Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Qin J, Yang ZL
    Mycologia, 2016 Jan-Feb;108(1):215-26.
    PMID: 26553778 DOI: 10.3852/15-166
    Three new and one previously described species of Physalacria (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) are reported from China. Specimens of two additional species described from Malaysia and North America were studied for comparison. Placements of these species were corroborated based on morphological observations and molecular evidence from partial sequences of the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and the 28S D1-D3 region, and genes for translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1α) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). These new species of Physalacria distributed in subtropical China were found on rotten wood of broadleaf trees or bamboo and possess stipitate-capitate basidiomata with four-spored basidia, clamp connections and smooth, inamyloid basidiospores. To facilitate studies of the genus in Asia, a key is provided for all Physalacria species reported from this region.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  2. Walton C, Somboon P, O'Loughlin SM, Zhang S, Harbach RE, Linton YM, et al.
    Infect Genet Evol, 2007 Jan;7(1):93-102.
    PMID: 16782411
    The species diversity and genetic structure of mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles maculatus group in Southeast Asia were investigated using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). A molecular phylogeny indicates the presence of at least one hitherto unrecognised species. Mosquitoes of chromosomal form K from eastern Thailand have a unique ITS2 sequence that is 3.7% divergent from the next most closely related taxon (An. sawadwongporni) in the group. In the context of negligible intraspecific variation at ITS2, this suggests that chromosomal form K is most probably a distinct species. Although An. maculatus sensu stricto from northern Thailand and southern Thailand/peninsular Malaysia differ from each other in chromosomal banding pattern and vectorial capacity, no intraspecific variation was observed in the ITS2 sequences of this species over this entire geographic area despite an extensive survey. A PCR-based identification method was developed to distinguish five species of the group (An. maculatus, An. dravidicus, An. pseudowillmori, An. sawadwongporni and chromosomal form K) to assist field-based studies in northwestern Thailand. Sequences from 187 mosquitoes (mostly An. maculatus and An. sawadwongporni) revealed no intraspecific variation in specimens from Thailand, Cambodia, mainland China, Malaysia, Taiwan and Vietnam, suggesting that this identification method will be widely applicable in Southeast Asia. The lack of detectable genetic structure also suggests that populations of these species are either connected by gene flow and/or share a recent common history.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  3. Ahmadi SH, Neela V, Hamat RA, Goh BL, Syafinaz AN
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Dec;30(4):602-7.
    PMID: 24522129 MyJurnal
    Peritonitis still remains a serious complication with high rate of morbidity and mortality in patients on CAPD. Rapid and accurate identification of pathogens causing peritonitis in a CAPD patient is essential for early and optimal treatment. The aim of this study was to use 16S rRNA and ITS gene sequencing to identify common bacterial and fungal pathogens directly from the peritoneal fluid without culturing. Ninety one peritoneal fluids obtained from 91 different patients on CAPD suspected for peritonitis were investigated for etiological agents by 16S rRNA and ITS gene sequencing. Data obtained by molecular method was compared with the results obtained by culture method. Among the 45 patients confirmed for peritonitis based on international society of peritoneal dialysis (ISPD) guidelines, the etiological agents were identified in 37(82.2%) samples by culture method, while molecular method identified the etiological agents in 40(88.9%) samples. Despite the high potential application of the 16S rRNA and ITS gene sequencing in comparison to culture method to detect the vast majority of etiological agents directly from peritoneal fluids; it could not be used as a standalone test as it lacks sensitivity to identify some bacterial species due to high genetic similarity in some cases and inadequate database in Gene Bank. However, it could be used as a supplementary test to the culture method especially in the diagnosis of culture negative peritonitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  4. Chew AL, Tan YS, Desjardin DE, Musa MY, Sabaratnam V
    Mycologia, 2014 Sep-Oct;106(5):976-88.
