OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital.
METHODS: C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method.
RESULTS: There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate.
CONCLUSION: This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.
METHODS: 152 H. contortus individual adult worms were collected from seven different geographical regions in China. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene (nad4) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly. The sequence variations and population genetic diversities were determined.
RESULTS: Nucleotide sequence analyses revealed 18 genotypes (ITS-2) and 142 haplotypes (nad4) among the 152 worms, with nucleotide diversities of 2.6% and 0.027, respectively, consistent with previous reports from other countries, including Australia, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Sweden, the USA and Yemen. Population genetic analyses revealed that 92.4% of nucleotide variation was partitioned within populations; there was no genetic differentiation but a high gene flow among Chinese populations; some degree of genetic differentiation was inferred between some specimens from China and those from other countries.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of genetic variation within H. contortus in China. The results revealed high within-population variations, low genetic differentiation and high gene flow among different populations of H. contortus in China. The present results could have implications for studying the epidemiology and ecology of H. contortus in China.