For the past 20 years, many authors have focused their investigations on wireless sensor networks. Various issues related to wireless sensor networks such as energy minimization (optimization), compression schemes, self-organizing network algorithms, routing protocols, quality of service management, security, energy harvesting, etc., have been extensively explored. The three most important issues among these are energy efficiency, quality of service and security management. To get the best possible results in one or more of these issues in wireless sensor networks optimization is necessary. Furthermore, in number of applications (e.g., body area sensor networks, vehicular ad hoc networks) these issues might conflict and require a trade-off amongst them. Due to the high energy consumption and data processing requirements, the use of classical algorithms has historically been disregarded. In this context contemporary researchers started using bio-mimetic strategy-based optimization techniques in the field of wireless sensor networks. These techniques are diverse and involve many different optimization algorithms. As far as we know, most existing works tend to focus only on optimization of one specific issue of the three mentioned above. It is high time that these individual efforts are put into perspective and a more holistic view is taken. In this paper we take a step in that direction by presenting a survey of the literature in the area of wireless sensor network optimization concentrating especially on the three most widely used bio-mimetic algorithms, namely, particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization and genetic algorithm. In addition, to stimulate new research and development interests in this field, open research issues, challenges and future research directions are highlighted.
G-Quadruplex (G-4) structures are formed when G-rich DNA sequences fold into intra- or intermolecular four-stranded structures in the presence of metal ions. G-4-hemin complexes are often effective peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes that are applied in many detection systems. This work reports the application of a G-rich daunomycin-specific aptamer for the development of an antibody-antigen detection assay. We investigated the ability of the daunomycin aptamer to efficiently catalyze the hemin-dependent peroxidase activity independent of daunomycin. A reporter probe consisting of biotinylated antigen and daunomycin aptamer coupled to streptavidin gold nanoparticles was successfully used to generate a colorimetric readout. In conclusion, the daunomycin aptamer can function as a robust alternative DNAzyme for the development of colorimetric assays.
Two chitosan samples (medium molecular weight (MMCHI) and low molecular weight (LMCHI)) were investigated as an enzyme immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. Chitosan membranes prepared from acetic acid were flexible, transparent, smooth and quick-drying. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interactions between chitosan and glucose oxidase (GOD). Higher catalytic activities were observed on for GOD-MMCHI than GOD-LMCHI and for those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde than using the adsorption technique. Enzyme loading greater than 0.6 mg decreased the activity. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.0, 35°C and applied potential of 0.6 V) response times of 85 s and 65 s were observed for medium molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-MMCHI/PT) and low molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-LMCHI/PT), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) was found to be 12.737 mM for GOD-MMCHI/PT and 17.692 mM for GOD-LMCHI/PT. This indicated that GOD-MMCHI/PT had greater affinity for the enzyme. Moreover, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed higher sensitivity (52.3666 nA/mM glucose) when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT (9.8579 nA/mM glucose) at S/N>3. Better repeatability and reproducibility were achieved with GOD-MMCHI/PT than GOD-LMCHI/PT regarding glucose measurement. GOD-MMCHI/PT was found to give the highest enzymatic activity among the electrodes under investigation. The extent of interference encountered by GOD-MMCHI/PT and GOD-LMCHI/PT was not significantly different. Although the Nafion coated biosensor significantly reduced the signal due to the interferents under study, it also significantly reduced the response to glucose. The performance of the biosensors in the determination of glucose in rat serum was evaluated. Comparatively better accuracy and recovery results were obtained for GOD-MMCHI/PT. Hence, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed a better performance when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT. In conclusion, chitosan membranes shave the potential to be a suitable matrix for the development of glucose biosensors.
Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed.
The concept of optical antennas in physical optics is still evolving. Like the antennas used in the radio frequency (RF) regime, the aspiration of optical antennas is to localize the free propagating radiation energy, and vice versa. For this purpose, optical antennas utilize the distinctive properties of metal nanostructures, which are strong plasmonic coupling elements at the optical regime. The concept of optical antennas is being advanced technologically and they are projected to be substitute devices for detection in the millimeter, infrared, and visible regimes. At present, their potential benefits in light detection, which include polarization dependency, tunability, and quick response times have been successfully demonstrated. Optical antennas also can be seen as directionally responsive elements for point detectors. This review provides an overview of the historical background of the topic, along with the basic concepts and parameters of optical antennas. One of the major parts of this review covers the use of optical antennas in biosensing, presenting biosensing applications with a broad description using different types of data. We have also mentioned the basic challenges in the path of the universal use of optical biosensors, where we have also discussed some legal matters.
