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  1. Moo EK, Herzog W, Han SK, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Federico S
    Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2012 Sep;11(7):983-93.
    PMID: 22234779 DOI: 10.1007/s10237-011-0367-2
    Experimental findings indicate that in-situ chondrocytes die readily following impact loading, but remain essentially unaffected at low (non-impact) strain rates. This study was aimed at identifying possible causes for cell death in impact loading by quantifying chondrocyte mechanics when cartilage was subjected to a 5% nominal tissue strain at different strain rates. Multi-scale modelling techniques were used to simulate cartilage tissue and the corresponding chondrocytes residing in the tissue. Chondrocytes were modelled by accounting for the cell membrane, pericellular matrix and pericellular capsule. The results suggest that cell deformations, cell fluid pressures and fluid flow velocity through cells are highest at the highest (impact) strain rate, but they do not reach damaging levels. Tangential strain rates of the cell membrane were highest at the highest strain rate and were observed primarily in superficial tissue cells. Since cell death following impact loading occurs primarily in superficial zone cells, we speculate that cell death in impact loading is caused by the high tangential strain rates in the membrane of superficial zone cells causing membrane rupture and loss of cell content and integrity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism*
  2. Ishak MF, See GB, Hui CK, Abdullah Ab, Saim Lb, Saim Ab, et al.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2015 Oct;79(10):1634-9.
    PMID: 26250439 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.06.034
    This study aimed to isolate, culture-expand and characterize the chondrocytes isolated from microtic cartilage and evaluate its potential as a cell source for ear cartilage reconstruction. Specific attention was to construct the auricular cartilage tissue by using fibrin as scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ear Cartilage/metabolism
  3. Wu Y, Yang Z, Law JB, He AY, Abbas AA, Denslin V, et al.
    Tissue Eng Part A, 2017 01;23(1-2):43-54.
    PMID: 27824280 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2016.0123
    Stem cell differentiation is guided by contact with the physical microenvironment, influence by both topography and mechanical properties of the matrix. In this study, the combined effect of substratum nano-topography and mechanical stiffness in directing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis was investigated. Three polyesters of varying stiffness were thermally imprinted to create nano-grating or pillar patterns of the same dimension. The surface of the nano-patterned substrate was coated with chondroitin sulfate (CS) to provide an even surface chemistry, with cell-adhesive and chondro-inductive properties, across all polymeric substrates. The surface characteristic, mechanical modulus, and degradation of the CS-coated patterned polymeric substrates were analyzed. The cell morphology adopted on the nano-topographic surfaces were accounted by F-actin distribution, and correlated to the cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation outcomes. Results show that substratum stiffness and topographical cues affected MSC morphology and aggregation, and influenced the phenotypic development at the earlier stage of chondrogenic differentiation. Hyaline-like cartilage with middle/deep zone cartilage characteristics was generated on softer pillar surface, while on stiffer nano-pillar material MSCs showed potential to generate constituents of hyaline/fibro/hypertrophic cartilage. Fibro/superficial zone-like cartilage could be derived from nano-grating of softer stiffness, while stiffer nano-grating resulted in insignificant chondrogenesis. This study demonstrates the possibility of refining the phenotype of cartilage generated from MSCs by manipulating surface topography and material stiffness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism
  4. Peake NJ, Hobbs AJ, Pingguan-Murphy B, Salter DM, Berenbaum F, Chowdhury TT
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2014 Nov;22(11):1800-7.
    PMID: 25086404 DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.07.018
    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been demonstrated in human and mouse models to play critical roles in cartilage homeostasis and endochondral bone formation. Indeed, targeted inactivation of the genes encoding CNP results in severe dwarfism and skeletal defects with a reduction in growth plate chondrocytes. Conversely, cartilage-specific overexpression of CNP was observed to rescue the phenotype of CNP deficient mice and significantly enhanced bone growth caused by growth plate expansion. In vitro studies reported that exogenous CNP influenced chondrocyte differentiation, proliferation and matrix synthesis with the response dependent on CNP concentration. The chondroprotective effects were shown to be mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor (Npr)2 and enhanced synthesis of cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) production. Recent studies also showed certain homeostatic effects of CNP are mediated by the clearance inactivation receptor, Npr3, highlighting several mechanisms in maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, the CNP signalling systems are complex and influenced by multiple factors that will lead to altered signalling and tissue dysfunction. This review will discuss the differential role of CNP signalling in regulating cartilage and bone homeostasis and how the pathways are influenced by age, inflammation or sex. Evidence indicates that enhanced CNP signalling may prevent growth retardation and protect cartilage in patients with inflammatory joint disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism
  5. Hanizah N, Affirul CA, Fadzlon MY
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(5):e336-41.
