
To determine if a volume-adjusted increase in the number of biopsy cores could detect more prostate cancers than the standard sextant biopsy alone, without increasing morbidity, and to determine its applicability in Malaysian patients, as a standard sextant biopsy misses 20-25% of prostate malignancies.
We report here a rare presentation of an extra-nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Both clinical presentation radiological findings were suggestive of psoas abscess. Surgical debridement was performed and histopathological examination of the tissue sample revealed the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is therefore important to note that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can mimic psoas abscess and that psoas lesion with vertebral involvement does not necessarily indicate infection. It is always advisable to obtain needle biopsy to establish diagnosis before embarking on surgical intervention. The practice to send any suspicious tissue obtained intra-operatively for histopathological examination is also warranted.
Forty-eight patients with breast carcinoma were subjected to four quadrant fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology examination of the ipsilateral and contralateral breast in an attempt to detect any accompanying benign proliferative lesion. Mastectomy of ipsilateral and open biopsy of contralateral breast provided material for histopathological study. Cytological evidence of epithelial proliferation was found in 8 (16.6%) cases which included atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), lobular neoplasia in-situ (LNIS), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA). In lobular proliferative lesions, cytological smears showed configurations of cells that resembled filled up or expanded lobular units. The cytology was not distinctive enough to distinguish the sub-types of lobular proliferations. Likewise, the presence of ductal alterations could be suggested by cytological study but the distinction of proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) from atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) was not possible on a cytological basis.
Seventy-eight symptomatic females without palpable breast lumps were subjected to bilateral four quadrant fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytological evidence of an epithelial proliferative lesion was seen in 44 of these cases. Based on the cytological evidence of proliferation, the site for open biopsy was determined. Histopathological study of the breast biopsies in these patients showed proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) in 40 cases, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) in two, atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) in one and ADH with ALH in one case. Cytology was thus useful in establishing the presence of proliferative activity, commenting on the extent of proliferation, and thereby roughly mapping out the area of the breast most suitable for biopsy. On cytological grounds, it was not possible to distinguish the atypical hyperplastic lesions from the proliferative diseases without atypia.
Percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy is typically performed in highly vascular organs or in tumours with rich macroscopic and microscopic blood supply. The main risks related to this procedure are haemorrhage and implantation of tumour cells in the needle tract after the biopsy needle is withdrawn. From numerous conducted studies, it was found that heating the needle tract using alternating current in radiofrequency (RF) range has a potential to minimize these effects. However, this solution requires the use of specially designed needles, which would make the procedure relatively expensive and complicated. Thus, we propose a simple solution by using readily available coaxial core biopsy needles connected to a radiofrequency ablation (RFA) generator. In order to do so, we have designed and developed an adapter to interface between these two devices. For evaluation purpose, we used a bovine liver as a sample tissue. The experimental procedure was done to study the effect of different parameter settings on the size of coagulation necrosis caused by the RF current heating on the subject. The delivery of the RF energy was varied by changing the values for delivered power, power delivery duration, and insertion depth. The results showed that the size of the coagulation necrosis is affected by all of the parameters tested. In general, the size of the region is enlarged with higher delivery of RF power, longer duration of power delivery, and shallower needle insertion and become relatively constant after a certain value. We also found that the solution proposed provides a low cost and practical way to minimizes unwanted post-biopsy effects.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of the Vabra aspirator and the Pipelle device as an outpatient endometrial assessment tool.
METHOD: This was a randomised, prospective trial conducted for a period of one year.
RESULTS: A total of 147 patients were recruited, of which 71 were in the Vabra group and 76 were in the Pipelle arm. The procedure success rate in the Pipelle group was significantly higher than the Vabra arm (98.7 vs 88.7%, P=0.02). Adequate tissue yield was also significantly more in the Pipelle arm (73.3 vs 52.4%, P=0.02). Cost-benefit analysis revealed a higher average cost per patient in the Vabra group compared to the Pipelle arm.
CONCLUSION: This study proved that the Vabra aspirator was not as effective as the Pipelle device in obtaining endometrial tissue for histological diagnosis. Despite its higher price per unit, the Pipelle device was a more cost-effective tool for outpatient endometrial assessment.
Study site: Medical clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
With an increasing number of women undergoing breast screening, an effective method of removing non-palpable lumps detected by mammography or sonography is by hookwire localisation excision biopsy (HWLB). The aim of this paper was to audit the practice of HWLB at the University Malaya Medical Centre.