    PMID: 24891424 DOI: 10.3852/13-274
    Three new species and one new variety of bioluminescent Mycena collected from Peninsular Malaysia are described herein. All new species belong to Mycena sect. Calodontes in what is known as the Mycena pura complex. Comprehensive descriptions, photographs, illustrations and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, including the 5.8S rRNA) were used to infer relationships within sect. Calodontes. Axenic cultures were obtained to provide data on culture morphology. This is the first published photographic documentation of bioluminescent basidiomes of members of Mycena sect. Calodontes. Also, this addition brings the total known bioluminescent fungi to 77 species.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  5. López-Quintero CA, Atanasova L, Franco-Molano AE, Gams W, Komon-Zelazowska M, Theelen B, et al.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2013 Nov;104(5):657-74.
    PMID: 23884864 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-013-9975-4
    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and the partial sequence of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) gene revealed that the diversity of Trichoderma was dominated (71 %) by three common cosmopolitan species, namely Trichoderma harzianum sensu lato (41 %), Trichoderma spirale (17 %) and Trichoderma koningiopsis (13 %). Four ITS 1 and 2 phylotypes (13 strains) could not be identified with certainty. Multigene phylogenetic analysis and phenotype profiling of four strains with an ITS1 and 2 phylotype similar to Trichoderma strigosum revealed a new sister species of the latter that is described here as Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. Sequence similarity searches revealed that this species also occurs in soils of Malaysia and Cameroon, suggesting a pantropical distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  6. Naumov GI, Lee CF, Naumova ES
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2013 Jan;103(1):217-28.
    PMID: 22941248 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-012-9803-2
    Genetic hybridization, sequence and karyotypic analyses of natural Saccharomyces yeasts isolated in different regions of Taiwan revealed three biological species: Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Intraspecies variability of the D1/D2 and ITS1 rDNA sequences was detected among S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii isolates. According to molecular and genetic analyses, the cosmopolitan species S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii contain local divergent populations in Taiwan, Malaysia and Japan. Six of the seven known Saccharomyces species are documented in East Asia: S. arboricola, S. bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, and S. paradoxus.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  7. Freeman MA, Sommerville C
    Parasit Vectors, 2011;4:231.
    PMID: 22166354 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-231
    A microsporidian hyperparasite, Desmozoon lepeophtherii, of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis (salmon louse), infecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), was first discovered in the west of Scotland in 2000. Heavily infected salmon lice are easily recognised as they have large opaque inclusions distributed throughout the body. The prevalence of salmon lice with visible signs of microsporidiosis can be up to 10% of the population from certain farm sites. The microsporidian was also isolated from the host Atlantic salmon suggesting it may have a two host life cycle. The authors believe that the infection in immunocompetent salmon may be latent, becoming acute during periods of infection with another pathogen or during sexual maturation. Since its first discovery in Scotland, Desmozoon lepeophtherii has been subsequently reported from Norway, and more recently from the Pacific coast of North America.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  8. Lim SL, Tay ST
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):438-43.
    PMID: 22041766
    The biodiversity and the killer activity of yeasts isolated from various types of fermented food in Malaysia were investigated in this study. Of 252 yeasts isolated from 48 fermented food samples in this study, 19 yeast species were identified based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial fragments of the yeasts. A total of 29 (11.5%) of the yeast isolates demonstrated killer activity to at least one Candida species tested in this study; including 22 isolates of Trichosporon asahii, 4 isolates of Pichia anomala, and one isolate each of Pichia norvegensis, Pichia fermentans and Issatchenkia orientalis, respectively. The presence of killer yeasts reflects antagonism that occurs during microbial interaction in the fermented food, whereby certain yeasts produce killer toxins and possibly other toxic substances in competition for limited nutrients and space. The anti-Candida activity demonstrated by killer yeasts in this study should be further explored for development of alternative therapy against candidiasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  9. Tan HW, Tay ST
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Apr;28(1):175-80.
