MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is questionnaire-based observational comparative study. Once the questionnaire is filled, the application of CP is tested on an airway model and competency level is documented. An education hand out is passed to all participants after the procedure. The improvement and knowledge retention were assess after 2 month.
RESULTS: A total of 81 completed surveys were returned comprises of of 34 medical officers, 23 staff nurses and 24 assistant medical officers. 75.3% subjects have work experience more than a year but only 59.3% of them were trained in CP application. A total of 69.1% participants passed the pre educational handout test and 100% passed the post educational handout test. However, for pre educational handout phase, 81.5% participants passed the theory part while only 42% passed the practical component. In post educational handout phase, the number of respondents who passed both components was 97.5% and 63% respectively. There are positive correlation between designation and working experience with overall passes in this study.
CONCLUSIONS: The theoretical knowledge of CP is satisfactory but clinical application is poor especially in the pre educational handout phase. The educational handout is proved to improve the knowledge transfer and retention with regards to CP.
METHOD: tissue samples from a case of primary chondrosarcoma of the maxilla and its recurrent tumor were examined immunohistochemically for Notch1-4 and their ligands (Jagged1, Jagged2 and Delta1) expression.
RESULTS: both primary and recurrent tumors were histopathologically diagnosed as conventional hyaline chondrosarcoma (WHO Grade I). Hypercellular tumor areas strongly expressed Notch3 and Jagged1 in spindle and pleomorphic cells suggesting up-regulation of these protein molecules at sites of tumor proliferation. Expression patterns were distinct with some overlap. Differentiated malignant and atypical chondrocytes demonstrated variable expression levels of Jagged1, and weak to absent staining for Notch1, 4 and Delta1. Protein immunolocalization was largely membranous and cytoplasmic, sometimes outlining the lacunae of malignant chondrocytes. Hyaline cartilage demonstrated a diffuse or granular precipitation of Jagged1 suggesting presence of soluble Jagged1 activity at sites of abnormal chondrogenesis. No immunoreactivity for the other Notch members was observed. Calcified cartilage was consistently Notch-negative indicating down-regulation of Notch with cartilage maturation. Stromal components namely endothelial cells and fibroblasts variably expressed Notch1, 3 and Jagged1 but were mildly or non-reactive for the other members.
CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that Notch signaling pathway may participate in cellular differentiation and proliferation in chondrosarcoma. Findings implicate Notch3 and Jagged1 as key molecules that influence the differentiation and maturation of cells of chondrogenic lineage.