Burgers were prepared using duck surimi-like material (DSLM) with polydextrose added (SL) and DSLM with sucrose-sorbitol added (SS), and the properties of these burgers were compared with those of burgers made of chicken meat (CB) and duck meat (DB). Quality characteristics such as chemical composition, cooking loss, diameter shrinkage, color, and texture were measured. The DB had a lower moisture content (55.58%) and higher fat content (21.44%) and cooking loss (11.01%) compared with other samples, whereas CB, SS, and SL did not differ significantly in moisture (65.21-66.10%) and fat (10.42-11.16%) content or cooking loss (5.32-6.15%). The SS and SL were positioned below CB and above DB in terms of hardness, chewiness, and springiness. Ten trained panelists assessed the burgers using quantitative descriptive analysis. Among the burgers, CB had the greatest brightness of color, hardness, springiness, and chewiness. The SS had greater sweetness than the other burgers. Both SL and SS had significantly less animalic odor, meaty flavor, oiliness, juiciness, and saltiness compared with DB. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burgers prepared from DSLM approached those of burgers made of chicken.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasound on the intestinal adherence ability, cell growth, and cholesterol removal ability of parent cells and subsequent passages of Lactobacillus fermentum FTDC 1311. Ultrasound significantly decreased the intestinal adherence ability of treated parent cells compared to that of the control by 11.32% (P<0.05), which may be due to the protein denaturation upon local heating. Growth of treated parent cells also decreased by 4.45% (P<0.05) immediately upon ultrasound (0-4h) and showed an increase (P<0.05) in the viability by 2.18-2.34% during the later stage of fermentation (12-20 h) compared to that of the control. In addition, an increase (P<0.05) in assimilation of cholesterol (>9.74%) was also observed for treated parent cells compared to that of the control, accompanied by increased (P<0.05) incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane. This was supported by the increased ratio of membrane cholesterol:phospholipids (C:P), saturation of cholesterol in the apolar regions, upper phospholipids regions, and polar regions of membrane phospholipids of parent cells compared to that of the control (P<0.05). However, such traits were not inherited by the subsequent passages of treated cells (first, second, and third passages). Our data suggested that ultrasound treatment could be used to improve cholesterol removal ability of parent cells without inducing permanent damage/defects on treated cells of subsequent passages.
Bile salt deconjugation by Lactobacillus strains is often closely linked to bile tolerance and survival of the strains in the gut and lowering of cholesterol in the host. The present study investigated the deconjugation of bile salts and removal of cholesterol by 12 Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The 12 strains were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.
1. Various dosages of metabolite combinations of the Lactobacillus plantarum RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (COM456) were used to study the egg production, faecal microflora population, faecal pH, small intestine morphology, and plasma and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens. 2. A total of 500 Lohmann Brown hens were raised from 19 weeks to 31 weeks of age. The birds were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed on various treatment diets: (i) basal diet without supplementation of metabolites (control); (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0·3% COM456 metabolites; (iii) basal diet supplemented with 0·6% COM456 metabolites; (iv) basal diet supplemented with 0·9% COM456 metabolites; and (v) basal diet supplemented with 1·2% COM456 metabolites. 3. The inclusion of 0·6% liquid metabolite combinations, produced from three L. plantarum strains, demonstrated the best effect in improving the hens' egg production, faecal lactic acid bacteria population, and small intestine villus height, and reducing faecal pH and Enterobacteriaceae population, and plasma and yolk cholesterol concentrations. 4. The metabolites from locally isolated L. plantarum are a possible alternative feed additive in poultry production.
Nanoliposome and nanoniosome formulations containing myrtle extract were prepared without using cholesterol and toxic organic solvents for the first time. The formulations had different concentrations of lecithin (5, 7, and 9% w/w) and Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) values (6.76, 8.40, and 9.59). The physicochemical characterization results showed a nearly spherical shape for the prepared nanosamples. The particle sizes, zeta potentials and encapsulation efficiencies for the prepared nanoliposomes and nanoniosomes were at a range of 260-293 nm and 224-520 nm; -33.16 to - 31.16 mV and - 33.3 to - 10.36 mV; and 68-73% and 79-83%, respectively. The formulated nanoniosomes showed better stability during storage time. Besides, the encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release rate of myrtle extract could be controlled by adjusting the lecithin concentration and HLB value. The release of myrtle extract from nanovesicles showed a pH-responsive character. The FTIR analysis confirmed that the myrtle extract was encapsulated in nanovesicles physically.
