Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

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  1. Ling TC, Loong CK, Tan WS, Tey BT, Abdullah WM, Ariff A
    J. Microbiol., 2004 Sep;42(3):228-32.
    PMID: 15459653
    In this paper, we investigated the development of a simplified and rapid primary capture step for the recovery of M13 bacteriophage from particulate-containing feedstock. M13 bacteriophage, carrying an insert, was propagated and subsequently purified by the application of both conventional multiple steps and expanded bed anion exchange chromatography. In the conventional method, precipitation was conducted with PEG/NaCl, and centrifugation was also performed. In the single step expanded bed anion exchange adsorption, UpFront FastLine 20 (20 mm i.d.) from UpFront Chromatography was used as the contactor, while 54 ml (Ho = 15 cm) of STREAMLINE DEAE (rho = 1.2 g/cm3) from Amersham Pharmacia Biotechnology was used as the anion exchanger. The performance of the two methods were evaluated, analysed, and compared. It was demonstrated that the purification of the M13 bacteriophage, using expanded bed anion exchange adsorption, yielded the higher recovery percentage, at 82.86%. The conventional multiple step method yielded the lower recovery percentage, 36.07%. The generic application of this integrated technique has also been assessed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods*
  2. Tan NH, Tan CS
    Toxicon, 1987;25(11):1249-53.
    PMID: 3433296
    The enzymatic activities of four samples of Malayan cobra venom were investigated. There was significant variation in the contents of L-amino acid oxidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A, 5'-nucleotidase and hyaluronidase. The phosphodiesterase content was, however, constant. Storage of the lyophilized venom powder at 25 degrees C for 1 month did not affect the enzymatic activities. The venom enzymatic activities were generally also stable at 4 degrees C in 0.85% saline solution. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 39 days in 0.85% saline solution, the venom still retained considerable amounts of enzymatic activities. SP-Sephadex C-25 ion-exchange chromatography of the venom showed that the phospholipase A, L-amino acid oxidase, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase exist in multiple forms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  3. Lee MF, Chan ES, Tan WS, Tam KC, Tey BT
    J Chromatogr A, 2016 May 6;1445:1-9.
    PMID: 27059397 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2016.03.066
    Purification of virus-like particles (VLPs) in bind-and-elute mode has reached a bottleneck. Negative chromatography has emerged as the alternative solution; however, benchmark of negative chromatography media and their respective optimized conditions are absent. Hence, this study was carried out to compare the performance of different negative chromatography media for the purification of hepatitis B VLPs (HB-VLPs) from clarified Escherichia coli feedstock. The modified anion exchange media, core-shell adsorbents (InertShell and InertLayer 1000) and polymer grafted adsorbents (SQ) were compared. The results of chromatography from packed bed column of core-shell adsorbents showed that there is a trade-off between the purity and recovery of HB-VLPs in the flowthrough fraction due to the shell thickness. Atomic force microscopic analysis revealed funnel-shaped pore channels in the shell layer which may contribute to the entrapment of HB-VLPs. A longer residence time at a lower feed flow rate (0.5ml/min) improved slightly the HB-VLPs purity in all modified adsorbents, but the recovery in InertShell reduced substantially. The preheat-treatment is not recommended for the negative chromatography as the thermal-induced co-aggregation of HCPs and HB-VLPs would flow along with HB-VLPs and thus reduced the HB-VLPs purity in the flowthrough. Further reduction in the feedstock concentration enhanced the purity of HB-VLPs especially in InertLayer 1000 but reduced substantially the recovery of HB-VLPs. In general, the polymer grafted adsorbent, SQ, performed better than the core-shell adsorbents in handling a higher feedstock concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange*
  4. Monjezi R, Tey BT, Sieo CC, Tan WS
    PMID: 20538529 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2010.05.028
    M13 is a non-lytic filamentous bacteriophage (phage). It has been used widely in phage display technology for displaying foreign peptides, and also for studying macromolecule structures and interactions. Traditionally, this phage has been purified by cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient ultracentrifugation which is highly laborious and time consuming. In the present study, a simple, rapid and efficient method for the purification of M13 based on anion exchange chromatography was established. A pre-packed SepFast Super Q column connected to a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system was employed to capture released phages in clarified Escherichia coli fermented broth. An average yield of 74% was obtained from a packed bed mode elution using citrate buffer (pH 4), containing 1.5 M NaCl at 1 ml/min flow rate. The purification process was shortened substantially to less than 2 h from 18 h in the conventional ultracentrifugation method. SDS-PAGE revealed that the purity of particles was comparable to that of CsCl gradient density ultracentrifugation method. Plaque forming assay showed that the purified phages were still infectious.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods*
  5. Ong KK, Khor HT, Tan DT
    Anal. Biochem., 1991 Aug 01;196(2):211-4.
