Displaying all 12 publications

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  1. Moo EK, Amrein M, Epstein M, Duvall M, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Biophys. J., 2013 Oct 1;105(7):1590-600.
    PMID: 24094400 DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.08.035
    Impact loading of articular cartilage causes extensive chondrocyte death. Cell membranes have a limited elastic range of 3-4% strain but are protected from direct stretch during physiological loading by their membrane reservoir, an intricate pattern of membrane folds. Using a finite-element model, we suggested previously that access to the membrane reservoir is strain-rate-dependent and that during impact loading, the accessible membrane reservoir is drastically decreased, so that strains applied to chondrocytes are directly transferred to cell membranes, which fail when strains exceed 3-4%. However, experimental support for this proposal is lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure the accessible membrane reservoir size for different membrane strain rates using membrane tethering techniques with atomic force microscopy. We conducted atomic force spectroscopy on isolated chondrocytes (n = 87). A micron-sized cantilever was used to extract membrane tethers from cell surfaces at constant pulling rates. Membrane tethers could be identified as force plateaus in the resulting force-displacement curves. Six pulling rates were tested (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μm/s). The size of the membrane reservoir, represented by the membrane tether surface areas, decreased exponentially with increasing pulling rates. The current results support our theoretical findings that chondrocytes exposed to impact loading die because of membrane ruptures caused by high tensile membrane strain rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry*
  2. Poznanski RR
    Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, 2010 Feb;81(2 Pt 1):021902.
    PMID: 20365590
    An assumption commonly used in cable theory is revised by taking into account electrical amplification due to intracellular capacitive effects in passive dendritic cables. A generalized cable equation for a cylindrical volume representation of a dendritic segment is derived from Maxwell's equations under assumptions: (i) the electric-field polarization is restricted longitudinally along the cable length; (ii) extracellular isopotentiality; (iii) quasielectrostatic conditions; and (iv) homogeneous medium with constant conductivity and permittivity. The generalized cable equation is identical to Barenblatt's equation arising in the theory of infiltration in fissured strata with a known analytical solution expressed in terms of a definite integral involving a modified Bessel function and the solution to a linear one-dimensional classical cable equation. Its solution is used to determine the impact of thermal noise on voltage attenuation with distance at any particular time. A regular perturbation expansion for the membrane potential about the linear one-dimensional classical cable equation solution is derived in terms of a Green's function in order to describe the dynamics of free charge within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in passive dendritic cables. The asymptotic value of the first perturbative term is explicitly evaluated for small values of time to predict how the slowly fluctuating (in submillisecond range) electric field attributed to intracellular capacitive effects alters the amplitude of the membrane potential. It was found that capacitive effects are almost negligible for cables with electrotonic lengths L>0.5 , contributes up to 10% of the signal for cables with electrotonic lengths in the range between 0.25
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  3. Lye HS, Khoo BY, Karim AA, Rusul G, Liong MT
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2012 Jul;22(7):981-9.
    PMID: 22580318
    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of electroporation on the cell growth, cholesterol removal, and adherence abilities of L. acidophilus BT 1088 and their subsequent passages. The growth of electroporated parent cells increased (P<0.05) by 4.49-21.25% compared with that of the control. This may be attributed to the alteration of cellular membrane. However, growth of first, second, and third passages of treated cells was comparable with that of the control, which may be attributed to the resealing of transient pores on the cellular membrane. Electroporation also increased (P<0.05) assimilation of cholesterol by treated parent cells (>185.40%) and first passage (>21.72%) compared with that of the control. Meanwhile, incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane was also increased (P<0.05) in the treated parent cells (>108.33%) and first passage (>26.67%), accompanied by increased ratio of cholesterol:phospholipids (C:P) in these passages. Such increased ratio was also supported by increased enrichment of cholesterol in the hydrophilic heads, hydrophobic tails, and the interface regions of the membrane phospholipids of both parent and first passage cells compared with that of the control. However, such traits were not inherited by the subsequent second and third passages. Parent cells also showed decreased intestinal adherence ability (P<0.05; decreased by 1.45%) compared with that of the control, without inheritance by subsequent passages of treated cells. Our data suggest that electoporation could be a potential physical treatment to enhance the cholesterol removal ability of lactobacilli that was inherited by the first passage of treated cells without affecting their intestinal adherence ability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  4. Lye HS, Karim AA, Rusul G, Liong MT
    J Dairy Sci, 2011 Oct;94(10):4820-30.