In order to improve the membrane lipophilicity and the affinity towards the environment of lipid bilayers, squalene (SQ) could be conjugated to phospholipids in the formation of liposomes. The effect of membrane composition and concentrations on the degradation of liposomes prepared via the extrusion method was investigated. Liposomes were prepared using a mixture of SQ, cholesterol (CH) and Tween80 (TW80). Based on the optimal conditions, liposome batches were prepared in the absence and presence of SQ. Their physicochemical and stability behavior were evaluated as a function of liposome constituent. From the optimization study, the liposomal formulation containing 5% (w/w) mixed soy lecithin (ML), 0.5% (w/w) SQ, 0.3% (w/w) CH and 0.75% (w/w) TW80 had optimal physicochemical properties and displayed a unilamellar structure. Liposome prepared using the optimal formulation had a low particle size (158.31 ± 2.96 nm) and acceptable %increase in the particle size (15.09% ± 3.76%) and %trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (%TEAC) loss (35.69% ± 0.72%) against UV light treatment (280-320 nm) for 6 h. The interesting outcome of this research was the association of naturally occurring substance SQ for size reduction without the extra input of energy or mechanical procedures, and improvement of vesicle stability and antioxidant activity of ML-based liposome. This study also demonstrated that the presence of SQ in the membrane might increase the acyl chain dynamics and decrease the viscosity of the dispersion, thereby limiting long-term stability of the liposome.
Der p 2 is a major dust mite allergen and >80% of mite allergic individuals have specific IgE to this allergen. Although it is well characterized in terms of allergenicity, there is still some ambiguity in terms of its biological function. Three-dimensional structural analysis of Der p 2 and its close homologues indicate the presence of a hydrophobic cavity which can potentially bind to lipid molecules. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential ligand of Der p 2. Using a liposome pulldown assay, we show that recombinant Der p 2 binds to liposomes prepared with exogenous cholesterol in a dose dependent fashion. Next, an ELISA based assay using immobilized lipids was used to study binding specificities of other lipid molecules. Cholesterol was the preferred ligand of Der p 2 among 11 different lipids tested. Two homologues of Der p 2, Der f 2 and Der f 22 also bound to cholesterol. Further, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we confirmed that cholesterol is the natural ligand of Der p 2. Three amino acid residues of Der p 2, V104, V106 and V110 are possible cholesterol binding sites, as alanine mutations of these residues showed a significant decrease in binding (p cholesterol.
The current investigation evaluated the potential of proniosome as a carrier to enhance skin permeation and skin retention of a highly lipophilic compound, α-mangostin. α-Mangostin proniosomes were prepared using the coacervation phase seperation method. Upon hydration, α-mangostin loaded niosomes were characterized for size, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE) and ζ-potential. The in vitro permeation experiments with dermis-split Yucatan Micropig (YMP) skin revealed that proniosomes composed of Spans, soya lecithin and cholesterol were able to enhance the skin permeation of α-mangostin with a factor range from 1.8- to 8.0-fold as compared to the control suspension. Furthermore, incorporation of soya lecithin in the proniosomal formulation significantly enhanced the viable epidermis/dermis (VED) concentration of α-mangostin. All the proniosomal formulations (except for S20L) had significantly (p<0.05) enhanced deposition of α-mangostin in the VED layer with a factor range from 2.5- to 2.9-fold as compared to the control suspension. Since addition of Spans and soya lecithin in water improved the solubility of α-mangostin, this would be related to the enhancement of skin permeation and skin concentration of α-mangostin. The choice of non-ionic surfactant in proniosomes is an important factor governing the skin permeation and skin retention of α-mangostin. These results suggested that proniosomes can be utilized as a carrier for highly lipophilic compound like α-mangostin for topical application.
Faecal sterols detection is a promising method for identifying sources of faecal pollution. In this study, faecal contamination in water samples from point source (sewage treatment plants, chicken farms, quail farms and horse stables) was extracted using the solid phase extraction (SPE) technique. Faecal sterols (coprostanol, cholesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol and stigmastanol) were selected as parameters to differentiate the source of faecal pollution. The results indicated that coprostanol, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were the most significant parameters that can be used as source tracers for faecal contamination. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were applied to the data set on faecal contamination in water from various pollution sources in order to validate the faecal sterols' profiles. Cluster analysis generated three clusters: coprostanol was in cluster 1, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol formed cluster 2, while cluster 3 contained stigmasterol and stigmastanol. Discriminant analysis suggested that coprostanol, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were the most significant parameters to discriminate between the faecal pollution source. The use of chemometric techniques provides useful and promising indicators in tracing the source of faecal contamination.