Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Chen JH, Liu L, Lim PE, Wei D
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2019 Jul;42(7):1129-1142.
    PMID: 30919105 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-019-02110-z
    Microalgal lipid production by Chlorella protothecoides using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was investigated in this study. First, maximum glucose and reducing sugar concentrations of 15.2 and 27.0 g/L were obtained in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH), and the effects of different percentages of glucose and xylose on algal cultivation were investigated. Afterwards, SCBH was used as a carbon source for the cultivation of C. protothecoides and higher biomass concentration of 10.7 g/L was achieved. Additionally, a large amount of fatty acids, accounting up to 16.8% of dry weight, were accumulated in C. protothecoides in the nitrogen-limited (0.1-1 mmol/L) culture. Although SCBH inhibited fatty acid accumulation to a certain degree and the inhibition was aggravated by nitrogen starvation, SCBH favored microalgal cell growth and fatty acid production. The present study is of significance for the integration of cost-effective feedstocks production for biodiesel with low-cost SCBH as well as environmentally friendly disposal of lignocellulosic wastes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development*
  2. Imaizumi Y, Nagao N, Yusoff FM, Taguchi S, Toda T
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Jun;162:53-9.
    PMID: 24747382 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.123
    To determine the optimum light intensity per cell required for rapid growth regardless of cell density, continuous cultures of the microalga Chlorella zofingiensis were grown with a sufficient supply of nutrients and CO2 and were subjected to different light intensities in the range of 75-1000 μE m(-2) s(-1). The cell density of culture increased over time for all light conditions except for the early stage of the high light condition of 1000 μE m(-2) s(-1). The light intensity per cell required for the high specific growth rate of 0.5 day(-1) was determined to be 28-45 μE g-ds(-1) s(-1). The specific growth rate was significantly correlated to light intensity (y=0.721×x/(66.98+x), r(2)=0.85, p<0.05). A high specific growth rate was maintained over a range of light intensities (250-1000 μE m(-2) s(-1)). This range of light intensities suggested that effective production of C. zofingiensis can be maintained outdoors under strong light by using the optimum specific light intensity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development
  3. Lananan F, Jusoh A, Ali N, Lam SS, Endut A
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Aug;141:75-82.
    PMID: 23562179 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.006
    A study was performed to determine the effect of Conway and f/2 media on the growth of microalgae genera. Genera of Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros sp., Pavlova sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were isolated from the South China Sea. During the cultivation period, the density of cells were determined using Syringe Liquid Sampler Particle Measuring System (SLS-PMS) that also generated the population distribution curve based on the size of the cells. The population of the microalgae genera is thought to consist of mother and daughter generations since these microalgae genera reproduce by releasing small non-motile reproductive cells (autospores). It was found that the reproduction of Tetraselmis sp., Dunaliella sp. and Pavlova sp. could be sustained longer in f/2 Medium. Higher cell density was achieved by genus Dunaliella, Chlorella and Isochrysis in Conway Medium. Different genera of microalgae had a preference for different types of cultivation media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development*
  4. Wong CY, Teoh ML, Phang SM, Lim PE, Beardall J
    PLoS One, 2015;10(10):e0139469.
    PMID: 26427046 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139469
    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain, suggesting negative effects of global climate change on microalgae inhabiting (circum-) polar regions. For temperate and tropical strains of Chlorella, damage from UVR was independent of temperature but the repair constant increased with increasing temperature, implying an improved ability of these strains to recover from UVR stress under global warming.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development
  5. Cheah WY, Show PL, Yap YJ, Mohd Zaid HF, Lam MK, Lim JW, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):61-69.
    PMID: 31884878 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2019.1704536
    Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 was cultivated using palm oil mill effluent (POME) in a novel-designed photobioreactor (NPBR) and glass-made vessel photobioreactor (PBR). The comparison was made on biomass and lipid productions, as well as its pollutants removal efficiencies. NPBR is transparent and is developed in thin flat panels with a high surface area per volume ratio. It is equipped with microbubbling and baffles retention, ensuring effective light and CO2 utilization. The triangular shape of this reactor at the bottom serves to ease microalgae cell harvesting by sedimentation. Both biomass and lipid yields attained in NPBR were 2.3-2.9 folds higher than cultivated in PBR. The pollutants removal efficiencies achieved were 93.7% of chemical oxygen demand, 98.6% of total nitrogen and 96.0% of total phosphorus. Mathematical model revealed that effective light received and initial mass contributes toward successful microalgae cultivation. Overall, the results revealed the potential of NPBR integration in Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 cultivation, with an aim to achieve greater feasibility in microalgal-based biofuel real application and for environmental sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development
  6. Azaman SNA, Satharasinghe DA, Tan SW, Nagao N, Yusoff FM, Yeap SK
    Genes (Basel), 2020 09 25;11(10).