    PMID: 21602784
    This study describes the killer phenotypes of tropical environmental yeasts and the inhibition effects of the culture filtrates on the biofilm of Candida albicans. A total of 26 (10.5%) of 258 yeast isolates obtained from an environmental sampling study demonstrated killer activity to Candida species. The killer yeasts were identified as species belonging to the genus Aureobasidium, Pseudozyma, Ustilago and Candida based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the yeasts. Pseudozyma showed the broadest killing effects against sensitive strains of Candida. New species of Ustilago and Pseudozyma demonstrating killer phenotypes were identified in this study. Interestingly, more than 50% reduction in the metabolic activity of Candida albicans biofilm was noted after exposure to the culture filtrates of the nine killer yeasts. Purification and characterization of toxin and metabolites are essential for understanding the yeast killing effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  10. Sim JH, Khoo CH, Lee LH, Cheah YK
    J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2010 Apr;20(4):651-8.
    PMID: 20467234
    Garcinia is commonly found in Malaysia, but limited information is available regarding endophytic fungi associated with this plant. In this study, 24 endophytic fungi were successfully recovered from different parts of two Garcinia species. Characterization of endophytic fungi was performed based on the conserved internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence analysis and the antimicrobial properties. Results revealed that fruits of the plant appeared to be the highest inhabitation site (38 %) as compared with others. Glomerella sp., Guignardia sp., and Phomopsis sp. appeared to be the predominant endophytic fungi group in Garcinia mangostana and Garcinia parvifolia. Phylogenetic relationships of the isolated endophytic fungi were estimated from the sequences of the ITS region. On the other hand, antibacterial screening showed 11 of the isolates possessed positive response towards pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. However, there was no direct association between certain antibacterial properties with the specific genus observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  11. Li Y, Huang CX, Xu GS, Lundholm N, Teng ST, Wu H, et al.
    Harmful Algae, 2017 07;67:119-130.
    PMID: 28755714 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2017.06.008
    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia has attracted attention because of production of the toxin, domoic acid (DA), causing Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Pseudo-nitzschia blooms occur frequently in Chinese coastal waters, and DA has been detected in several marine organisms, but so far no Pseudo-nitzschia strains from Chinese waters have been shown to produce DA. In this study, monoclonal Pseudo-nitzschia strains were established from Chinese coastal waters and examined using light microscopy, electron microscopy and molecular markers. Five strains, sharing distinct morphological and molecular features differentiating them from other Pseudo-nitzschia species, represent a new species, Pseudo-nitzschia simulans sp. nov. Morphologically, the taxon belongs to the P. pseudodelicatissima group, cells possessing a central nodule and each stria comprising one row of poroids. The new species is characterized by the poroid structure, which typically comprises two sectors, each sector located near opposite margins of the poroid. The production of DA was examined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of cells in stationary growth phase. Domoic acid was detected in one of the five strains, with concentrations around 1.05-1.54 fg cell-1. This is the first toxigenic diatom species reported from Chinese waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  12. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Ahmad NA, Abd Razak MF, Hashim R, Ahmad N
    Mycopathologia, 2015 Aug;180(1-2):137-41.
    PMID: 25894509 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-015-9890-5
    An 11-year-old girl presented with multiple blisters on her the right foot complicated with cellulitis. The conventional and molecular identification were performed on the culture. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rRNA gene of the isolate was amplified by PCR. The sequence of the amplified ITS region matched 99 % with that of Chaetomium globosum in the GenBank. This is the first report describing C. globosum causing cutaneous infection in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  13. Hussain T, Periasamy K, Nadeem A, Babar ME, Pichler R, Diallo A
    Vet Parasitol, 2014 Dec 15;206(3-4):188-99.
