The study demonstrates the development of a liquid-based gate-control silicon nanowire biosensor for detection of specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules. The sensor was fabricated using conventional photolithography coupled with an inductively coupled plasma dry etching process. Prior to the application of DNA to the device, its linear response to pH was confirmed by serial dilution from pH 2 to pH 14. Then, the sensor surface was silanized and directly aminated with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane to create a molecular binding chemistry for biofunctionalization. The resulting Si‒O‒Si‒ components were functionalized with receptor ssDNA, which interacted with the targeted ssDNA to create a field across the silicon nanowire and increase the current. The sensor shows selectivity for the target ssDNA in a linear range from target ssDNA concentrations of 100 pM to 25 nM. With its excellent detection capabilities, this sensor platform is promising for detection of specific biomarkers and other targeted proteins.
12 years after the introduction of DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs), exciting progress has been made and yet we are still in the midst of trying to fully understand this nanomaterial. The prominent excellence of DNA-AgNCs is undoubtedly its modulatable emission property, of which how variation in DNA templates causes emission tuning remains elusive. Based on the up-to-date DNA-AgNCs, we aim to establish the correlation between the structure/sequence of DNA templates and emission behaviour of AgNCs. Herein, we systematically present a wide-range of DNA-AgNCs based on the structural complexity of the DNA templates, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), triple-stranded DNA (tsDNA) and DNA nanostructures. For each DNA category, we discuss the emission property, quantum yield and synthesis condition of the respective AgNCs, before cross-comparing the impact of different DNA scaffolds on the properties of AgNCs. A future outlook for this area is given as a conclusion. By putting the information together, this review may shed new light on understanding DNA-AgNCs while we are expecting continuous breakthroughs in this field.
Single strand DNA (ssDNA) chimeras consisting of a silver nanoclusters-nucleating sequence (NC) and an aptamer are widely employed to synthesize functional silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) for sensing purpose. Despite its simplicity, this chimeric-templated AgNCs often leads to undesirable turn-off effect, which may suffer from false positive signals caused by interference. In our effort to elucidate how the relative position of NC and aptamer affects the fluorescence behavior and sensing performance, we systematically formulated these NC and aptamer regions at different position in a DNA chimera. Using adenosine aptamer as a model, we tested the adenosine-induced optical response of each design. We also investigated the effect of linker region connecting NC and aptamer, as well as different NC sequence on the sensing performance. We concluded that locating NC sequence at 5'-end exhibited the best response, with immediate fluorescence enhancement observed over a wide linear range (1-2500 μM). Our experimental findings help to explain the emission behavior and sensing performance of chimeric conjugates of AgNCs, providing an important means to formulate a better aptasensor.
DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (AgNC) are a class of subnanometer sized fluorophores with good photostability and brightness. It has been applied as a diagnostic tool mainly for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection. Integration of DNA oligomers to generate AgNCs is interesting as varying DNA sequences can result in different fluorescence spectra. This allows a simple fluorescence shifting effect to occur upon DNA hybridization with the hybridization efficiency being a pronominal factor for successful shifting. The ability to shift the fluorescence spectra as a result of hybridization overcomes the issue of background intensities in most fluorescent based assays. Here we describe an optimized method for the detection of single-stranded and double-stranded synthetic forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) target by hybridization with the DNA fluorescence shift sensor. The system forms a three-way junction by successful hybridization of AgNC, G-rich strand (G-rich) to the target DNA, which generated a shift in fluorescence spectra with a marked increase in fluorescence intensity. The DNA fluorescence shift sensor presents a rapid and specific alternative to conventional DNA detection.
A genomic DNA-based colorimetric assay is described for the detection of the early growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, which is the protruding reason for non-small cell lung cancer. A DNA sequence was designed and immobilized on unmodified gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The formation of the respective duplex indicates the presence of an EGFR mutation. It is accompanied by the aggregation of the GNPs in the presence of monovalent ions, and it indicates the presence of an EGFR mutation. This is accompanied by a color change from red (520 nm) to purple (620 nm). Aggregation was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The limit of detection is 313 nM of the mutant target strand. A similar peak shift was observed for 2.5 μM concentrations of wild type target. No significant peak shift was observed with probe and non-complementary DNA. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of high-specific genomic DNA sequence on gold nanoparticle (GNP) aggregation with sodium chloride (NaCl). It illustrates the detection method for EGFR mutation on lung cancer detection. Red and purple colors of tubes represent dispersed and aggregated GNP, respectively.