    PMID: 1776669
    A rapid, easy, and sensitive method is described in this paper for the assay of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA) reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. [14C]HMG CoA was used as the substrate and the product formed, i.e., [14C]mevalonate, was allowed to be converted to its lactone form (mevalonolactone) in the presence of HCl. The reaction mixture was applied to a column containing an anionic exchanger. The column was made up of QAE-Sephadex (A25, formate form) packed to a height of 4 cm in Pasteur pipets. Under these conditions, mevalonolactone was not retained by the column and was eluted with ammonium formate solution while HMG CoA, being negatively charged, was retained by the gel and eluted by HCl above 0.05 M. Determination of the amount of radioactivity in mevalonolactone was then used to quantitate the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This assay has been successfully used for determining the activity of this enzyme in a microsomal fraction prepared from the liver of the rat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods*
  6. Thevarajah M, Nadzimah MN, Chew YY
    Clin. Biochem., 2009 Mar;42(4-5):430-4.
    PMID: 19026622 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2008.10.015
    Glycated hemoglobin, measured as HbA1c is used as an index of mean glycemia in diabetic patients over the preceding 2-3 months. Various assay methods are used to measure HbA1c and many factors may interfere with its measurement according to assay method used, causing falsely high or low results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods*
  7. Yap CF, Tan WS, Sieo CC, Tey BT
    Biotechnol. Prog., 2013 Mar-Apr;29(2):564-7.
    PMID: 23364925 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.1697
    NP(Δc375) is a truncated version of the nucleocapsid protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which self-assembles into a long helical structure. A packed bed anion exchange chromatography (PB-AEC), SepFastTM Supor Q pre-packed column, was used to purify NP(Δc375) from clarified feedstock. This PB-AEC column adsorbed 76.2% of NP(Δc375) from the clarified feedstock. About 67.5% of the adsorbed NP(Δc375) was successfully eluted from the column by applying 50 mM Tris-HCl elution buffer supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl at pH 7. Thus, a recovery yield of 51.4% with a purity of 76.7% which corresponds to a purification factor of 6.5 was achieved in this PB-AEC operation. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the helical structure of the NP(Δc375) purified by SepFast(TM) Supor Q pre-packed column was as long as 490 nm and 22-24 nm in diameter. The antigenicity of the purified NP(Δc375) was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/instrumentation; Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods*
  8. Yap MK, Fung SY, Tan KY, Tan NH
    Acta Trop., 2014 May;133:15-25.
    PMID: 24508616 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.01.014
    The proteome of Naja sumatrana (Equatorial spitting cobra) venom was investigated by shotgun analysis and a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Shotgun analysis revealed the presence of 39 proteins in the venom while the chromatographic approach identified 37 venom proteins. The results indicated that, like other Asiatic cobra venoms, N. sumatrana contains large number of three finger toxins and phospholipases A2, which together constitute 92.1% by weight of venom protein. However, only eight of the toxins can be considered as major venom toxins. These include two phospholipases A2, three neurotoxins (two long neurotoxins and a short neurotoxin) and three cardiotoxins. The eight major toxins have relative abundance of 1.6-27.2% venom proteins and together account for 89.8% (by weight) of total venom protein. Other venom proteins identified include Zn-metalloproteinase-disintegrin, Thaicobrin, CRISP, natriuretic peptide, complement depleting factors, cobra venom factors, venom nerve growth factor and cobra serum albumin. The proteome of N. sumatrana venom is similar to proteome of other Asiatic cobra venoms but differs from that of African spitting cobra venom. Our results confirm that the main toxic action of N. sumatrana venom is neurotoxic but the large amount of cardiotoxins and phospholipases A2 are likely to contribute significantly to the overall pathophysiological action of the venom. The differences in toxin distribution between N. sumatrana venom and African spitting cobra venoms suggest possible differences in the pathophysiological actions of N. sumatrana venom and the African spitting cobra venoms, and explain why antivenom raised against Asiatic cobra venom is not effective against African spitting cobra venoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  9. Nget Hong Tan, Chon Seng Tan
    Toxicon, 1988;26(11):989-96.