    PMID: 25468018
    Haemonchus species are major gastro-intestinal parasites affecting ruminants across the world. The present study aimed to assess the sympatric species distribution, genetic diversity, population structure and frequency of β-tubulin isotype 1 alleles associated with benzimidazole resistance. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences revealed three sympatric species of Haemonchus, H. contortus, H. placei and H. longistipes with 12 distinct genotypes circulating among ruminant hosts in Pakistan. High genetic variability was observed in Pakistani Haemonchus isolates at nicotine amide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene loci. Intra-population diversity parameters were higher in H. contortus isolates than H. placei. Phylogenetic analysis of ND4 and COI sequences did not reveal clustering of haplotypes originating from a particular host indicating high rate of gene flow among Haemonchus parasites infecting sheep, goat and cattle in Pakistan. ND4 and COI haplotypes from Pakistan were compared to sequences of Haemonchus isolates from 11 countries to elucidate the population structure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot of pairwise FST derived from 531 ND4 haplotypes revealed clustering together of H. contortus from Pakistan, China, Malaysia and Italy while the isolates from Yemen and United States were found to be genetically distinct. With respect to H. placei, isolates from Pakistan were found to be genetically differentiated from isolates of other countries. The tests for selective neutrality revealed negative D statistics and did not reveal significant deviations in Pakistani Haemonchus populations while significant deviation (P < 0.05) was observed in Brazilian and Chinese H. contortus populations. Median Joining (MJ) network of ND4 haplotypes revealed Yemenese H. contortus being closer to H. placei cluster. β-tubulin isotype 1 genotyping revealed 7.86% frequency of Y allele associated with benzimidazole resistance at F200Y locus in Pakistani Haemonchus isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  14. Tay ST, Lotfalikhani A, Sabet NS, Ponnampalavanar S, Sulaiman S, Na SL, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2014 Oct;178(3-4):307-14.
    PMID: 25022264 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-014-9778-9
    BACKGROUND: Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis have been recently identified as emerging yeast pathogens which are phenotypically indistinguishable from C. glabrata. However, there is little data on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibilities of these species.

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital.

    METHODS: C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method.

    RESULTS: There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate.

    CONCLUSION: This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  15. Yin F, Gasser RB, Li F, Bao M, Huang W, Zou F, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2013 Sep 25;6(1):279.
    PMID: 24499637 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-279
    BACKGROUND: Haemonchus contortus (order Strongylida) is a common parasitic nematode infecting small ruminants and causing significant economic losses worldwide. Knowledge of genetic variation within and among H. contortus populations can provide a foundation for understanding transmission patterns, the spread of drug resistance alleles and might assist in the control of haemonchosis.

    METHODS: 152 H. contortus individual adult worms were collected from seven different geographical regions in China. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene (nad4) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly. The sequence variations and population genetic diversities were determined.

    RESULTS: Nucleotide sequence analyses revealed 18 genotypes (ITS-2) and 142 haplotypes (nad4) among the 152 worms, with nucleotide diversities of 2.6% and 0.027, respectively, consistent with previous reports from other countries, including Australia, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Sweden, the USA and Yemen. Population genetic analyses revealed that 92.4% of nucleotide variation was partitioned within populations; there was no genetic differentiation but a high gene flow among Chinese populations; some degree of genetic differentiation was inferred between some specimens from China and those from other countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of genetic variation within H. contortus in China. The results revealed high within-population variations, low genetic differentiation and high gene flow among different populations of H. contortus in China. The present results could have implications for studying the epidemiology and ecology of H. contortus in China.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  16. Gharamah AA, Azizah MN, Rahman WA
    Vet Parasitol, 2012 Sep 10;188(3-4):268-76.
    PMID: 22538095 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.04.003
    The large stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus, commonly known as "the barber's pole worm", is a blood-sucking nematode found in the abomasa of sheep and goats. This work is the first documentation on the ND4 sequences of H. contortus from sheep and goats in Malaysia and Yemen and the results provide a preliminary insight on the genetic differences of H. contortus found in the two countries. In general, this study showed a high degree of diversity and low population structure of this species within the same country in comparison with higher genetic structuring at a wider geographical scale. The results also showed that the majority of genetic variance was within H. contortus populations. The Malaysian sheep and goat populations investigated appeared to share the same isolate of H. contortus while different isolates may be found in Yemen which must be taken into account in the design of an effective control strategy. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) confirmed that all samples investigated in this study belonged to H. contortus. However presence of other Haemonchus species parasitizing these two hosts can only be confirmed by further detailed studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  17. Rahim MB, Syed MA, Shukor MY
