Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

  1. Norella Kong CT, Chin JH, Izham Cheong IK, Abu Bakar A
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Jun;43(2):134-7.
    PMID: 3237129
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine*
  2. Liao C, Liu F, Alomirah H, Loi VD, Mohd MA, Moon HB, et al.
    Environ Sci Technol, 2012 Jun 19;46(12):6860-6.
    PMID: 22620267 DOI: 10.1021/es301334j
    As concern regarding the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) grows, BPA in many consumer products is gradually being replaced with compounds such as bisphenol S (BPS). Nevertheless, data on the occurrence of BPS in human specimens are limited. In this study, 315 urine samples, collected from the general populations in the United States, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, were analyzed for the presence of total BPS (free plus conjugated) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPS was detected in 81% of the urine samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ; 0.02 ng/mL) to 21 ng/mL (geometric mean: 0.168 ng/mL). The urinary BPS concentration varied among countries, and the highest geometric mean concentration [1.18 ng/mLor 0.933 μg/g creatinine (Cre)] of BPS was found in urine samples from Japan, followed by the United States (0.299 ng/mL, 0.304 μg/g Cre), China (0.226 ng/mL, 0.223 μg/g Cre), Kuwait (0.172 ng/mL, 0.126 μg/g Cre), and Vietnam (0.160 ng/mL, 0.148 μg/g Cre). Median concentrations of BPS in urine samples from the Asian countries were 1 order of magnitude lower than the median concentrations reported earlier for BPA in the same set of samples, with the exception of samples from Japan. There were no significant differences in BPS concentrations between genders (male versus female), or among age groups (categorized as ≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), or races (Caucasian versus Asian). The daily intake (EDI) of BPS was estimated on the basis of urinary concentrations using a simple pharmacokinetic approach. The median EDI values of BPS in Japan, China, United States, Kuwait, Vietnam, Malaysia, India, and Korea were 1.67, 0.339, 0.316, 0.292, 0.217, 0.122, 0.084, and 0.023 μg/person, respectively. This is the first study to report the occurrence of BPS in human urine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  3. The EMPA-KIDNEY Collaborative Group, Herrington WG, Staplin N, Wanner C, Green JB, Hauske SJ, et al.
    N Engl J Med, 2023 Jan 12;388(2):117-127.
    PMID: 36331190 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2204233
    BACKGROUND: The effects of empagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease who are at risk for disease progression are not well understood. The EMPA-KIDNEY trial was designed to assess the effects of treatment with empagliflozin in a broad range of such patients.

    METHODS: We enrolled patients with chronic kidney disease who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 20 but less than 45 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, or who had an eGFR of at least 45 but less than 90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of at least 200. Patients were randomly assigned to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or matching placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of progression of kidney disease (defined as end-stage kidney disease, a sustained decrease in eGFR to <10 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, a sustained decrease in eGFR of ≥40% from baseline, or death from renal causes) or death from cardiovascular causes.

    RESULTS: A total of 6609 patients underwent randomization. During a median of 2.0 years of follow-up, progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 432 of 3304 patients (13.1%) in the empagliflozin group and in 558 of 3305 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.82; P<0.001). Results were consistent among patients with or without diabetes and across subgroups defined according to eGFR ranges. The rate of hospitalization from any cause was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.95; P = 0.003), but there were no significant between-group differences with respect to the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes (which occurred in 4.0% in the empagliflozin group and 4.6% in the placebo group) or death from any cause (in 4.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The rates of serious adverse events were similar in the two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among a wide range of patients with chronic kidney disease who were at risk for disease progression, empagliflozin therapy led to a lower risk of progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes than placebo. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and others; EMPA-KIDNEY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03594110; EudraCT number, 2017-002971-24.).