    PMID: 3245058
    The toxic and biological activities of four samples of Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus venom were examined. The lethality, protein composition and biological activities of the four venom samples were similar. Three of the venom samples had LD50 (i.v.) values of 0.9 micrograms/g while the fourth had a lower LD50 (i.v.) of 0.45 micrograms/g. All four venom samples exhibited hemorrhagic, edema-inducing, anticoagulant and thrombin-like activities as well as the usual enzymes found in crotalid venoms. DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatographic fractionation of the venom yielded 10 protein fractions. Only two fractions (fractions A and F) were lethal to mice; the major lethal fraction being fraction F. This fraction had an LD50 (i.v.) of 0.2 micrograms/g and exhibited hemorrhagic, edema-inducing and thrombin-like activity. It also exhibited phospholipase A, arginine ester hydrolase, arginine amidase, protease, 5'-nucleotidase, acetylcholinesterase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities. The lethal potency of fraction F is potentiated by fraction G, which exhibited anticoagulant activity as well as hemorrhagic, edema-inducing and enzymatic activities. Fractions F plus G account for almost 100% of the lethal potency of the venom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  10. Hassan K, Vijayasilan T, Mahmood Z, Abdul Hamid H, Chin YM
    Singapore Med J, 1988 Oct;29(5):462-8.
    PMID: 3241975
    Whole blood samples from patients with various forms of alpha- and beta- thalassaemia were incubated with 14C-Leucine to determine the relative rates of production of the alpha and beta chains by their reticulocytes. The labelled globin chains were fractionated by CM-Cellulose Chromatography in 8M Urea and the incorporated activity determined. The relative rates of synthesis of alpha and beta chains in some cases of alpha and beta- thalassaemia were established and the chain synthetic ratios were compared with similar ratios in normal individuals. The results show that it is possible to identify from the relative rates of in-vitro synthesis of the alpha and beta chains, the presence of the common thalassaemia slates in particular beta-thal trait, beta-thal homozygotes, Hb H disease and alpha0-thal trait. The presence of transfused blood does not affect the result. This study indicates that an abnormal alpha/beta chain synthesis ratio is useful in defining alpha and beta-thalassaemia variants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  11. Tan NH, Saifuddin MN
    Biochem. Int., 1989 Oct;19(4):937-44.
    PMID: 2619759
    The L-amino acid oxidase (EC 1. 4. 3. 2) from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be 140000 when examined by gel filtration and 68000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 4.5 and an intravenous LD50 of 5 micrograms/g in mice. It is a glycoprotein and contains two moles of FAD per mole of enzyme. The enzyme exhibited unusual thermal stability and unlike most other venom L-amino acid oxidases, it was stable in alkaline solution and was not inactivated by freezing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  12. Tan NH, Tan CS
    Toxicon, 1989;27(6):697-702.
    PMID: 2749766
    Sumatran pit viper (Trimeresurus sumatranus sumatranus) venom was fractionated by DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography into seven fractions. Fractions 4, 5 and 6 were lethal to mice and exhibited strong hemorrhagic activity, as well as some enzymatic activities. Fraction 6 also exhibited potent anticoagulant and thrombin-like activities. Analysis of the biological and enzymatic properties of the three lethal fractions suggests that the major lethal component of fractions 4 and 5 may be the hemorrhagic principle, and that the lethality of fraction 6 may be due to the hemorrhagic principle and/or the anticoagulant principle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  13. Tan NH, Poh CH, Tan CS
    Toxicon, 1989;27(9):1065-70.
    PMID: 2799837
    Bungarus candidus venom exhibited high hyaluronidase, acetylcholinesterase and phospholipase A activities; low proteinase, 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities and moderately high L-amino acid oxidase activity. SP-Sephadex C-50 ion exchange chromatographic fractionation of the venom and Sephadex G-50 chromatography of the major lethal venom fractions indicate that the venom contains at least two highly lethal, basic phospholipases A with LD50 (i.v.) values of 0.02 micrograms/g (F6A) and 0.18 micrograms/g (F4A), respectively; as well as two polypeptide toxins with LD50 (i.v.) values of 0.17 micrograms/g and 0.83 micrograms/g, respectively. The major lethal toxin is the basic lethal phospholipase A, F6A, which accounts for approximately 13% of the venom protein and has a mol. wt of 21,000.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  14. Che Hussian CHA, Raja Abd Rahman RNZ, Thean Chor AL, Salleh AB, Mohamad Ali MS
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e5833.
