Two different concentrations of CdCl(2) and (NH(2))(2)CS were used to prepare CdS thin films, to be deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. CdCl(2) (0.000312 M and 0.000625 M) was employed as a source of Cd(2+) while (NH(2))(2)CS (0.00125 M and 0.000625 M) for S(2-) at a constant bath temperature of 70 °C. Adhesion of the deposited films was found to be very good for all the solution concentrations of both reagents. The films were air-annealed at a temperature between 200 °C to 360 °C for one hour. The minimum thickness was observed to be 33.6 nm for film annealed at 320 °C. XRD analyses reveal that the films were cubic along with peaks of hexagonal phase for all film samples. The crystallite size of the films decreased from 41.4 nm to 7.4 nm with the increase of annealing temperature for the CdCl(2) (0.000312 M). Optical energy band gap (E(g)), Urbach energy (E(u)) and absorption coefficient (α) have been calculated from the transmission spectral data. These parameters have been discussed as a function of annealing temperature and solution concentration. The best transmission (about 97%) was obtained for the air-annealed films at higher temperature at CdCl(2) (0.000312 M).
CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.
Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS) were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells.
Although nanoparticle-enhanced biosensors have been extensively researched, few studies have systematically characterized the roles of nanoparticles in enhancing biosensor functionality. This paper describes a successful new method in which DNA binds directly to iron oxide nanoparticles for use in an optical biosensor. A wide variety of nanoparticles with different properties have found broad application in biosensors because their small physical size presents unique chemical, physical, and electronic properties that are different from those of bulk materials. Of all nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles are proving to be a versatile tool, an excellent case in point being in DNA bioassays, where magnetic nanoparticles are often used for optimization of the hybridization and separation of target DNA. A critical step in the successful construction of a DNA biosensor is the efficient attachment of biomolecules to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. To date, most methods of synthesizing these nanoparticles have led to the formation of hydrophobic particles that require additional surface modifications. As a result, the surface to volume ratio decreases and nonspecific bindings may occur so that the sensitivity and efficiency of the device deteriorates. A new method of large-scale synthesis of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles which results in the magnetite particles being in aqueous phase, was employed in this study. Small modifications were applied to design an optical DNA nanosensor based on sandwich hybridization. Characterization of the synthesized particles was carried out using a variety of techniques and CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots were used as the reporter markers in a spectrofluorophotometer. We showed conclusively that DNA binds to the surface of ironoxide nanoparticles without further surface modifications and that these magnetic nanoparticles can be efficiently utilized as biomolecule carriers in biosensing devices.
ZnS and CdS nanoparticles were prepared by a simple microwave irradiation method under mild conditions. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM and EDX. The results indicated that high purity of nanosized ZnS and CdS was successfully obtained with cubic and hexagonal crystalline structures, respectively. The band gap energies of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles were estimated using UV-visible absorption spectra to be about 4.22 and 2.64 eV, respectively. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was carried out using physical mixtures of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles under a 500-W halogen lamp of visible light irradiation. The residual concentration of methylene blue solution was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectrometry. From the study of the variation in composition of ZnS:CdS, a composition of 1:4 (by weight) was found to be very efficient for degradation of methylene blue. In this case the degradation efficiency of the photocatalyst nanoparticles after 6 h irradiation time was about 73% with a reaction rate of 3.61 × 10-3 min-1. Higher degradation efficiency and reaction rate were achieved by increasing the amount of photocatalyst and initial pH of the solution.
A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection.
Due to the low titer or uneven distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in field samples, detection of CTV by using conventional detection techniques may be difficult. Therefore, in the present work, the cadmium-telluride quantum dots (QDs) was conjugated with a specific antibody against coat protein (CP) of CTV, and the CP were immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to develop a specific and sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanobiosensor for detecting CTV. The maximum FRET efficiency for the developed nano-biosensor was observed at 60% in AuNPs-CP/QDs-Ab ratio of 1:8.5. The designed system showed higher sensitivity and specificity over enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a limit of detection of 0.13μgmL(-1) and 93% and 94% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. As designed sensor is rapid, sensitive, specific and efficient in detecting CTV, this could be envisioned for diagnostic applications, surveillance and plant certification program.
Nowadays, increasing the risk for copper leaching into the drinking water in homes, hotels and schools has become unresolved issues all around the countries such as Canada, the United States, and Malaysia. The leaching of copper in tap water is due to a combination of acidic water, damaged pipes, and corroded plumbing fixtures. To remedy this global problem, a triple interconnected structure of CdS/Au/GQDs was designed as a photo-to-electron conversion medium for a real time and selective visible-light-prompt photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor for Cu2+ ions in real water samples. The synergistic interaction of the CdS/Au/GQDs enabled the smooth transportation of charge carriers to the charge collector and provided a channel to inhibit the charge recombination reaction. Thus, a detection limit of 2.27 nM was obtained, which is 10,000 fold lower than that of WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (∼30 μM). The photocurrent reduction was negligible after 30 days of storage under ambient conditions, suggesting the high stability of photoelectrode. Moreover, the real-time monitoring of Cu2+ ions in real samples was performed with satisfactory results, confirming the capability of the investigated photoelectrode as the most practical detector for trace amounts of Cu2+ ions.
In the present study, binary oxide (cadmium oxide [CdO])x (zinc oxide [ZnO])1-x nanoparticles (NPs) at different concentrations of precursor in calcination temperature were prepared using thermal treatment technique. Cadmium and zinc nitrates (source of cadmium and zinc) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (capping agent) have been used to prepare (CdO)x (ZnO)1-x NPs samples. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD patterns analysis revealed that NPs were formed after calcination, which showed a cubic and hexagonal crystalline structure of (CdO)x (ZnO)1-x NPs. The phase analysis using EDX spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Cd and Zn as the original compounds of prepared (CdO)x (ZnO)1-x NP samples. The average particle size of the samples increased from 14 to 33 nm as the concentration of precursor increased from x=0.20 to x=0.80, as observed by TEM results. The surface composition and valance state of the prepared product NPs were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Diffuse UV-visible reflectance spectra were used to determine the optical band gap through the Kubelka-Munk equation; the energy band gap was found to decrease for CdO from 2.92 to 2.82 eV and for ZnO from 3.22 to 3.11 eV with increasing x value. Additionally, photoluminescence (PL) spectra revealed that the intensity in PL increased with an increase in particle size. In addition, the antibacterial activity of binary oxide NP was carried out in vitro against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 Gram (-ve), Salmonella choleraesuis ATCC 10708, and Bacillus subtilis UPMC 1175 Gram (+ve). This study indicated that the zone of inhibition of 21 mm has good antibacterial activity toward the Gram-positive B. subtilis UPMC 1175.