    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  4. Wah-Yun Low, Siti Norazah Zulkifli, Rajeswari Karuppiah
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(2):110-7.
    PMID: 12862416 DOI: 10.1177/101053950201400210
    Iodine deficiency is recognized as a public health problem. This paper assesses iodine status by socioeconomic factors in school children in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Kuching, Bau and Simunjan districts were chosen based on advice from the Sarawak's Medical and Health Authority. 803 school children, aged eight years, were selected from 19 schools via proportionate systematic sampling. About half the proportion of the school children were from Kuching, 24% from Simunjan and 22% from Bau. Almost all were equally distributed by sex. By mother's race, almost half were Malays, followed by Bidayuh, Iban, Chinese and other races. Mean urinary iodine concentration was 3.36 microg/ 100ml, mean creatinine level was 111.10 mg/100ml and mean creatinine/iodine ratio was 39.45 microg/ gram. Four female children (0.5%) were found to have enlarged thyroid. Urinary iodine levels were significantly different by district, mother's race and household income. It was highest in Kuching, among children with Malay mothers, and with household incomes more than RM500 per month. Conversely, it was lowest in Bau, among children of Iban/Dayak and Chinese mothers, and incomes of RM500 or less per month. Based on the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD classification, the Sarawak school children in the present study fall into the moderate IDD category. The low prevalence of goitre is a positive finding indicating that iodine deficiency is corrected over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  5. Singh HJ, Mohammad NH, Nila A
    J Matern Fetal Med, 1999 May-Jun;8(3):95-100.
    PMID: 10338062
    To ascertain the calcium status in normal pregnant Malay women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  6. Boettiger DC, Saphonn V, Lee MP, Phanuphak P, Pham TT, Heng Sim BL, et al.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2014 Dec 01;67(4):e131-3.
    PMID: 25197829 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000338
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine*
  7. Hong YH, Dublin N, Razack AH, Mohd MA, Husain R
    Urology, 2010 Jun;75(6):1294-8.
    PMID: 19914693 DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2009.08.061
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlations and agreements between the solute/creatinine ratios from the 24-hour and early morning spot urine samples for metabolic evaluation in stone-formers given the various pitfalls with the 24-hour urinary metabolic evaluation in stone-formers.
    METHODS: 30 urinary stone-formers out of an initial 62 recruited provided a complete 24-hour urine and early morning spot urine samples for metabolic evaluation. Pearson correlation and Bland and Altman Test were used to assess the correlations and agreements.
    RESULTS: Significant correlations were established between the 24-hour urinary solute excretions and the corresponding early morning spot urine solute/creatinine ratios for calcium, magnesium, urate, potassium, oxalate, citrate, and the Differential Gibb's free energy value of calcium oxalate DG(CaOx) values. However, all these solute/creatinine measurements between the 24-hour and early morning spot urine samples were judged to be not within the acceptable limits based on the estimated "limit of agreement" by the Bland and Altman Test of Agreement. Diurnal circadian rhythm and postprandial excretion surge are thought to be responsible for the disagreements.
    CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the early morning spot urine is not suitable to be used interchangeably to replace the 24-hour urine collection in the evaluation of urinary metabolic abnormalities in stone-formers. A good correlation does not translate to an agreement between the 2 measurements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine*
  8. Loo CS, Zaki M, Sulaiman AB, Sukanya AB, Voon YC, Kua SL
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):36-43.
    PMID: 8057988
    Functional renal reserve is a measure of the capacity of the kidney to increase the glomerular filtration in response to the stimulus of a protein meal or amino acid infusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of protein meal test to measure functional renal reserve in normal subjects and various groups of renal patients. One hundred and twenty five subjects from the Nephrology Clinic, Kuala Lumpur General Hospital were subjected to a protein loading test to measure their renal reserve. Each subject had to eat a 100 gram cooked chicken meat and timed 2 hours urine collections before and after the test meal were done to measure the creatinine clearances. The 62 healthy subjects showed a mean renal reserve (creatinine clearance after protein loading-baseline creatinine clearance) of 31.0 ml/min. The 31 subjects with various kidney diseases showed a mean renal reserve of 13.5 ml/min. The 19 renal transplant recipients showed renal reserve of 13.2 ml/min. The 12 nephrectomised donors showed renal reserve of 5.4ml/min. Renal reserve may be used to assess suitability of living related transplant donor for nephrectomy.

