Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 83 in total

  1. Pool LR, Aguayo L, Brzezinski M, Perak AM, Davis MM, Greenland P, et al.
    J Pediatr, 2021 05;232:118-126.e23.
    PMID: 33516680 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.01.053
    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive review of the literature on childhood risk factors and their associations with adulthood subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD).

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases to identify English-language articles published through June 2018. Articles were included if they were longitudinal studies in community-based populations, the primary exposure occurred during childhood, and the primary outcome was either a measure of subclinical CVD or a clinical CVD event occurring in adulthood. Two independent reviewers screened determined whether eligibility criteria were met.

    RESULTS: There were 210 articles that met the predefined criteria. The greatest number of publications examined associations of clinical risk factors, including childhood adiposity, blood pressure, and cholesterol, with the development of adult CVD. Few studies examined childhood lifestyle factors including diet quality, physical activity, and tobacco exposure. Domains of risk beyond "traditional" cardiovascular risk factors, such as childhood psychosocial adversity, seemed to have strong published associations with the development of CVD.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the evidence was fairly consistent in direction and magnitude for exposures such as childhood adiposity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how childhood health and behaviors translate to the risk of adulthood CVD, particularly in lesser studied exposures like glycemic indicators, physical activity, diet quality, very early life course exposure, and population subgroups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  2. Nuur Amalina AG, Jamaiyah H, Selvarajah S, NHMS Cohort Study Group
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):31-8.
    PMID: 22582546 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to describe differences in cardiovascular risk factor prevalences and clustering patterns among the states and federal territories of Malaysia. Risk factors considered were abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Using data from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NMHS III) in 2006, we estimated the states and federal territories risk factor prevalences and clustering patterns to map the cardiovascular burden distribution in Malaysia. There was a clear geographical variation in the distribution of the individual risk factors as well as in its clustering with remarkable impact seen in Peninsular Malaysia. Perlis, Kedah and Kelantan were the most affected states overall.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  3. Liam CK
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Mar;54(1):155-9; quiz 160.
    PMID: 10972023
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  4. Ghazali SM, Seman Z, Cheong KC, Hock LK, Manickam M, Kuay LK, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:68.
    PMID: 25636327 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1432-z
    BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Malaysian adults.
    METHODS: We analysed data on 1044 men and 1528 women, aged 24-64 years, participants in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional study. Prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, physical inactivity, smoking, risky drinking, low vegetable and fruit intake were determined and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with having ≥3 of these cardiovascular disease risk factors.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 84.6% (2572/3040). Overall, 68.4% (95% CI: 63.2, 73.1) had at least three risk factors. Among men, older age and Indian ethnicity were independently associated with having ≥3 CVD risk factors; while among women, older age, low education, and housewives were more likely to have ≥3 CVD risk factors.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors clustering among Malaysian adults is high, raising concerns that cardiovascular disease incidence will rise steeply in the near future if no immediate preventive measures are taken. The current national health education and promotion programmes pertaining to modifiable risk factors can be further improved by taking into account the sociodemographic variation in CVD risk factors clustering.
    Study name: Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (MyNCDS-1) survey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  5. Ng CY, Leong XF, Masbah N, Adam SK, Kamisah Y, Jaarin K
    Vascul. Pharmacol., 2014 Apr;61(1):1-9.
    PMID: 24632108 DOI: 10.1016/j.vph.2014.02.004
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  6. Rasiah R, Yusoff K, Mohammadreza A, Manikam R, Tumin M, Chandrasekaran SK, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:886.
    PMID: 24066906 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-886
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) related deaths is not only the prime cause of mortality in the world, it has also continued to increase in the low and middle income countries. Hence, this study examines the relationship between CVD risk factors and socioeconomic variables in Malaysia, which is a rapidly growing middle income nation undergoing epidemiologic transition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  7. Liew SM, Doust J, Glasziou P
    Heart, 2011 May;97(9):689-97.
    PMID: 21474616 DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2010.220442
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the strengths and limitations of cardiovascular risk scores available for clinicians in assessing the global (absolute) risk of cardiovascular disease.
    DESIGN: Review of cardiovascular risk scores.
    DATA SOURCES: Medline (1966 to May 2009) using a mixture of MeSH terms and free text for the keywords 'cardiovascular', 'risk prediction' and 'cohort studies'.
    ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: A study was eligible if it fulfilled the following criteria: (1) it was a cohort study of adults in the general population with no prior history of cardiovascular disease and not restricted by a disease condition; (2) the primary objective was the development of a cardiovascular risk score/equation that predicted an individual's absolute cardiovascular risk in 5-10 years; (3) the score could be used by a clinician to calculate the risk for an individual patient.