    PMID: 32992970 DOI: 10.3390/genes11101131
    Chlorella is a popular microalga with robust physiological and biochemical characteristics, which can be cultured under various conditions. The exploration of the small RNA content of Chlorella could improve strategies for the enhancement of metabolite production from this microalga. In this study, stress was introduced to the Chlorella sorokiniana culture to produce high-value metabolites such as carotenoids and phenolic content. The small RNA transcriptome of C. sorokiniana was sequenced, focusing on microRNA (miRNA) content. From the analysis, 98 miRNAs were identified in cultures subjected to normal and stress conditions. The functional analysis result showed that the miRNA targets found were most often involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, followed by protein metabolism, cell cycle, and porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids, terpenoids, and lipids was found mostly in stress conditions. These results may help to improve our understanding of regulatory mechanisms of miRNA in the biological and metabolic process of Chlorella species. It is important and timely to determine the true potential of this microalga species and to support the potential for genetic engineering of microalgae as they receive increasing focus for their development as an alternative source of biofuel, food, and health supplements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development
  7. Sankaran R, Show PL, Cheng YS, Tao Y, Ao X, Nguyen TDP, et al.
    Mol Biotechnol, 2018 Oct;60(10):749-761.
    PMID: 30116991 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-018-0111-6
    Microalgae are the most promising sources of protein, which have high potential due to their high-value protein content. Conventional methods of protein harnessing required multiple steps, and they are generally complex, time consuming, and expensive. Currently, the study of integration methods for microalgae cell disruption and protein recovery process as a single-step process is attracting considerable interest. This study aims to investigate the novel approach of integration method of electrolysis and liquid biphasic flotation for protein extraction from wet biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 and obtaining the optimal operating conditions for the protein extraction. The optimized conditions were found at 60% (v/v) of 1-propanol as top phase, 250 g/L of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as bottom phase, crude microalgae loading of 0.1 g, air flowrate of 150 cc/min, flotation time of 10 min, voltage of 20 V and electrode's tip touching the top phase of LBEF. The protein recovery and separation efficiency after optimization were 23.4106 ± 1.2514% and 173.0870 ± 4.4752%, respectively. Comparison for LBEF with and without the aid of electric supply was also conducted, and it was found that with the aid of electrolysis, the protein recovery and separation efficiency increased compared to the LBEF without electrolysis. This novel approach minimizes the steps for overall protein recovery from microalgae, time consumption, and cost of operation, which is beneficial in bioprocessing industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development*
  8. Fathurrahman L, Hajar AH, Sakinah DW, Nurhazwani Z, Ahmad J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Nov 15;16(22):1517-23.
    PMID: 24511694
    One of the main limitations of productivity in photobioreactor is the inefficient conversion of the available light into biomass. Photoautotrophic cells such as microalgae only absorb a small fraction of supplied illumination due to limitation of its photosystem's (PS) absorbing rate. However, phenomenon of Flashing Light Effect (FLE) allows microalgae to utilize strong light exceptionally through intermittent exposure. Exposure of strong light at correct frequency of light and dark photoperiod would allow two pigment-protein complexes, PSI and PSII to be at the equilibrium mid-point potential to allow efficient light conversion. Narrow range of optimum frequency is crucial since overexposure to strong light would injured photosynthetic apparatus whereas longer dark period would contributed to loss of biomass due to triacylglycerol metabolism. The behaviour of microalgae towards various illumination conditions of FLE was determined at batch Photobioreactor (PBR) by varying the aeration flow rate: 16.94, 33.14 and 49.28 mL sec(-1) which yield, respectively the light exposure time of 3.99, 1.71 and 1.1 seconds per cycle. Maximum cell density in FLE-PBR was significantly higher at the exponential phase as compared to the continuously illuminated culture (p = 5.62 x 10(-5), a = 0.05) under the flow rate of 25.07 mL sec(-1). Maximum cell density yield of FLE-PBR and continuously illuminated PBR was, respectively 3.1125 x 10(7) and 2.947 x 10(7) cells mL(-1). Utilization of FLE as an innovative solution to increase the efficiency of microalgae to convert light into chemical energy would revolutionize the microalgae culture, reduce the time for cultivation and produce higher maximum biomass density.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development
  9. Maznah WO, Al-Fawwaz AT, Surif M
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(8):1386-93.
    PMID: 23513679
    In this study, the biosorption of copper and zinc ions by Chlorella sp. and Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from local environments in Malaysia was investigated in a batch system and by microscopic analyses. Under optimal biosorption conditions, the biosorption capacity of Chlorella sp. for copper and zinc ions was 33.4 and 28.5 mg/g, respectively, after 6 hr of biosorption in an immobilised system. Batch experiments showed that the biosorption capacity of algal biomass immobilised in the form of sodium alginate beads was higher than that of the free biomass. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses revealed that copper and zinc were mainly sorbed at the cell surface during biosorption. Exposure to 5 mg/L of copper and zinc affected both the chlorophyll content and cell count of the algal cells after the first 12 hr of contact time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorella/growth & development
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