    Study site: Nephrology Clinic, Kuala Lumpur General Hospital
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine*
  9. Wolthuis FH
    Trop Geogr Med, 1968 Mar;20(1):21-7.
    PMID: 4868143
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  10. Chandra N, Bhattathiry EP
    Trop Geogr Med, 1967 Dec;19(4):300-3.
    PMID: 5585976
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  11. Adnan S, Ratnam S, Kumar S, Paterson D, Lipman J, Roberts J, et al.
    Anaesth Intensive Care, 2014 Nov;42(6):715-22.
    PMID: 25342403
    Augmented renal clearance (ARC) refers to increased solute elimination by the kidneys. ARC has considerable implications for altered drug concentrations. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of ARC in a select cohort of patients admitted to a Malaysian intensive care unit (ICU) and to compare measured and calculated creatinine clearances in this group. Patients with an expected ICU stay of <24 hours plus an admission serum creatinine concentration <120 µmol/l, were enrolled from May to July 2013. Twenty-four hour urinary collections and serum creatinine concentrations were used to measure creatinine clearance. A total of 49 patients were included, with a median age of 34 years. Most study participants were male and admitted after trauma. Thirty-nine percent were found to have ARC. These patients were more commonly admitted in emergency (P=0.03), although no other covariants were identified as predicting ARC, likely due to the inclusion criteria and the study being under-powered. Significant imprecision was demonstrated when comparing calculated Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (Crcl) and measured Crcl. Bias was larger in ARC patients, with Cockcroft-Gault Crcl being significantly lower than measured Crcl (P <0.01) and demonstrating poor correlation (rs=-0.04). In conclusion, critically ill patients with 'normal' serum creatinine concentrations have varied Crcl. Many are at risk of ARC, which may necessitate individualised drug dosing. Furthermore, significant bias and imprecision between calculated and measured Crcl exists, suggesting clinicians should carefully consider which method they employ in assessing renal function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine*
  12. Abougalambou SS, Abougalambou AS
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2013;7(2):64-7.
    PMID: 23680242 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2013.02.034
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria is early stage of diabetic nephropathy as well as a marker of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and associated risk factors among type 2 diabetic outpatients, attending a diabetic clinic in University Sains Malaysia Hospital (HUSM).
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective study design was used in the data collection process. The study sample consists of 1066 type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients who fit the inclusion criteria. All the patients were recruited from the diabetic outpatient clinics from HUSM. The study period was from January till December 2008. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed if the urinary albumin excretion more than 30 mg/g of creatinine.
    RESULTS: A total of 1661 patients were included in this study. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed in 273 (25.4%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that microalbuminuria was positively associated with duration of hypertension (P=0.044), HbA1c (P=0.004), systolic blood pressure (<0.001), creatinine clearance (P=0.007) and the presence of neuropathy (P=0.004).
    CONCLUSION: High prevalence of microalbuminuria was in type 2 diabetic outpatients. Predictive factors for microalbuminuria were duration of hypertension, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, creatinine clearance and the presence of neuropathy. The study suggests the need to screen for microalbuminuria early and the active management of modifiable risk factors in particular, hyperglycemia, hypertension and creatinine clearance, to reduce the burden of end-stage renal disease in the future.

    Study site: diabetic outpatient clinics from HUSM
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  13. Hooi LS, Ong LM, Ahmad G, Bavanandan S, Ahmad NA, Naidu BM, et al.
    Kidney Int, 2013 Nov;84(5):1034-40.
    PMID: 23760287 DOI: 10.1038/ki.2013.220
    In this population-based study, we determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia in order to have accurate information for health-care planning. A sample of 876 individuals, representative of 15,147 respondents from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, of the noninstitutionalized adult population (over 18 years old) in West Malaysia was studied. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI equation); albuminuria and stages of chronic kidney disease were derived from calibrated serum creatinine, age, gender and early morning urine albumin creatinine ratio. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in this group was 9.07%. An estimated 4.16% had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (eGFR >90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.05% had stage 2 (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.26% had stage 3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 0.24% had stage 4 (eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 0.36% had stage 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Only 4% of respondents with chronic kidney disease were aware of their diagnosis. Risk factors included increased age, diabetes, and hypertension. Thus, chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia is common and, therefore, warrants early detection and treatment in order to potentially improve outcome.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  14. Norazlina M, Chua CW, Ima-Nirwana S
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59(5):623-30.
    PMID: 15889565
    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  15. Young L, Nor Hanipah Z, Brethauer SA, Schauer PR, Aminian A
    Surg Endosc, 2019 05;33(5):1654-1660.
    PMID: 30251143 DOI: 10.1007/s00464-018-6458-8
    BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve and resolve diabetes. However, limited literature about its impact on end-organ complications of diabetes is available. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on albuminuria.