The discovery that synthetic short chain nucleic acids are capable of selective binding to biological targets has made them to be widely used as molecular recognition elements. These nucleic acids, called aptamers, are comprised of two types, DNA and RNA aptamers, where the DNA aptamer is preferred over the latter due to its stability, making it widely used in a number of applications. However, the success of the DNA selection process through Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) experiments is very much dependent on its most critical step, which is the conversion of the dsDNA to ssDNA. There is a plethora of methods available in generating ssDNA from the corresponding dsDNA. These include asymmetric PCR, biotin-streptavidin separation, lambda exonuclease digestion and size separation on denaturing-urea PAGE. Herein, different methods of ssDNA generation following the PCR amplification step in SELEX are reviewed.
Two isolates of a novel babuvirus causing "bunchy top" symptoms were characterised, one from abacá (Musa textilis) from the Philippines and one from banana (Musa sp.) from Sarawak (Malaysia). The name abacá bunchy top virus (ABTV) is proposed. Both isolates have a genome of six circular DNA components, each ca. 1.0-1.1 kb, analogous to those of isolates of Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). However, unlike BBTV, both ABTV isolates lack an internal ORF in DNA-R, and the ORF in DNA-U3 found in some BBTV isolates is also absent. In all phylogenetic analyses of nanovirid isolates, ABTV and BBTV fall in the same clade, but on separate branches. However, ABTV and BBTV isolates shared only 79-81% amino acid sequence identity for the putative coat protein and 54-76% overall nucleotide sequence identity across all components. Stem-loop and major common regions were present in ABTV, but there was less than 60% identity with the major common region of BBTV. ABTV and BBTV were also shown to be serologically distinct, with only two out of ten BBTV-specific monoclonal antibodies reacting with ABTV. The two ABTV isolates may represent distinct strains of the species as they are less closely related to each other than are isolates of the two geographic subgroups (Asian and South Pacific) of BBTV.
A small plasmid designated pAR141 was isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis M14 and its complete 1,594 base pair nucleotide sequence was determined. Analysis of the sequence indicated that this plasmid does not carry any industrially important determinants besides the elements involved in plasmid replication and control. The transcriptional repressor CopG and replication initiation protein RepB appeared as a single operon. A small countertranscribed RNA (ctRNA) coding region was found between the copG and repB genes. The double strand origin (dso) and single strand origin (sso) of rolling circle replicating (RCR) plasmids were also identified in pAR141, suggesting that this plasmid replicates by rolling circle (RC) mode. This observation was supported by S1 nuclease and Southern hybridization analyses.
Surface acoustic wave mediated transductions have been widely used in the sensors and actuators applications. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SHSAW) was used for the detection of food pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.coli O157:H7), a dangerous strain among 225 E. coli unique serotypes. A few cells of this bacterium are able to cause young children to be most vulnerable to serious complications. Presence of higher than 1cfu E.coli O157:H7 in 25g of food has been considered as a dangerous level. The SHSAW biosensor was fabricated on 64° YX LiNbO3 substrate. Its sensitivity was enhanced by depositing 130.5nm thin layer of SiO2 nanostructures with particle size lesser than 70nm. The nanostructures act both as a waveguide as well as a physical surface modification of the sensor prior to biomolecular immobilization. A specific DNA sequence from E. coli O157:H7 having 22 mers as an amine-terminated probe ssDNA was immobilized on the thin film sensing area through chemical functionalization [(CHO-(CH2)3-CHO) and APTES; NH2-(CH2)3-Si(OC2H5)3]. The high-performance of sensor was shown with the specific oligonucleotide target and attained the sensitivity of 0.6439nM/0.1kHz and detection limit was down to 1.8femto-molar (1.8×10(-15)M). Further evidence was provided by specificity analysis using single mismatched and complementary oligonucleotide sequences.
Nanoparticles have been investigated as flagging tests for the sensitive DNA recognition that can be utilized as a part of field applications to defeat restrictions. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely utilized due to its optical property and capacity to get functionalized with a mixed bag of biomolecules. This study exhibits the utilization of AuNPs functionalized with single-stranded oligonucleotide (AuNP-oligo test) for fast the identification of Human Papillomavirus (HPV). This test is displayed on interdigitated electrode sensor and supported by colorimetric assay. DNA conjugated AuNP has optical property that can be controlled for the applications in diagnostics. With its identification abilities, this methodology incorporates minimal effort, strong reagents and basic identification of HPV.