    PMID: 30479887 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5833
    T1 Lipase is a thermostable secretary protein of Geobacillus zalihae strain previously expressed in a prokaryotic system and purified using three-step purification: affinity 1, affinity 2, and ion exchange chromatography (IEX). This approach is time consuming and offers low purity and recovery yield. In order to enhance the purification strategy of T1 lipase, affinity 2 was removed so that after affinity 1, the cleaved Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and matured T1 lipase could be directly separated through IEX. Therefore, a rational design of GST isoelectric point (pI) was implemented by prediction using ExPASy software in order to enhance the differences of pI values between GST and matured T1 lipase. Site-directed mutagenesis at two locations flanking the downstream region of GST sequences (H215R and G213R) was successfully performed. Double point mutations changed the charge on GST from 6.10 to 6.53. The purified lipase from the new construct GST tag mutant-T1 was successfully purified using two steps of purification with 6,849 U/mg of lipase specific activity, 33% yield, and a 44-fold increase in purification. Hence, the increment of the pI values in the GST tag fusion T1 lipase resulted in a successful direct separation through IEX and lead to successful purification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  15. Lee MF, Chan ES, Tan WS, Tam KC, Tey BT
    J Chromatogr A, 2015 Oct 9;1415:161-5.
    PMID: 26358561 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2015.08.056
    Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA), an inert polymer was grafted onto an anion exchange adsorbent for the exclusion of relatively larger hepatitis B virus-like particles (HB-VLPs) from the anion exchange ligand (Q) and at the same time this process allowed the selective adsorption of smaller size Escherichia coli host cell proteins (HCPs). The chain lengths of the POEGMA grafted were modulated by varying the amount of monomers used in the polymer grafting. The purification factor and yield of the HB-VLPs obtained from the flow-through of negative chromatography were 2.3 and 66.0±3.1%, respectively, when shorter chain length of POEGMA (SQ) was grafted. Adsorbent grafted with longer chain of POEGMA (LQ) excluded some HCPs that are larger in size together with the HB-VLPs, reducing the purity of the recovered HB-VLPs. Further heat-treatment of the flow-through pool from SQ followed by centrifugation increased the purity of heat stable HB-VLPs to 87.5±1.1%. Heat-treatment of the flow through sample resulted in thermal denaturation and aggregation of HCPs, while the heat stable HB-VLPs still remained intact as observed under a transmission electron microscope. The performance of the negative chromatography together with heat treatment in the purification of HB-VLPs is far better than the reported bind-and-elute techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods
  16. Arifin N, Basuni M, Lan CA, Yahya AR, Noordin R
    Protein J., 2010 Oct;29(7):509-15.
    PMID: 20845068 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-010-9281-1
    This paper describes a refinement in the purification step that facilitated the downstream recovery of high purity BmR1 recombinant protein, which is a protein used as a test reagent in the commercialized rapid tests for detection of lymphac filariasis i.e. Brugia Rapid™ and panLF rapid™. Purification was performed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), followed by ion exchange chromatography (IEX). Results showed that a total of 10.27 mg of BmR1 was obtained when IMAC was performed using 20 mM of imidazole and 5 column volume of wash buffer containing 500 mM of NaCl. Purity of the target protein was enhanced when buffer at pH 5.8 was used during the IEX. Two proteins that recurrently appeared below the BmR1 recombinant protein were identified by mass-spectrometry analysis as the same protein, thus they were probably degradation products of BmR1. These strategies improve purity of the target protein to be used in applications such as production of aptamers and monoclonal antibodies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods*
  17. Abdullah N, Chase HA
    Biotechnol. Bioeng., 2005 Nov 20;92(4):501-13.