    METHODS: We studied 101 patients with pre-operative diabetes and albuminuria [defined as urine albumin:creatinine ratio (uACR) > 30 mg/g] who underwent bariatric surgery at an academic center from 2005 to 2014.

    RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients (56%) were female with a mean age of 53 (± 11) years. The mean pre-operative BMI and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were 43.1 (± 7.6) kg/m2 and 8.4 (± 1.8)%, respectively. The median pre-operative uACR was 80.0 (45.0-231.0) mg/g. Bariatric procedures included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 75, 74%) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 26, 26%). The mean follow-up period was 61 (± 29) months. At last follow-up, the mean BMI was 33.8 (± 8.3) kg/m2. The overall glycemic control improved after bariatric surgery. At last follow-up, 73% had good glycemic control (HbA1c 

    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  16. Iqbal MO, Yahya EB
    Tissue Cell, 2021 Oct;72:101525.
    PMID: 33780659 DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2021.101525
    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are widely employed clinically due to their powerful bactericidal activities, less bacterial resistance compared to beta lactam group and low cost. However, their use has been limited in recent years due to their potential induction of nephrotoxicity. Here we investigate the possibility of reversing nephrotoxicity caused by gentamicin in rat models by using ethanolic crude extract of the medicinal plant Jatropha Mollissima. Nephrotoxic male Wistar rats was obtained by gentamicin antibiotic, which then treated with two doses of J. mollissima crude extract for 3 weeks with monitoring their parameter in weekly base. Our results indicate that J. mollissima crude extract at both doses has strong protection ability against gentamicin nephrotoxicity, most of tested parameters backed to normal values after few days from the administration of the crude extract, which could be due to the antagonized the biochemical action of gentamicin on the proximal tubules of the kidney. The results of histopathologic analysis showed observable improvement in J. mollissima treated groups compared with untreated groups. Our findings suggests the J. mollissima has exceptional nephron protection potentials able to reverse the nephrotoxicity caused by gentamicin antibiotic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  17. Liu JJ, Sum CF, Tavintharan S, Yeoh LY, Ng XW, Moh AM, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2014 Oct;236(2):286-91.
    PMID: 25112799 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.07.017
    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among the young population has become a serious concern globally, presumably due to the rising trend of obesity. Compared to other forms of diabetes, young-onset T2DM experiences more cardiovascular events and other vascular complications although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Increased arterial stiffness is a hallmark of vasculopathy. We aim to study the clinical and metabolic determinants of arterial stiffness in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asians with young-onset T2DM.
    METHODS: 179 subjects with T2DM onset age below 30 years old were selected in this cross sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV).
    RESULTS: PWV was correlated with age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, alanine aminotransferase, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR in bivariate correlation analysis. However, PWV was only significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, urinary ACR and eGFR after adjustment for age. Overweight individuals with young-onset T2DM had significantly higher PWV levels compared to their lean counterparts (7.3 ± 2.4 m/s vs 6.4 ± 2.3 m/s, p = 0.072 and p < 0.0001 without and with adjustment for age, respectively). Multivariable regression models revealed that age, BMI, eGFR and usage of insulin were independently associated with PWV. These 4 variables explained 35.5% variance in PWV levels.
    CONCLUSION: Age, BMI, renal function and insulin usage are the main determinants of PWV levels in Asians with young-onset T2DM. Notably, obesity is a modifiable determinant of arterial stiffness independent of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in this population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  18. Lim CC, Teo BW, Ong PG, Cheung CY, Lim SC, Chow KY, et al.
    Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2015 Aug;22(8):1018-26.
    PMID: 24857889 DOI: 10.1177/2047487314536873
    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and deaths in Asian populations. We evaluated the associations of CKD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a multi-ethnic Asian population.
    DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of 7098 individuals who participated in two independent population-based studies involving Malay adults (n = 3148) and a multi-ethnic cohort of Chinese, Malay and Indian adults (n = 3950).
    METHODS: CKD was assessed from CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke and CVD mortality) and all-cause mortality were identified by linkage with national disease/death registries.
    RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 4.6% developed CVD and 6.1% died. Risks of both CVD and all-cause mortality increased with decreasing eGFR and increasing albuminuria (all p-trend <0.05). Adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% confidence interval)) of CVD and all-cause mortality were: 1.54 (1.05-2.27) and 2.21 (1.67-2.92) comparing eGFR <45 vs ≥60; 2.81 (1.49-5.29) and 2.34 (1.28-4.28) comparing UACR ≥300 vs <30. The association between eGFR <60 and all-cause mortality was stronger among those with diabetes (p-interaction = 0.02). PAR of incident CVD was greater among those with UACR ≥300 (12.9%) and that of all-cause mortality greater among those with eGFR <45 (16.5%).
    CONCLUSIONS: In multi-ethnic Asian adults, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were independently associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. These findings extend previously reported similar associations in Western populations to Asians and emphasize the need for early detection of CKD and intervention to prevent adverse outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  19. Jubri Z, Latif AA, Top AG, Ngah WZ
    Nutr J, 2013;12:2.
    PMID: 23286246 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-2
    Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and an have adverse effect to the immune system. Supplementation of palm oil vitamin E (palmvitee), is known has antioxidant properties is thought to be beneficial for system immune protection against free radicals activity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of palmvitee supplementation on immune response in smokers.