An efficient electrochemical impedance genosensing platform has been constructed based on graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite produced via a facile and green approach. Highly pristine graphene was synthesised from graphite through liquid phase sonication and then mixed with zinc acetate hexahydrate for the synthesis of graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite by solvothermal growth. The as-synthesised graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite was characterised with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) to evaluate its morphology, crystallinity, composition and purity. An amino-modified single stranded DNA oligonucleotide probe synthesised based on complementary Coconut Cadang-Cadang Viroid (CCCVd) RNA sequence, was covalently bonded onto the surface of graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite by the bio-linker 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. The hybridisation events were monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimised sensing conditions, the single stranded CCCVd RNA oligonucleotide target could be quantified in a wide range of 1.0×10-11M to 1.0×10-6 with good linearity (R =0.9927), high sensitivity with low detection limit of 4.3×10-12M. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was also performed for the estimation of nucleic acid density on the graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-modified sensing platform. The current work demonstrates an important advancement towards the development of a sensitive detection assay for various diseases involving RNA agents such as CCCVd in the future.
A toxicity electrochemical DNA biosensor has been constructed for the detection of carcinogens using 24 base guanine DNA rich single stranded DNA, and methylene blue (MB) as the electroactive indicator. This amine terminated ssDNA was immobilized onto silica nanospheres and deposited on gold nanoparticle modified carbon-paste screen printed electrodes (SPEs). The modified SPE was initially exposed to a carcinogen, followed by immersion in methylene blue for an optimized duration. The biosensor response was measured using differential pulse voltammetry. The performance of the biosensor was identified on several anti-cancer compounds. The toxicity DNA biosensor demonstrated a linear response range to the cadmium chloride from 0.0005 ppm to 0.01 ppm (R2 = 0.928) with a limit of detection at 0.0004 ppm. The biosensor also exhibited its versatility to screen the carcinogenicity of potential anti-cancer compounds.
Nanoparticle-mediated bio-sensing promoted the development of novel sensors in the front of medical diagnosis. In the present study, we have generated and examined the potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) crystalline nanoparticles with aluminium interdigitated electrode biosensor to specifically detect single-stranded E.coli O157:H7 DNA. The performance of this novel DNA biosensor was measured the electrical current response using a picoammeter. The sensor surface was chemically functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) to provide contact between the organic and inorganic surfaces of a single-stranded DNA probe and TiO2 nanoparticles while maintaining the sensing system's physical characteristics. The complement of the target DNA of E. coli O157:H7 to the carboxylate-probe DNA could be translated into electrical signals and confirmed by the increased conductivity in the current-to-voltage curves. The specificity experiments indicate that the biosensor can discriminate between the complementary sequences from the base-mismatched and the non-complementary sequences. After duplex formation, the complementary target sequence can be quantified over a wide range with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-13)M. With target DNA from the lysed E. coli O157:H7, we could attain similar sensitivity. Stability of DNA immobilized surface was calculated with the relative standard deviation (4.6%), displayed the retaining with 99% of its original response current until 6 months. This high-performance interdigitated DNA biosensor with high sensitivity, stability and non-fouling on a novel sensing platform is suitable for a wide range of biomolecular interactive analyses.
Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified to design a new DNA biosensor. Functionalized MWCNTs were equipped with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) (~15nm) (GNP-MWCNTCOOH) to construct DNA biosensors based on carbon-paste screen-printed (SPE) electrodes. GNP attachment onto functionalized MWCNTs was carried out by microwave irradiation and was confirmed by spectroscopic studies and surface analysis. DNA biosensors based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were constructed by immobilizing thiolated single-stranded DNA probes onto GNP-MWCNTCOOH. Ruthenium (III) chloride hexaammoniate [Ru(NH3)6,2Cl(-)] (RuHex) was used as hybridization redox indicator. RuHex and MWCNT interaction was low in compared to other organic redox hybridization indicators. The linear response range for DNA determination was 1×10(-21) to 1×10(-9)M with a lower detection limit of 1.55×10(-21)M. Thus, the attachment of GNPs onto functionalized MWCNTs yielded sensitive DNA biosensor with low detection limit and stability more than 30days. Constructed electrode was used to determine gender of arowana fish.