    RESULTS: 21 risk scores from 18 papers were identified from 3536 papers. Cohort size ranged from 4372 participants (SHS) to 1591209 records (QRISK2). More than half of the cardiovascular risk scores (11) were from studies with recruitment starting after 1980. Definitions and methods for measuring risk predictors and outcomes varied widely between scores. Fourteen cardiovascular risk scores reported data on prior treatment, but this was mainly limited to antihypertensive treatment. Only two studies reported prior use of lipid-lowering agents. None reported on prior use of platelet inhibitors or data on treatment drop-ins.
    CONCLUSIONS: The use of risk-factor-modifying drugs-for example, statins-and disease-modifying medication-for example, platelet inhibitors-was not accounted for. In addition, none of the risk scores addressed the effect of treatment drop-ins-that is, treatment started during the study period. Ideally, a risk score should be derived from a population free from treatment. The lack of accounting for treatment effect and the wide variation in study characteristics, predictors and outcomes causes difficulties in the use of cardiovascular risk scores for clinical treatment decision.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  8. Dugee O, Khor GL, Lye MS, Luvsannyam L, Janchiv O, Jamyan B, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2009;18(3):433-40.
    PMID: 19786392
    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  9. Loh KY, Kew ST
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Oct;63(4):348-50; quiz 351.
    PMID: 19385504 MyJurnal
    Recent research in bio-medical science has shown an integral role of endocannabinoid system (ECS) in determining cardio-metabolic risk of human body. The mechanism is mediated through binding of endocannabinoids at the CB1 receptors. The stimulation of CB1 receptor in the brain is believed to control and mediate the effects on appetite. In normal physiology, CB1 receptors activation is responsible for energy homeostasis, govern emotions and behaviors such as anxiety, fear, appetite, food and water intake. CB1 receptors also found in peripheral tissues like liver, pancreas, skeletal muscles and adipose tissues, which play an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. Over-activation of ECS is associated with various metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, lipogenesis, excessive weight gain and increasing intra-abdominal obesity. All these events lead to increased cardiovascular risk. Use of selective CB1 receptor blocker such as rimonabant has shown to reduced waist circumference, better glycemic control, lower triglyceride levels, raise HDL cholesterol and over all reduction in total body fat. This drug has been recommended for patients with metabolic syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  10. Cheah MH, Kam PC
    Anaesthesia, 2005 Oct;60(10):1009-21.
    PMID: 16179047 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2005.04229.x
    Obesity is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. It is now the second leading cause of death in the United States and is associated with significant, potentially life-threatening co-morbidities. Significant advances in the understanding of the physiology of body weight regulation and the pathogenesis of obesity have been achieved. A better understanding of the physiology of appetite control has enabled advances in the medical and surgical treatment of obesity. Visceral or abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Various drugs are used in the treatment of mild obesity but they are associated with adverse effects. Surgery has become an essential part of the treatment of morbid obesity, notwithstanding the potential adverse events that accompany it. An appreciation of these problems is essential to the anaesthetist and intensivist involved in the management of this group of patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  11. Sadeghi M, Roohafza HR, Kelishadi R
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Oct;59(4):460-7.
    PMID: 15779578
    This study was done to estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) in treated and non-treated subjects with respect to age and gender and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors in Iran. This cross sectional study was performed in three cities of Iran on participants over 19 years at 2002. First a questionnaire consisting of demographic details, drug intake and smoking status was filled. Then physical examination including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip circumference (WHC) was performed. Fasting blood sample was drawn for sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) and a 2-hour postprandial glucose was also measured. In this study performed on 12494 subjects, 48% were males and 52% females. The mean age of men and women was 38.99+/-15.30 and 38.80+/-14.54 years respectively. The prevalence of high BP in men and women was 15.6% and 18.8% respectively. The prevalence of high BP was higher in women than in men, except in the younger age classes. Overall 26.7% of hypertensive men and 47.7% of hypertensive women were on anti-hypertensive pharmacological treatment. Among the treated patients, BP was under control in 6.4% of the men and 13.8% of the women. In 86.5% of men with high BP and 89.3% of women with high BP, at least one other cardiovascular risk factor was present and its prevalence increased with age in both genders. BMI >25 (especially abdominal obesity) was the most frequent associated risk factor (41.9% in male, 59% in female). Except for smoking, the prevalence of each cardiovascular risk factor increased with the severity of hypertension, except in young women. The prevalence of high BP- even in treated subjects- is high in Iran. Many subjects with high BP have at least one other associated cardiovascular risk factor. These data emphasize the necessity of implementing community-based interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  12. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    PLoS One, 2015;10(10):e0141344.
    PMID: 26496190 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141344