    PMID: 25366949 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1759
    BACKGROUND: Cricoid pressure (CP) is a step during rapid sequence induction. Previous studies showed a poor clinical application of CP despite a reasonable theoretical knowledge of CP. This study aims to evaluate the proficiency and knowledge retention on CP among the emergency staff in the Emergency Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is questionnaire-based observational comparative study. Once the questionnaire is filled, the application of CP is tested on an airway model and competency level is documented. An education hand out is passed to all participants after the procedure. The improvement and knowledge retention were assess after 2 month.

    RESULTS: A total of 81 completed surveys were returned comprises of of 34 medical officers, 23 staff nurses and 24 assistant medical officers. 75.3% subjects have work experience more than a year but only 59.3% of them were trained in CP application. A total of 69.1% participants passed the pre educational handout test and 100% passed the post educational handout test. However, for pre educational handout phase, 81.5% participants passed the theory part while only 42% passed the practical component. In post educational handout phase, the number of respondents who passed both components was 97.5% and 63% respectively. There are positive correlation between designation and working experience with overall passes in this study.

    CONCLUSIONS: The theoretical knowledge of CP is satisfactory but clinical application is poor especially in the pre educational handout phase. The educational handout is proved to improve the knowledge transfer and retention with regards to CP.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cricoid Cartilage/metabolism*
  6. Sha'ban M, Yoon SJ, Ko YK, Ha HJ, Kim SH, So JW, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2008;19(9):1219-37.
    PMID: 18727862 DOI: 10.1163/156856208785540163
    Previously, we have proven that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds facilitate cell proliferation, matrix production and early chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we evaluated the potential of fibrin/PLGA scaffold for intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering using annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in relation to potential clinical application. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in cells-fibrin suspension and polymerized by dropping thrombin-sodium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. A PLGA-cell complex without fibrin was used as control. Higher cellular proliferation activity was observed in fibrin/PLGA-seeded AF and NP cells at each time point of 3, 7, 14 and 7 days using the MTT assay. After 3 weeks in vitro incubation, fibrin/PLGA exhibited a firmer gross morphology than PLGA groups. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was observed in fibrin/PLGA, as proven by the development of cells cluster of various sizes and three-dimensional (3D) cartilaginous histoarchitecture and the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sGAG production measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay revealed greater sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA than PLGA group. Immunohistochemical analyses showed expressions of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and collagen type I genes throughout in vitro culture in both fibrin/PLGA and PLGA. In conclusion, fibrin promotes cell proliferation, stable in vitro tissue morphology, superior cartilaginous tissue formation and sGAG production of AF and NP cells cultured in PLGA scaffold. The 3D porous PLGA scaffold-cell complexes using fibrin can provide a vehicle for delivery of cells to regenerate tissue-engineered IVD tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism
  7. Ruszymah BH, Chua K, Latif MA, Hussein FN, Saim AB
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2005 Nov;69(11):1489-95.
    PMID: 15941595
    Treatment and management of congenital as well as post-traumatic trachea stenosis remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. The aim of this study was to reconstruct a trachea with human nasal septum chondrocytes by using the combination of biodegradable hydrogel and non-biodegradable high-density polyethylene (HDP) as the internal predetermined shape scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyaline Cartilage/metabolism
  8. Chua KH, Aminuddin BS, Fuzina NH, Ruszymah BH
    Eur Cell Mater, 2005 Jun 17;9:58-67; discussion 67.
    PMID: 15962238
    This study was to investigate the effects of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) on the proliferation and quantitative gene expression of adult human nasal septum chondrocytes in monolayer culture expansion and the formation of tissue engineered hyaline cartilage. Effects of ITS on human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture expansion and gene expression were evaluated in various culture media either added with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 1 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor plus 1 ng/mL transforming growth factor or both serum and growth factors supplementation in comparison with medium added with 10%FBS. Chondrocytes cultured in medium added with 2% fetal bovine serum and growth factors either supplemented with or without ITS were then mixed with pluronic F-127 hydrogel for in vivo tissue engineered cartilage formation in nude mice model. Engineered tissues were removed after 8 weeks of implantation and evaluated with histological staining, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and quantitative gene expression analysis. ITS promoted human chondrocytes proliferation and reduced chondrocytes dedifferentiation in media supplemented with serum and growth factors. ITS with 2% FBS and growth factors provided 15-fold increased in chondrocytes number by the end of the culture period compared to the standard culture medium used in chondrocytes culture (medium added with 10% FBS). Engineered tissue resulted from ITS supplementation demonstrated higher quality of cartilage formation. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the benefits of ITS supplementation in human chondrocytes monolayer culture and tissue engineering cartilage formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyaline Cartilage/metabolism*
  9. Samuel S, Ahmad RE, Ramasamy TS, Karunanithi P, Naveen SV, Kamarul T
    Platelets, 2019;30(1):66-74.