    PMID: 21943733 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2011-4426
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of electroporation on the membrane properties of lactobacilli and their ability to remove cholesterol in vitro. The growth of lactobacilli cells treated at 7.5 kV/cm for 4 ms was increased by 0.89 to 1.96 log(10) cfu/mL upon fermentation at 37 °C for 20 h, the increase being attributed to the reversible and transient formation of pores and defragmentation of clumped cells. In addition, an increase of cholesterol assimilation as high as 127.2% was observed for most cells electroporated at a field strength of 7.5 kV/cm for 3.5 ms compared with a lower field strength of 2.5 kV/cm. Electroporation also increased the incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane, as shown by an increased cholesterol:phospholipids ratio (50.0-59.6%) upon treatment at 7.5 kV/cm compared with treatment at 2.5 kV/cm. Saturation of cholesterol was observed in different regions of the membrane bilayer such as upper phospholipids, apolar tail, and polar heads, as indicated by fluorescence anisotropy using 3 fluorescent probes. Electroporation could be a useful technique to increase the ability of lactobacilli to remove cholesterol for possible use as cholesterol-lowering adjuncts in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  5. Zaini NA, Osman A, Hamid AA, Ebrahimpour A, Saari N
    Food Chem, 2013 Jan 15;136(2):407-14.
    PMID: 23122078 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.034
    Membrane-bound polyphenoloxidase (mPPO) an oxidative enzyme which is responsible for the undesirable browning reaction in Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss) was investigated. The enzyme was extracted using a non-ionic detergent (Triton X-114), followed by temperature-induced phase partitioning technique which resulted in two separate layers (detergent-poor phase at the upper layer and detergent-rich phase at the lower layer). The upper detergent-poor phase extract was subsequently fractionated by 40-80% ammonium sulfate and chromatographed on HiTrap Phenyl Sepharose and Superdex 200 HR 10/30. The mPPO was purified to 14.1 folds with a recovery of 12.35%. A single prominent protein band appeared on native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE implying that the mPPO is a monomeric protein with estimated molecular weight of 38kDa. Characterization study showed that mPPO from Snake fruit was optimally active at pH 6.5, temperature 30°C and active towards diphenols as substrates. The K(m) and V(max) values were calculated to be 5.46 mM and 0.98 U/ml/min, respectively, when catechol was used as substrate. Among the chemical inhibitors tested, l-cysteine showed the best inhibitory effect, with an IC(50) of 1.3 ± 0.002 mM followed by ascorbic acid (1.5 ± 0.06 mM), glutathione (1.5 ± 0.07 mM), EDTA (100 ± 0.02 mM) and citric acid (186 ± 0.16 mM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  6. Lye HS, Rusul G, Liong MT
    J Dairy Sci, 2010 Apr;93(4):1383-92.
    PMID: 20338415 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2009-2574
    Fifteen strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were screened based on their ability to adhere to hydrocarbons via the determination of cellular hydrophobicity. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. bulgaricus FTDC 1311, and L. casei ATCC 393 showed greater hydrophobicity and, thus, were selected for examination of cholesterol-removal properties. All selected strains showed changes in cellular fatty acid compositions, especially total fatty acids and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of cholesterol compared with those grown in the absence of cholesterol. In addition, we found that cells grown in media containing cholesterol were more resistant to sonication and enzymatic lysis compared with those grown without cholesterol. We further evaluated the location of the incorporated cholesterol via the insertion of fluorescence probes into the cellular membrane. In general, enrichment of cholesterol was found in the regions of the phospholipid tails, upper phospholipids, and polar heads of the cellular membrane phospholipid bilayer. Our results also showed that lactobacilli were able to reduce cholesterol via conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol, aided by the ability of strains to produce cholesterol reductase. Our results provided experimental evidence to strengthen the hypothesis that probiotics could remove cholesterol via the incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane and conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol. The strains studied may be potential health adjunct cultures in fermented dairy products with possible in vivo hypocholesterolemic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  7. Yong AL, Ooh KF, Ong HC, Chai TT, Wong FC
    Food Chem, 2015 Nov 1;186:32-6.
