Benzeneboronate of catecholic carboxyl methyl esters, N-acetyldopamine, coumarin and catechol estrogens were prepared as crystalline derivatives in high yield. Related catechol compounds with extra polar functional group(s) (OH, NH2) do not form or only partially form unstable cyclic boronate derivatives.
Cross-linked resin-captured palladium (XL-QPPd) was readily prepared by simple physical adsorption onto the high loading QuadraPure macroporous resin and a subsequent reduction process. To enhance the mechanical stability, entrapped palladium nanocatalysts were cross-linked with succinyl chloride. Both transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the palladium nanoparticles were well dispersed with diameters ranging in 4-10 nm. The catalyst performed good catalytic activity in microwave-promoted Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in water under aerobic condition with mild condition by using various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid. In addition, the catalyst showed an excellent recyclability without significant loss of catalytic activity.
An investigation was conducted on the usage of a single-step extraction procedure involving the retention of a phenylboronate-salbutamol complex on an end-capped C18 solid-phase sorbent to determine the level of salbutamol in human plasma samples. Propranolol, a beta-blocker, was chosen as the internal standard for this assay. In this solid-phase clean-up method, 50 mM sodium carbonate buffer, pH 9.60, was used for conditioning the column as well as washing the endogenous interference. Under the optimal conditions, the recovery of salbutamol from spiked plasma samples was found to be high and reproducible with mean recoveries (n = 3) of more than 90% after elution by using 50% 1 M trifluoroacetic acid in methanol. This sample clean-up step was effectively analyzed under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. The method was successfully applied to the routine measurement of salbutamol in human plasma from the bioequivalence study on the different administration route of salbutamol. Quantification of salbutamol was convincingly reported with the correlation of coefficient of 0.9980 for the concentration range from 0 to 1000 ng ml(-1). An adequate precision was achieved with both between- and within-day precisions of less than 10% (n = 6) for 100 and 1000 ng ml(-1) and less than 15% (n = 6) for 10 ng ml(-1).
The principal challenge for the use of boronic acids (BA) as glucose sensors is their lack of specificity for glucose. We examined the selectivity of and insulin release from two boronic acids- (2-formyl-3-thienylboronic acid (FTBA) and 4-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA)) conjugated chitosan scaffolds to glucose and fructose. Adsorption of glucose to BA: chitosan conjugates was dose-dependent up to 1:1 at 35 and 42% for FPBA and FTBA respectively but the FTBA conjugates adsorbed more glucose and fructose at respective FPBA ratios. The affinity of both BA conjugates to glucose decreased with increase in BA ratio. On the other hand, the affinity of both BA conjugates for fructose decreased from ratio 1:1 to 2:1 then rose again at 3:1. Insulin release from FPBA nanoparticles (FPBAINP) and FTBA nanoparticles (FTBAINP) were both concentration-dependent within glyceamically relevant values (1-3 mg/ml glucose and 0.002 mg/ml fructose). Furthermore, the total amounts of insulin released from FPBAINP in both the media were higher than from FTBAINP. Both FPBAINP and FTBAINP have the potential for development as a glucose-selective insulin delivery system in physiological settings.
Recent advances and applications of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, namely, glucose-responsive hydrogels, protein-responsive hydrogels, and nucleic-acid-responsive hydrogels are highlighted. However, achieving the ultimate purpose of using biomolecule-responsive hydrogels in preclinical and clinical areas is still at the very early stage and calls for more novel designing concepts and advance ideas. On the way toward the real/clinical application of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, plenty of factors should be extensively studied and examined under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. For example, biocompatibility, biointegration, and toxicity of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels should be carefully evaluated. From the living body's point of view, biocompatibility is seriously depended on the interactions at the tissue/polymer interface. These interactions are influenced by physical nature, chemical structure, surface properties, and degradation of the materials. In addition, the developments of advanced hydrogels with tunable biological and mechanical properties which cause no/low side effects are of great importance.