    PMID: 29090639 DOI: 10.1080/09537104.2017.1371287
    Platelet-rich concentrate (PRC), used in conjunction with other chondroinductive growth factors, have been shown to induce chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) in pellet culture. However, pellet culture systems promote cell hypertrophy and the presence of other chondroinductive growth factors in the culture media used in previous studies obscures accurate determination of the effect of platelet itself in inducing chondrogenic differentiation. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of PRC alone in enhancing the chondrogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) encapsulated in three-dimensional alginate constructs. Cells encapsulated in alginate were cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with only 15% PRC. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the cell morphology. Chondrogenic molecular signature of hMSCs was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and verified at protein levels via immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that the cells cultured in the presence of PRC for 24 days maintained a chondrocytic phenotype and demonstrated minimal upregulation of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) marker genes (SOX9, TNC, COL2, ACAN, COMP) and reduced expression of chondrocyte hypertrophy genes (Col X, Runx2) compared to the standard chondrogenic medium (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism*
  10. Muhammad SA, Nordin N, Hussin P, Mehat MZ, Abu Kasim NH, Fakurazi S
    PLoS One, 2020;15(9):e0238449.
    PMID: 32886713 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0238449
    Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) is still a major clinical challenge due to the limited inherent healing capacity of cartilage. Recent studies utilising stem cells suggest that the therapeutic benefits of these cells are mediated through the paracrine mechanism of bioactive molecules. The present study evaluates the regenerative effect of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) conditioned medium (CM) on OA chondrocytes. The CM was collected after the SHED were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) for 48 or 72 h and the cells were characterised by the expression of MSC and pluripotency markers. Chondrocytes were stimulated with interleukin-1β and treated with the CM. Subsequently, the expression of aggrecan, collagen type 2 (COL 2), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and the level of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers were evaluated. SHED expressed mesenchymal stromal cell surface proteins but were negative for haematopoietic markers. SHED also showed protein expression of NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 with differential subcellular localisation. Treatment of OA chondrocytes with CM enhanced anti-inflammation compared to control cells treated with SFM. Furthermore, the expression of MMP-13 and NF-kB was significantly downregulated in stimulated chondrocytes incubated in CM. The study also revealed that CM increased the expression of aggrecan and COL 2 in OA chondrocytes compared to SFM control. Both CM regenerate extracellular matrix proteins and mitigate increased MMP-13 expression through inhibition of NF-kB in OA chondrocytes due to the presence of bioactive molecules. The study underscores the potential of CM for OA treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism
  11. Siar CH, Ha KO, Aung LO, Nakano K, Tsujigiwa H, Nagatsuka H, et al.
    Eur J Med Res, 2010 Oct 25;15(10):456-60.
    PMID: 21156405
    BACKGROUND: notch receptors are critical determinants of cell fate in a variety of organisms. Notch signaling is involved in the chondrogenic specification of neural crest cells. Aberrant Notch activity has been implicated in numerous human diseases including cancers; however its role in chondrogenic tumors has not been clarified.

    METHOD: tissue samples from a case of primary chondrosarcoma of the maxilla and its recurrent tumor were examined immunohistochemically for Notch1-4 and their ligands (Jagged1, Jagged2 and Delta1) expression.