    PMID: 25976788 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.103
    In this paper, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism and potential therapeutic targets of three antibacterial medicinal plants. Upon treatment with the plant extracts, bacterial proteins were extracted and resolved using denaturing gel electrophoresis. Differentially-expressed bacterial proteins were excised from the gels and subjected to sequence analysis by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. From our study, seven differentially expressed bacterial proteins (triacylglycerol lipase, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, flagellin, outer membrane protein A, stringent starvation protein A, 30S ribosomal protein s1 and 60 kDa chaperonin) were identified. Additionally, scanning electron microscope study indicated morphological damages induced on bacterial cell surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time these bacterial proteins are being reported, following treatments with the antibacterial plant extracts. Further studies in this direction could lead to the detailed understanding of their inhibition mechanism and discovery of target-specific antibacterial agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  8. Yap WY, Hwang JS
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 04;23(10).
    PMID: 30287801 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102537
    A group of stable, water-soluble and membrane-bound proteins constitute the pore forming toxins (PFTs) in cnidarians. They interact with membranes to physically alter the membrane structure and permeability, resulting in the formation of pores. These lesions on the plasma membrane causes an imbalance of cellular ionic gradients, resulting in swelling of the cell and eventually its rupture. Of all cnidarian PFTs, actinoporins are by far the best studied subgroup with established knowledge of their molecular structure and their mode of pore-forming action. However, the current view of necrotic action by actinoporins may not be the only mechanism that induces cell death since there is increasing evidence showing that pore-forming toxins can induce either necrosis or apoptosis in a cell-type, receptor and dose-dependent manner. In this review, we focus on the response of the cellular immune system to the cnidarian pore-forming toxins and the signaling pathways that might be involved in these cellular responses. Since PFTs represent potential candidates for targeted toxin therapy for the treatment of numerous cancers, we also address the challenge to overcoming the immunogenicity of these toxins when used as therapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  9. Webb CT, Chandrapala D, Oslan SN, Bamert RS, Grinter RD, Dunstan RA, et al.
    Microbiologyopen, 2017 12;6(6).
    PMID: 29055967 DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.513
    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that chronically inhabits the human stomach. To survive and maintain advantage, it has evolved unique host-pathogen interactions mediated by Helicobacter-specific proteins in the bacterial outer membrane. These outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are anchored to the cell surface via a C-terminal β-barrel domain, which requires their assembly by the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM). Here we have assessed the complexity of the OMP C-terminal β-barrel domains employed by H. pylori, and characterized the H. pyloriBAM complex. Around 50 Helicobacter-specific OMPs were assessed with predictive structural algorithms. The data suggest that H. pylori utilizes a unique β-barrel architecture that might constitute H. pylori-specific Type V secretions system. The structural and functional diversity in these proteins is encompassed by their extramembrane domains. Bioinformatic and biochemical characterization suggests that the low β-barrel-complexity requires only minimalist assembly machinery. The H. pylori proteins BamA and BamD associate to form a BAM complex, with features of BamA enabling an oligomerization that might represent a mechanism by which a minimalist BAM complex forms a larger, sophisticated machinery capable of servicing the outer membrane proteome of H. pylori.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  10. Yeo SK, Liong MT
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2012 Aug;63(5):566-79.
    PMID: 22133079 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2011.639349
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC) at 30-90 J/m²) on the membrane properties of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and their bioconversion of isoflavones in prebiotic-soymilk. UV treatment caused membrane permeabilization and alteration at the acyl chain, polar head and interface region of membrane bilayers via lipid peroxidation. Such alteration subsequently led to decreased (p < 0.05) viability of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria immediately after the treatment. However, the effect was transient where cells treated with UV, particularly UVA, grew better in prebiotic-soymilk than the control upon fermentation at 37°C for 24 h (p < 0.05). In addition, UV treatment also increased (p < 0.05) the intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. This was accompanied by an increased (p < 0.05) bioconversion of glucosides to bioactive aglycones in prebiotic-soymilk. Our present study illustrated that treatment of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria with UV could develop a fermented prebiotic-soymilk with enhanced bioactivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  11. Siar CH, Ishak I, Ng KH
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2015 Jan;44(1):51-8.
    PMID: 25059841 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12203
    Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally infiltrative odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a high risk for recurrence. Podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelium marker, putatively promotes collective cell migration and invasiveness in this neoplasm. However, its role in the recurrent ameloblastoma (RA) remains unclear. As morphological, signaling, and genetic differences may exist between primary and recurrent tumors, clarification of their distribution patterns is of relevance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry
  12. Yeo SK, Liong MT
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Jan;93(2):396-409.
    PMID: 22806322 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5775
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electroporation (2.5-7.5 kV cm⁻¹ for 3.0-4.0 ms) on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, membrane properties and bioconversion of isoflavones in mannitol-soymilk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/chemistry*
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