Increasing interest in analyzing human gait using various wearable sensors, which is known as Human Activity Recognition (HAR), can be found in recent research. Sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes are widely used in HAR. Recently, high interest has been shown in the use of wearable sensors in numerous applications such as rehabilitation, computer games, animation, filmmaking, and biomechanics. In this paper, classification of human daily activities using Ensemble Methods based on data acquired from smartphone inertial sensors involving about 30 subjects with six different activities is discussed. The six daily activities are walking, walking upstairs, walking downstairs, sitting, standing and lying. It involved three stages of activity recognition; namely, data signal processing (filtering and segmentation), feature extraction and classification. Five types of ensemble classifiers utilized are Bagging, Adaboost, Rotation forest, Ensembles of nested dichotomies (END) and Random subspace. These ensemble classifiers employed Support vector machine (SVM) and Random forest (RF) as the base learners of the ensemble classifiers. The data classification is evaluated with the holdout and 10-fold cross-validation evaluation methods. The performance of each human daily activity was measured in terms of precision, recall, F-measure, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In addition, the performance is also measured based on the comparison of overall accuracy rate of classification between different ensemble classifiers and base learners. It was observed that overall, SVM produced better accuracy rate with 99.22% compared to RF with 97.91% based on a random subspace ensemble classifier.
Alternative sensory systems for the development of prosthetic knees are being increasingly highlighted nowadays, due to the rapid advancements in the field of lower limb prosthetics. This study presents the use of piezoelectric bimorphs as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. An Instron machine was used in the calibration procedure and the corresponding output data were further analyzed to determine the static and dynamic characteristics of the piezoelectric bimorph. The piezoelectric bimorph showed appropriate static operating range, repeatability, hysteresis, and frequency response for application in lower prosthesis, with a force range of 0-100 N. To further validate this finding, an experiment was conducted with a single transfemoral amputee subject to measure the stump/socket pressure using the piezoelectric bimorph embedded inside the socket. The results showed that a maximum interface pressure of about 27 kPa occurred at the anterior proximal site compared to the anterior distal and posterior sites, consistent with values published in other studies. This paper highlighted the capacity of piezoelectric bimorphs to perform as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. However, further experiments are recommended to be conducted with different amputees with different socket types.
Designing a biosensor for versatile biomedical applications is a sophisticated task and how dedicatedly functionalized fullerene (C60) can perform on this stage is a challenge for today and tomorrow's nanoscience and nanotechnology. Since the invention of biosensor, many ideas and methods have been invested to upgrade the functionality of biosensors. Due to special physicochemical characteristics, the novel carbon material "fullerene" adds a new dimension to the construction of highly sensitive biosensors. The prominent aspects of fullerene explain its outstanding performance in biosensing devices as a mediator, e.g. fullerene in organic solvents exhibits five stages of reversible oxidation/reduction, and hence fullerene can work either as an electrophile or nucleophile. Fullerene is stable and its spherical structure produces an angle strain which allows it to undergo characteristic reactions of addition to double bonds (hybridization which turns from sp(2) to sp(3)). Research activities are being conducted worldwide to invent a variety of methods of fullerene functionalization with a purpose of incorporating it effectively in biosensor devices. The different types of functionalization methods include modification of fullerene into water soluble derivatives and conjugation with enzymes and/or other biomolecules, e.g. urease, glucose oxidase, hemoglobin, myoglobin (Mb), conjugation with metals e.g. gold (Au), chitosan (CS), ferrocene (Fc), etc. to enhance the sensitivity of biosensors. The state-of-the-art research on fullerene functionalization and its application in sensor devices has proven that fullerene can be implemented successfully in preparing biosensors to detect glucose level in blood serum, urea level in urine solution, hemoglobin, immunoglobulin, glutathione in real sample for pathological purpose, to identify doping abuse, to analyze pharmaceutical preparation and even to detect cancer and tumor cells at an earlier stage. Employing fullerene-metal matrix for the detection of tumor and cancer cells is also possible by the inclusion of fullerene in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) known as peapods as well as in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs), to augment the effectiveness of biosensors. This review discusses various approaches that have been reported for functionalizing fullerene (C60) derivatives and their application in different types of biosensor fabrication.
The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE) and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1-9 mM and 0.5-100 µM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3) was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 µM for AA and DA, respectively.