    Based on global cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment for example using the Framingham risk score, it is recommended that those with high risk should be treated and those with low risk should not be treated. The recommendation for those of medium risk is less clear and uncertain. We aimed to determine whether factoring in chronic kidney disease (CKD) will improve CV risk prediction in those with medium risk. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 905 subjects in a primary care clinic setting. Baseline CV risk profile and serum creatinine in 1998 were captured from patients record. Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk score (FRS) for each patient was computed. All cardiovascular disease (CVD) events from 1998-2007 were captured. Overall, patients with CKD had higher FRS risk score (25.9% vs 20%, p = 0.001) and more CVD events (22.3% vs 11.9%, p = 0.002) over a 10-year period compared to patients without CKD. In patients with medium CV risk, there was no significant difference in the FRS score among those with and without CKD (14.4% vs 14.6%, p = 0.84) However, in this same medium risk group, patients with CKD had more CV events compared to those without CKD (26.7% vs 6.6%, p = 0.005). This is in contrast to patients in the low and high risk group where there was no difference in CVD events whether these patients had or did not have CKD. There were more CV events in the Framingham medium risk group when they also had CKD compared those in the same risk group without CKD. Hence factoring in CKD for those with medium risk helps to further stratify and identify those who are actually at greater risk, when treatment may be more likely to be indicated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  13. Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Rahmat A, Abed Y, Ali F
    Inflammopharmacology, 2016 Feb;24(1):1-10.
    PMID: 26750181 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-015-0255-y
    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a collective term comprising of a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. These diseases are the largest cause of morbidity and premature death worldwide. Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease (stroke) are the most frequently occurring diseases. The two major initiators involved in the development of atherosclerotic CVD are vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid oxidation. In atherosclerosis development, ROS is associated with rapid loss of anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activities of the endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO(·)) resulting in endothelial dysfunction. In part involving activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, ROS have been involved in signaling cascades leading to vascular pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic gene expression. ROS is also a potent activator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which indicate plaque destabilization and rupture. The second initiator involved in atherosclerotic CVD is the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Oxidation of LDL in vessel wall leads to an inflammatory cascade that activates atherogenic pathway leading to foam cell formation. The accumulation of foam cells leads to fatty streak formation, which is the earliest visible atherosclerotic lesion. In contrast, the cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) and hepatic apolipoprotein E (apoE) expression can improve cardiovascular function. SERCA2a regulates the cardiac contractile function by lowering cytoplasmic calcium levels during relaxation, and affecting NO(·) action in vascular cells, while apoE is a critical ligand in the plasma clearance of triglyceride- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  14. Cavalli-Sforza LT, Rosman A, de Boer AS, Darnton-Hill I
    Bull World Health Organ, 1996;74(3):307-18.
    PMID: 8789929
    One impact of socioeconomic progress on populations has been to reduce the number of cases due to diseases of undernutrition and microbial contamination of food, which affected mostly infants and young children, and to increase those due to diseases of excessive food consumption, which are affecting adults and a growing number of children. This article reviews the main dietary factors which have an influence on cardiovascular disease and cancer, and discusses the link between economic development and increased rates of chronic diseases. There is evidence that the noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors have risen rapidly in countries of the WHO Western Pacific Region. Data from 29 countries and areas in the region indicate that 70% of them show lifestyle diseases in three or more of the top five causes of death. While public health measures have been implemented by some countries to prevent and control nutrition-related chronic diseases, further action is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  15. Malik AS
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1996 Sep;16(3):213-20.
    PMID: 8893951 DOI: 10.1080/02724936.1996.11747829
    We report seven cases of Kawasaki disease (KD) who were admitted to Hospital University Sains Malaysia over a period of 8 years. The average age at the time of admission was 29.4 months and four of the children were boys. Five children had all six criteria for diagnosis. Ileus was present in three, and hydrops of the gall bladder and pneumonia in two each, but coronary artery dilatation was seen in only one patient. We also review all the cases of KD reported so far from Malaysia and compare the epidemiological data, clinical course and laboratory findings of the Malaysian patients with those from other parts of the world. The epidemiological and clinical features of Malaysians with KD differ from those seen in Singapore and Japan, but are similar to those seen in Thailand, Australia and North America. The incidence of cardiac complications is low in Malaysians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  16. Candlish JK, Saha N, Mak JW
    Atherosclerosis, 1997 Feb 28;129(1):49-51.
    PMID: 9069516
    Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and apolipoproteins Al (apo Al) and B (apo B) were measured in a sample of subjects from the Semai tribe of Orang Asli in peninsular Malaysia. They appeared to exhibit the lowest TC ever recorded (1.6 for males and 1.9 mmol/l for females) and relatively high TG (1.4 mmol/l for males and 1.5 mmol/l for females)(means for the whole sample). There was little apparent aging gradient in any of the plasma analytes. but the group of men aged 21-40 had lower HDLC than the corresponding female group. Both low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (calculated) and HDLC as well as their corresponding apolipoproteins were correspondingly very low. There was a significant correlation between apo AI and HDLC in both sexes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  17. Daud A, Sedek SSHAB, Shahadan SZ
    Enferm Clin, 2019 09;29 Suppl 2:96-100.
    PMID: 31248730 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.04.015
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the association between the walking time spent and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level to determine the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among obese women.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted in Kuantan, Pahang. The purposive sampling method was chosen. 76 obese women aged 18 years old and above were included in the study. Data were collected by using the set of the self-reported questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic and the walking time for the past 7 days. The sample blood test was taken to check for hs-CRP level.