    J. Basic Microbiol., 2012 Oct;52(5):573-81.
    PMID: 22144174 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201100116
    As well as for chemical and environmental reasons, acrylamide is widely used in many industrial applications. Due to its carcinogenicity and toxicity, its discharge into the environment causes adverse effects on humans and ecology alike. In this study, a novel acrylamide-degrading yeast has been isolated. The isolate was identified as Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 using ITS rRNA analysis. The results showed that the best carbon source for growth was glucose at 1.0% (w/v). The optimum acrylamide concentration, being a nitrogen source for cellular growth, was at 500 mg l(-1). The highest tolerable concentration of acrylamide was 1500 mg l(-1) whereas growth was completely inhibited at 2000 mg l(-1). At 500 mg l(-1), the strain MBH completely degraded acrylamide on day 5. Acrylic acid as a metabolite was detected in the media. Strain MBH23 grew well between pH 6.0 and 8.0 and between 27 and 30 °C. Amides such as 2-chloroacetamide, methacrylamide, nicotinamide, acrylamide, acetamide, and propionamide supported growth. Toxic heavy metals such as mercury, chromium, and cadmium inhibited growth on acrylamide.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  18. Tap RM, Ramli NY, Sabaratnam P, Hashim R, Bakri AR, Bee LB, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Aug;181(7-8):531-7.
    PMID: 27010640 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-016-0002-y
    The number of new fungal pathogens is increasing due to growing population of immunocompromised patients and advanced identification techniques. Fereydounia khargensis is a yeast and was first described in 2014 from environmental samples. As far as we know, this is the first report of human infections associated with F. khargensis. The yeasts were isolated from blood of a HIV-positive patient and pleural fluid of chronic renal failure patient. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer and the large subunit regions confirmed the identity of the isolates. Both isolates showed multi-drug resistance to antifungal agents tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  19. Rahumatullah A, Khoo BY, Noordin R
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Jun;32(2):376-85.
    PMID: 26691266 MyJurnal
    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in veterinary and human medicine. In this study, a new multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR for detection of T. gondii DNA was developed. This assay consisted of new sets of primers and probes which targeted B1 gene and ITS-1 region of T. gondii, with Vibrio cholera gene as internal control. The B1 gene primers were designed to detect T. gondii RH strain, while the ITS-1 region primers detected most T. gondii strains. Specificity test using common protozoal and bacterial DNA revealed that the assay was very specific to T. gondii. Standard curves constructed using human body fluids spiked with T. gondii (RH and ME49 strains) showed that the sensitivity of the assay was one parasite, with R² value of 0.975 to 0.999 and efficiency of 97% to 99% for all types of samples. The assay performed on DNA extracted from tissues of mice infected with T. gondii showed that liver contained the highest parasite load for both strains of T. gondii. The multiplex real-time PCR developed in this study would be potentially useful for detection of T. gondii in human and animal samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
  20. Kusai NA, Azmi MM, Zainudin NA, Yusof MT, Razak AA
    Mycologia, 2016 09;108(5):905-914.
    PMID: 27474518
    Setosphaeria rostrata, a common plant pathogen causing leaf spot disease, affects a wide range of plant species, mainly grasses. Fungi were isolated from brown spots on rice leaves throughout Peninsular Malaysia, and 45 isolates were identified as Setosphaeria rostrata The isolates were then characterized using morphological and molecular approaches. The mating type was determined using PCR amplification of the mating type alleles, and isolates of opposite mating types were crossed to examine sexual reproduction. Based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (ITS) and beta-tubulin (BT2) sequences, two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum likelihood method; S. rostrata was clustered in one well-supported clade. Pathogenicity tests showed that S. rostrata isolates are pathogenic, suggesting that it is the cause of the symptoms. Mating-type analyses indicated that three isolates carried the MAT1-1 allele, and the other 42 isolates carried MAT1-2 After isolates with opposite mating types were crossed on Sach's medium and incubated for 3 wk, six crosses produced pseudothecia that contained eight mature ascospores, and 12 other crosses produced numerous pseudothecia with no ascospores. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. rostrata isolated from leaf spots on rice.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
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