Reporting biomolecular interactions has become part and parcel of many applications of science towards an in-depth understanding of disease and gene regulation. Apart from that, in diagnostic applications where biomolecules (antibodies and aptamers) are vastly applied, meticulous monitoring of biomolecular interaction is vital for clear-cut diagnosis. Several currently available methods of analyzing the interaction of the ligands with the appropriate analytes are aided by labeling using fluorescence or luminescence techniques. However, labeling is cumbersome and can occupy important binding sites of interactive molecules to be labeled, which may interfere with the conformational changes of the molecules and increase non-specificity. Optical-based sensing can provide an alternative way as a label-free procedure for monitoring biomolecular interactions. Optical sensors affiliated with different operating principles, including surface plasmon changes, scattering and interferometry, can impart a huge impact for in-house and point-of-care applications. This optical-based biosensing permits real-time monitoring, obviating the use of hazardous labeling molecules such as radioactive tags. Herein, label-free ways of reporting biomolecular interactions by various optical biosensors were gleaned.
A new alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide) [poly(nBA-NAS)] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE). Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor's analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3-316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R(2) = 0.9776, n = 3). The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3). The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor's performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods.
A single-step fabrication of a glucose biosensor with simultaneous immobilization of both ferrocene mediator and glucose oxidase in a photocurable methacrylic film consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate) was reported. The entrapped ferrocene showed reversible redox behaviour in the photocured film and no significant leaching of both entrapped ferrocene and enzyme glucose oxidase was observed because of the low water absorption properties of the co-polymer films. From electrochemical studies, ferrocene entrapped in the co-polymer film demonstrated slow diffusion properties. A linear glucose response range of 2-11 mM was obtained at low applied potential of +0.25 V. The glucose biosensor fabricated by this photocuring method yielded sensor reproducibility and repeatability with relative standard deviation of <10% and long-term stability of up to 14 days. The main advantage of the use of photocurable procedure is that biosensor membrane fabrication can be performed in a single step without any lengthy chemical immobilization of enzyme.
A fluorescence-based fiber optic toxicity biosensor based on genetically modified Escherichia coli (E. coli) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was developed for the evaluation of the toxicity of several hazardous heavy metal ions. The toxic metals include Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(III). The optimum fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of the optical biosensor were 400 ± 2 nm and 485 ± 2 nm, respectively. Based on the toxicity observed under optimal conditions, the detection limits of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(III) that can be detected using the toxicity biosensor were at 0.04, 0.32, 0.46, 2.80, 100, 250, 400, 720 and 2600 μg/L, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed biosensor were 3.5%-4.8% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 3.6%-5.1% RSD (n = 8), respectively. The biosensor response was stable for at least five weeks, and demonstrated higher sensitivity towards metal toxicity evaluation when compared to a conventional Microtox assay.
Chan Ding training is beneficial to health and emotional wellbeing. More and more people have taken up this practice over the past few years. A major training method of Chan Ding is to focus on the ten Mailuns, i.e., energy points, and to maintain physical stillness. In this article, wireless wearable accelerometers were used to detect physical stillness, and the created physical stillness index (PSI) was also shown. Ninety college students participated in this study. Primarily, accelerometers used on the arms and chest were examined. The results showed that the PSI values on the arms were higher than that of the chest, when participants moved their bodies in three different ways, left-right, anterior-posterior, and hand, movements with natural breathing. Then, they were divided into three groups to practice Chan Ding for approximately thirty minutes. Participants without any Chan Ding experience were in Group I. Participants with one year of Chan Ding experience were in Group II, and participants with over three year of experience were in Group III. The Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) was also conducted. Results showed that the PSI of the three groups measured during 20-30 min were 0.123 ± 0.155, 0.012 ± 0.013, and 0.001 ± 0.0003, respectively (p < 0.001 ***). The averaged CHI scores of the three groups were 10.13, 17.17, and 25.53, respectively (p < 0.001 ***). Correlation coefficients between PSI and CHI of the three groups were -0.440, -0.369, and -0.537, respectively (p < 0.01 **). PSI value and the wearable accelerometer that are presently available on the market could be used to evaluate the quality of the physical stillness of the participants during Chan Ding practice.
The innovation of nanoparticles assumes a critical part of encouraging and giving open doors and conceivable outcomes to the headway of new era devices utilized as a part of biosensing. The focused on the quick and legitimate detecting of specific biomolecules using functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has turned into a noteworthy research enthusiasm for the most recent decade. Sensors created with gold nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes or in some cases by utilizing both are relied upon to change the very establishments of detecting and distinguishing various analytes. In this review, we will examine the current utilization of functionalized AuNPs and CNTs with other synthetic mixes for the creation of biosensor prompting to the location of particular analytes with low discovery cutoff and quick reaction.