We report a hepatocellular carcinoma seeding following needle biopsy in a 57-year-old man who first presented with a focal hepatic lesion at another hospital. The patient had been a hepatitis B carrier for 20 years. Initial surveillance ultrasonography showed a lesion in segment IV, in the background of non-cirrhotic liver and normal serum alpha-foetoprotein level (8 ng/ml). A percutaneous needle biopsy was done and histopathology confirmed well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient had refused surgery and preferred to try traditional medicine. He presented to us four months after the initial biopsy with epigastric swelling. This was found to be due to a tumour seeding along the previous biopsy tract. He was given radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tumour along the needle tract, in addition to the primary tumour. We conclude that the need for percutaneous needle biopsy should be critically evaluated in patients presenting with focal hepatic lesions and the role of RFA in treating tumour seeding needs further evaluation.
Percutaneous biopsy in breast cancer has been associated with an increased risk of malignant cell seeding. However, the importance of these observations remains obscure due to lack of corroborating evidence from clinical studies. We determined whether method of biopsy is associated with breast cancer survival. This hospital registry-based cohort study included 3416 non-metastatic breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2011 in a tertiary setting. Factors associated with biopsy methods were assessed. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to determine the independent prognostic impact of method of biopsy. Overall, 990 patients were diagnosed by core needle biopsy (CNB), 1364 by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and 1062 by excision biopsy. Excision biopsy was significantly associated with more favorable tumor characteristics. Radiotherapy modified the prognostic impact of biopsy method (Pinteraction
A middle aged lady presented with clinical manifestations of primary amyloidosis which included amyloid cardiomyopathy. There was failure to confirm the diagnosis of amyloidosis with biopsies from rectal and tongue tissues. Fat tissue obtained from abdominal subcutaneous fat aspiration eventually demonstrated the presence of amyloid.
BACKGROUND: Teratoma of the thyroid in adults is extremely rare, and most are malignant. Only nine cases have been adequately documented in the English-language literature, and there are no reports detailing the fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic characteristics.
CASE: A 32-year-old female presented with a left-sided nodular thyroid mass with left cervical lymphadenopathy. FNA cytology of the thyroid and lymph nodes was done. The cytologic and immunocytochemical features were that of a small round cell tumor with neuroepithelial (NE) differentiation, metastasizing to the cervical nodes. Microscopic study of the thyroidectomy specimen showed a tumor showing an NE pattern with occasional islands of squamous and cuboidal epithelium, leading to a diagnosis of malignant teratoma.
CONCLUSION: Knowledge of FNA cytologic features of rare but highly malignant lesions like thyroid teratomas allow early recognition so that suitable and possibly aggressive treatment protocols can be adopted in the hope of prolonging survival.
Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of thyroid is an uncommon tumour and reports on its' cytology are consequently scanty. A 46-year-old male presented with a thyroid nodule of nine months duration. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Monolayers and syncytial clusters of round and spindle tumour cells with large vesicular nuclei and single macronucleoli were present. A diagnosis of carcinoma was given with the comment that this was unlike any of the usual types of thyroid cancer and that a metastatic malignancy should be ruled out. The cytological picture of MEC may not always be distinctive enough for accurate tumour typing. Nevertheless the cytological features are usually sufficiently different to rule out all of the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. This distinction may be important from the point of view of differing prognosis in MEC of thyroid (as compared to differentiated thyroid cancers) and the need to exclude a metastatic carcinoma, especially from a primary in one of the salivary glands.
Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound guidance in percutaneous needle biopsy for musculoskeletal tumours.
Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients underwent ultrasound-guided needle biopsy. An additional group of 50 patients who underwent needle biopsy without ultrasound guidance was retrospectively selected as historical control. The sample was considered adequate when a diagnosis can be made, and diagnostic when the diagnosis is similar to the final report based on the excised tumour.
Results: Adequacy of the biopsy samples was 84% in ultrasound-guided group as compared 76% in the group with no ultrasound guidance. Diagnostic accuracy was 64% in the ultrasound-guided group and 52% in the group without ultrasound guidance. Both of these differences were not statistically significant.
Conclusions: Ultrasound guidance did not provide a significant advantage in the biopsy of musculoskeletal tumours. Diagnostic accuracy seems to improve with the use of larger 14 gauge biopsy needle but further evaluation is necessary.