    RESULTS: Walking time spent in minutes was found to be significantly inverse associated with the hs-CRP level (p=0.040) among obese women.

    CONCLUSION: The increase in walking time spent can help reduce the hs-CRP level, therefore reduce the risk for CVD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  18. Toumpakari Z, Jago R, Howe LD, Majid HA, Papadaki A, Mohammadi S, et al.
    PMID: 31766777 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16234662
    Patterns of physical activity (PA) that optimize both fitness and fatness may better predict cardiometabolic health. Reduced rank regression (RRR) was applied to identify combinations of the type (e.g., football vs. skipping), location and timing of activity, explaining variation in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and Body Mass Index (BMI). Multivariable regressions estimated longitudinal associations of PA pattern scores with cardiometabolic health in n = 579 adolescents aged 13-17 years from the Malaysian Health and Adolescent Longitudinal Research Team study. PA pattern scores in boys were associated with higher fitness (r = 0.3) and lower fatness (r = -0.3); however, in girls, pattern scores were only associated with higher fitness (r = 0.4) (fatness, r = -0.1). Pattern scores changed by β = -0.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04, 0.03) and β = -0.08 (95% CI -0.1, -0.06) per year from 13 to 17 years in boys and girls respectively. Higher CRF and lower BMI were associated with better cardiometabolic health at 17 years, but PA pattern scores were not in either cross-sectional or longitudinal models. RRR identified sex-specific PA patterns associated with fitness and fatness but the total variation they explained was small. PA pattern scores changed little through adolescence, which may explain the limited evidence on health associations. Objective PA measurement may improve RRR for identifying optimal PA patterns for cardiometabolic health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  19. Tong SF, Low WY, Ng CJ
    Asian J Androl, 2011 Jul;13(4):526-33.
    PMID: 21358664 DOI: 10.1038/aja.2010.125
    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  20. Smith TO, Sillito JA, Goh CH, Abdel-Fattah AR, Einarsson A, Soiza RL, et al.
    Age Ageing, 2020 02 27;49(2):184-192.
    PMID: 31985773 DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afz178
    BACKGROUND: Blood pressure variability (BPV) is a possible risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. There is uncertainty as to whether BPV is related to differences in populations studied, measurement methods or both. We systematically reviewed the evidence for different methods to assess blood pressure variability (BPV) and their association with future cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality.

    METHODS: Literature databases were searched to June 2019. Observational studies were eligible if they measured short-term BPV, defined as variability in blood pressure measurements acquired either over a 24-hour period or several days. Data were extracted on method of BPV and reported association (or not) on future cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Methodological quality was assessed using the CASP observational study tool and data narratively synthesised.

    RESULTS: Sixty-one studies including 3,333,801 individuals were eligible. BPV has been assessed by various methods including ambulatory and home-based BP monitors assessing 24-hour, "day-by-day" and "week-to-week" variability. There was moderate quality evidence of an association between BPV and cardiovascular events (43 studies analysed) or all-cause mortality (26 studies analysed) irrespective of the measurement method in the short- to longer-term. There was moderate quality evidence reporting inconsistent findings on the potential association between cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of methods of BPV assessment (17 studies analysed).

    CONCLUSION: An association between BPV, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events and/or all-cause mortality were reported by the majority of studies irrespective of method of measurement. Direct comparisons between studies and reporting of pooled effect sizes were not possible.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links