A label -free DNAzyme amplified biosensor is found to be highly selective and sensitive towards fluorescent detection of Pb2+ ions in aqueous media. The DNAzyme complex has designed by the hybridization of the enzyme and substrate strand. In the presence of Pb2+, the DNAzyme activated and cleaved the substrate strand of RNA site (rA) into two oligonucleotide fragments. Further, the free fragment was hybridized with a complementary strand on the surface of MBs. After magnetic separation, SYBER Green I was added and readily intercalate with the dsDNA to gives a bright fluorescence signal with intensity directly proportional to the concentration of Pb2+ions. A detection limit of 5 nM in Pb2+ the detection range 0 to 500 nM was obtained. This label- free fluorescent biosensor has been successfully applied to the determination of environmental water samples. Then results open up the possibility for real-time quantitative detection of Pb2+ with convenient potential applications in the biological and environmental field. Graphical Abstract.
Nanotechnology is the developing field, bringing the materials in the nanoscale level, has been applied in the interdisciplinary sciences. Different nanomaterials, such as gold, silver, zinc, copper and graphene are shown to have a wide range of applications. Among these, graphene is one of the faster upcoming two-dimensional nanomaterials utilized in various fields due to its positive features including the properties of thermal, electrical, strength and elasticity. Biomedical applications of graphene have been widely attested to be popular among academician and industrial partners for creating next generation medical systems and therapies. In this review, we selectively revealed the current applications of graphene in the interdisciplinary medical sciences.
Manipulation and injection of single nanosensors with high cell viability is an emerging field in cell analysis. We propose a new method using fluorescence nanosensors with a glass nanoprobe and optical control of the zeta potential. The nanosensor is fabricated by encapsulating a fluorescence polystyrene nanobead into a lipid layer with 1,3,3-trimethylindolino-6'-nitrobenzopyrylospiran (SP), which is a photochromic material. The nanobead contains iron oxide nanoparticles and a temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B. The zeta potential of the nanosensor switches between negative and positive by photo-isomerization of SP with ultraviolet irradiation. The positively-charged nanosensor easily adheres to a negatively-charged glass nanoprobe, is transported to a target cell, and then adheres to the negatively-charged cell membrane. The nanosensor is then injected into the cytoplasm by heating with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. As a demonstration, a single 750 nm nanosensor was picked-up using a glass nanoprobe with optical control of the zeta potential. Then, the nanosensor was transported and immobilized onto a target cell membrane. Finally, it was injected into the cytoplasm using a NIR laser. The success rates of pick-up and cell immobilization of the nanosensor were 75% and 64%, respectively. Cell injection and cell survival rates were 80% and 100%, respectively.
The platinum(II) salphen complex N,N'-Bis-4-(hydroxysalicylidene)-phenylenediamine-platinum(II); (1) and its two derivatives containing hydroxyl functionalized side chains N,N'-bis-[4-[[1-(2-hydroxyethoxy)] salicylidene] phenylenediamine-platinum(II); (2) and N,N'-bis-[4-[[1-(3-hydroxypropoxy)] salicylidene] phenylenediamine-platinum(II); (3) were synthesized and characterized. The structures of the complexes were confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, ESI-MS and CHN elemental analyses. The effects of the hydroxyl substituent on the spectral properties and the DNA binding behaviors of the Pt(II) complexes were explored. The binding mode and interactions of these complexes with duplex DNA (calf thymus DNA and porcine DNA) and also single-stranded DNA were studied by UV-Vis and emission DNA titration. The complexes interact with DNA by intercalation binding mode with the binding constants in the order of magnitude (Kb = 104 M-1, CT-DNA) and (Kb = 105 M-1, porcine DNA). The intercalation of the complex in the DNA structure was proposed to happen by π-π stacking due to its square-planar geometry and aromatic rings structure. The phosphorescence emission spectral characteristics of Pt(II) complexes when interacted with DNA have been studied. Also, the application of the chosen hydroxypropoxy side chains complex (3) as an optical DNA biosensor, specifically for porcine DNA was investigated. These findings will be valuable for the potential use of the platinum(II) salphen complex as an optical DNA biosensor for the detection of porcine DNA in food products.
Reduction of graphene oxide becomes an alternative way to produce a scalable graphene and the resulting nanomaterial namely reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been utilized in a wide range of potential applications. In this article, the level of green reduction strategies, especially the solution-based reduction methods are overviewed based on recent progression, to get insights towards biomedical applications. The degrees of gaining tips with the solution-based green reduction methods, conditions, complexity and the resulting rGO characteristics have been elucidated comparatively. Moreover, the application of greenly produced rGO in electrochemical biosensors has been elucidated as well as their electrical performance in term of linear range and limit of detections for various healthcare biological analytes. In addition, the characterization scheme for graphene-based materials and the analyses on the reduction especially for the solution-based green reduction methods are outlined for the future endeavours.