    RESULTS: both primary and recurrent tumors were histopathologically diagnosed as conventional hyaline chondrosarcoma (WHO Grade I). Hypercellular tumor areas strongly expressed Notch3 and Jagged1 in spindle and pleomorphic cells suggesting up-regulation of these protein molecules at sites of tumor proliferation. Expression patterns were distinct with some overlap. Differentiated malignant and atypical chondrocytes demonstrated variable expression levels of Jagged1, and weak to absent staining for Notch1, 4 and Delta1. Protein immunolocalization was largely membranous and cytoplasmic, sometimes outlining the lacunae of malignant chondrocytes. Hyaline cartilage demonstrated a diffuse or granular precipitation of Jagged1 suggesting presence of soluble Jagged1 activity at sites of abnormal chondrogenesis. No immunoreactivity for the other Notch members was observed. Calcified cartilage was consistently Notch-negative indicating down-regulation of Notch with cartilage maturation. Stromal components namely endothelial cells and fibroblasts variably expressed Notch1, 3 and Jagged1 but were mildly or non-reactive for the other members.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that Notch signaling pathway may participate in cellular differentiation and proliferation in chondrosarcoma. Findings implicate Notch3 and Jagged1 as key molecules that influence the differentiation and maturation of cells of chondrogenic lineage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism
  12. Ishak MF, Chua KH, Asma A, Saim L, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH, et al.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2011 Jun;75(6):835-40.
    PMID: 21543123 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.03.021
    This study was aimed to see the difference between chondrocytes from normal cartilage compared to chondrocytes from microtic cartilage. Specific attentions were to characterize the growth of chondrocytes in terms of cell morphology, growth profile and RT-PCR analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ear Cartilage/metabolism
  13. Zainal Z, Longman AJ, Hurst S, Duggan K, Hughes CE, Caterson B, et al.
    Lipids, 2009 Jul;44(7):581-92.
    PMID: 19449050 DOI: 10.1007/s11745-009-3304-8
    Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism
  14. Liau LL, Hassan MNFB, Tang YL, Ng MH, Law JX
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jan 28;22(3).
    PMID: 33525349 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22031269
    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that affects a lot of people worldwide. Current treatment for OA mainly focuses on halting or slowing down the disease progress and to improve the patient's quality of life and functionality. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a new treatment modality with the potential to promote regeneration of worn cartilage. Traditionally, foetal bovine serum (FBS) is used to expand the chondrocytes. However, the use of FBS is not ideal for the expansion of cells mean for clinical applications as it possesses the risk of animal pathogen transmission and animal protein transfer to host. Human platelet lysate (HPL) appears to be a suitable alternative to FBS as it is rich in biological factors that enhance cell proliferation. Thus far, HPL has been found to be superior in promoting chondrocyte proliferation compared to FBS. However, both HPL and FBS cannot prevent chondrocyte dedifferentiation. Discrepant results have been reported for the maintenance of chondrocyte redifferentiation potential by HPL. These differences are likely due to the diversity in the HPL preparation methods. In the future, more studies on HPL need to be performed to develop a standardized technique which is capable of producing HPL that can maintain the chondrocyte redifferentiation potential reproducibly. This review discusses the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes with FBS and HPL, focusing on its capability to promote the proliferation and maintain the chondrogenic characteristics of chondrocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism
  15. Madzuki IN, Lau SF, Mohamad Shalan NAA, Mohd Ishak NI, Mohamed S
    J Biosci, 2019 Sep;44(4).
    PMID: 31502578
    Chondrosenescence (chondrocyte senescence) and subchondral bone deterioration in osteoarthritic rats were analyzed after treatment with the estrogenic herb Labisia pumila (LP) or diclofenac. Osteoarthritis (OA) was induced in bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) rats by injecting mono-iodoacetate into the right knee joints. Rats were grouped (n = 8) into nontreated OVX+OA control, OVX+OA + diclofenac (5 mg/kg) (positive control), OVX+OA + LP leaf extract (150 and 300 mg/kg) and healthy sham control. After 8 weeks' treatment, their conditions were evaluated via serum biomarkers, knee joint histology, bone histomorphometry, protein and mRNA expressions. The LP significantly reduced cartilage erosion, femur bone surface alteration, bone loss and porosity and increased trabecular bone thickness better than diclofenac and the non-treated OA. The cartilage catabolic markers' (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, RUNX2, COL10a, ERa, CASP3 and HIF-2 alpha) mRNA expressions were down-regulated and serum bone formation marker, PINP, was increased by LP in a dose-dependent manner. The LP (containing myricetin and gallic acid) showed protection against chondrosenescence, chondrocyte death, hypoxia-induced cartilage catabolism and subchondral bone deterioration. The bone and cartilage protective effects were by suppressing proteases (collagen break-down), bone resorption and upregulating subchondral bone restoration. The cartilage ER alpha over-expression showed a strong positive correlation with MMP-13, COL10 alpha1, histological, micro-computed tomography evidence for cartilage degradation and chondrosenescence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/metabolism
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