    PMID: 16080185
    Enzymatic methods have been used to cleave the C- or N-terminus polyhistidine tags from histidine tagged proteins following expanded bed purification using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). This study assesses the use of Factor Xa and a genetically engineered exopeptidase dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-1 (DAPase-1) for the removal of C-terminus and N-terminus polyhistidine tags, respectively. Model proteins consisting of maltose binding protein (MBP) having a C- or N-terminal polyhistidine tag were used. Digestion of the hexahistidine tag of MBP-His(6) by Factor Xa and HT15-MBP by DAPase-1 was successful. The time taken to complete the conversion of MBP-His(6) to MBP was 16 h, as judged by SDS-PAGE and Western blots against anti-His antibody. When the detagged protein was purified using subtractive IMAC, the yield was moderate at 71% although the overall recovery was high at 95%. Likewise, a yield of 79% and a recovery of 97% was obtained when digestion was performed with using "on-column" tag digestion. On-column tag digestion involves cleavage of histidine tag from polyhistidine tagged proteins that are still bound to the IMAC column. Digestion of an N-terminal polyhistidine tag from HT15-MBP (1 mg/mL) by the DAPase-I system was superior to the results obtained with Factor Xa with a higher yield and recovery of 99% and 95%, respectively. The digestion by DAPase-I system was faster and was complete at 5 h as opposed to 16 h for Factor Xa. The detagged MBP proteins were isolated from the digestion mixtures using a simple subtractive IMAC column procedure with the detagged protein appearing in the flowthrough and washing fractions while residual dipeptides and DAPase-I (which was engineered to exhibit a poly-His tail) were adsorbed to the column. FPLC analysis using a MonoS cation exchanger was performed to understand and monitor the progress and time course of DAPase-I digestion of HT15-MBP to MBP. Optimization of process variables such as temperature, protein concentration, and enzyme activity was developed for the DAPase-I digesting system on HT15-MBP to MBP. In short, this study proved that the use of either Factor Xa or DAPase-I for the digestion of polyhistidine tags is simple and efficient and can be carried out under mild reaction conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods
  18. Ho CW, Tan WS, Chong FC, Ling TC, Tey BT
    J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2009 Apr;19(4):416-23.
    PMID: 19421000
    Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an important serological marker used in the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. In the current study, a fast and efficient preparative purification protocol for truncated HBcAg from Escherichia coli disruptate was developed. The recombinant HBcAg was first captured by anion exchange expanded bed adsorption chromatography integrated with a cell disruption process. This online capture process has shortened the process time and eliminated the "hold-up" period that may be detrimental to the quality of target protein. The eluted product from the expanded bed adsorption chromatography was subsequently purified using size-exclusion chromatography. The results showed that this novel purification protocol achieved a recovery yield of 45.1% with a product purity of 88.2%, which corresponds to a purification factor of 4.5. The recovered HBcAg is still biologically active as shown by ELISA test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods*
  19. Anuar N, Mohd Adnan AF, Saat N, Aziz N, Mat Taha R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:810547.
    PMID: 24174918 DOI: 10.1155/2013/810547
    Anthocyanins not just have various benefits in food industry but also have been used as natural colourants in cosmetic, coating products and as potential natural photosensitizers in solar cell. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to obtain information on the maximum yield of anthocyanin that can be recovered from Melastoma malabathricum fruit. Factors such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid to liquid ratio were identified to be significantly affecting anthocyanin extraction efficiency. By using three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design, the optimized conditions for anthocyanin extraction by acidified methanol (R (2) = 0.972) were temperature of 60°C, time of 86.82 min, and 0.5 : 35 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio while the optimum extraction conditions by acidified ethanol (R (2) = 0.954) were temperature of 60°C, time of 120 min, and 0.5 : 23.06 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio. The crude anthocyanin extract was further purified by using Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Identification of anthocyanins revealed the presence of cyanidin dihexoside, cyanidin hexoside, and delphinidin hexoside as the main anthocyanins in M. malabathricum fruit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  20. Barbour A, Philip K, Muniandy S
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(10):e77751.
    PMID: 24147072 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077751
    BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are small lanthionine-containing bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. Salivaricin 9 is a newly discovered lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus salivarius. In this study we present the mechanism of action of salivaricin 9 and some of its properties. Also we developed new methods to produce and purify the lantibiotic from strain NU10.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Salivaricin 9 was found to be auto-regulated when an induction assay was applied and this finding was used to develop a successful salivaricin 9 production system in liquid medium. A combination of XAD-16 and cation exchange chromatography was used to purify the secondary metabolite which was shown to have a molecular weight of approximately 3000 Da by SDS-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS analysis indicated the presence of salivaricin 9, a 2560 Da lantibiotic. Salivaricin 9 is a bactericidal molecule targeting the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells. The membrane permeabilization assay showed that salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane and induced pore formation which resulted in cell death. The morphological changes of test bacterial strains incubated with salivaricin 9 were visualized using Scanning Electron Microscopy which confirmed a pore forming mechanism of inhibition. Salivaricin 9 retained biological stability when exposed to high temperature (90-100°C) and stayed bioactive at pH ranging 2 to 10. When treated with proteinase K or peptidase, salivaricin 9 lost all antimicrobial activity, while it remained active when treated with lyticase, catalase and certain detergents.

    CONCLUSION: The mechanism of antimicrobial action of a newly discovered lantibiotic salivaricin 9 was elucidated in this study. Salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane of its targeted cells and induced pore formation. This project has given new insights on lantibiotic peptides produced by S. salivarius isolated from the oral cavities of Malaysian subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, Ion Exchange
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