    This study involved a group of smokers and nonsmokers who received 200 mg/day palmvitee and placebo for the control group. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12 and 24 weeks of supplementation. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were determined by HPLC, lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and enumeration of lymphocytes T and B cells by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric data distribution and correlation among the variables was examined by Spearman.

    Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were increased in vitamin E supplemented group as compared to placebo group. Urine cotinine levels and serum α1-antitrypsin were significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Lymphocyte proliferation induced by PHA showed an increasing trend with palmvitee supplementation in both smokers and nonsmokers. Natural killer cells were decreased; CD4+ cells and B cells were increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers but were unaffected with vitamin E supplementation except in the percentage of B cells which were increased in nonsmokers supplemented palmvitee compared to placebo. CD4+/CD8+ ratio was increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The high TWBC count observed in smokers correlated with the increased CD4+ and B cells.

    Smoking caused alterations in certain immune parameters and palmvitee supplementation tended to cause an increase in lymphocytes transformation test but had no effect on CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells and B cells except B cells percentage in nonsmokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
  20. Islam N, Kazmi F, Chusney GD, Mattock MB, Zaini A, Pickup JC
    Diabetes Care, 1998 Mar;21(3):385-8.
    PMID: 9540020
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether microalbuminuria is associated with markers of the acute-phase response in NIDDM and whether there are ethnic differences in this association among the three main racial groups in Malaysia.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: NIDDM patients of Chinese, Indian, and Malay origin attending a diabetic clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were matched for age, sex, diabetes duration, and glycemic control (n = 34 in each group). Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in an early morning urine sample. Biochemical measurements included markers of the acute-phase response: serum sialic acid, triglyceride, and (lowered) HDL cholesterol.

    RESULTS: The frequency of microalbuminuria did not differ among the Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients (44, 41, and 47%, respectively). In Chinese patients, those with microalbuminuria had evidence of an augmented acute-phase response, with higher serum sialic acid and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels; and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was correlated with serum sialic acid and triglyceride. The acute-phase response markers were not different in Indians, with microalbuminuria being high in even the normoalbuminuric Indians; only the mean arterial blood pressure was correlated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the Indians. Malay NIDDM subjects had an association of microalbuminuria with acute-phase markers, but this was weaker than in the Chinese subjects.

    CONCLUSIONS: Microalbuminuria is associated with an acute-phase response in Chinese NIDDM patients in Malaysia, as previously found in Caucasian NIDDM subjects. Elevated urinary albumin excretion has different correlates in other racial groups, such as those originating from the Indian subcontinent. The acute-phase response may have an etiological role in microalbuminuria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Creatinine/urine
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