MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixmaster dies were duplicated from the prepared maxillary first premolar tooth using nonprecious metal alloy (Wiron 99). Ten copings of 0.6 mm thickness were fabricated from each type of ceramic, for a total of thirty copings. Two master dies were used for each group, and each of them was used to lute five copings. All groups were cemented with resin luting cement Panavia F according to manufacturer's instructions and received a static load of 5 kg during cementation. After 24 hours of distilled water storage at 37 degrees C, the copings were vertically compressed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.
RESULTS: The results of the present study showed the following mean loads at fracture: Turkom-Cera (2184 +/- 164 N), In-Ceram (2042 +/- 200 N), and Procera AllCeram (1954 +/- 211 N). ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test showed that the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera was significantly different from Procera AllCeram (p < 0.05). Scheffe's post hoc test showed no significant difference between the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera and In-Ceram or between the mean load at fracture of In-Ceram and Procera AllCeram.
CONCLUSION: Because Turkom-Cera demonstrated equal to or higher loads at fracture than currently accepted all-ceramic materials, it would seem to be acceptable for fabrication of anterior and posterior ceramic crowns.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the crestal strain around 2 implants to support mandibular overdentures when placed at different positions.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Edentulous mandibles were 3-dimensionally (3D) designed separately with 2 holes for implant placement at similar distances of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm from the midline, resulting in 4 study conditions. The complete denture models were 3D designed and printed from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images after scanning the patient's denture. Two 4.3×12-mm dummy implants were placed in the preplanned holes. Two linear strain gauges were attached on the crest of the mesial and distal side of each implant (CH1, CH2, CH3, and CH4) and connected to a computer to record the electrical signals. Male LOCATOR attachments were attached, the mucosal layer simulated, and the denture picked up with pink female nylon caps. A unilateral and bilateral force of 100 N was maintained for 10 seconds for each model in a universal testing machine while recording the maximum strains in the DCS-100A KYOWA computer software program. Data were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance, the Tukey post hoc test, and the paired t test (α=.05).
RESULTS: Under bilateral loading, the strain values indicated a trend with increasing distance between the implants with both right and left distal strain gauges (CH4 and CH1). The negative (-ve) values indicated the compressive force, and the positive (+ve) values indicated the tensile force being applied on the strain gauges. The strain values for CH4 ranged between -166.08 for the 5-mm and -251.58 for the 20-mm position; and for CH1 between -168.08 for the 5-mm and -297.83 for the 20-mm position. The remaining 2 mesial strain gauges for all 4 implant positions remained lower than for CH4 and CH1. Under unilateral-right loading, only the right-side distal strain gauge CH4 indicated the increasing trend in the strain values with -147.5 for the 5-mm, -157.17 for the 10-mm, -209.33 for the 15-mm, and -234.75 for the 20 mm position. The remaining 3 strain gauges CH3, CH2, and CH1 ranged between -28.33 and -107.17. For each position for both implants, significantly higher (Pstress values progressively increased from 5 to 10 mm to 15 to 20 mm from midline, represented as lateral incisor, canine, and premolar positions. The distal side of the implants exhibits higher strains than the mesial side of the implants.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this finite element analysis study was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior (stress distribution pattern) in the mandibular overdenture, mucosa, bone, and implants when retained with 2 standard implants or 2 mini implants under unilateral or bilateral loading conditions.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A patient with edentulous mandible and his denture was scanned with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and a 3D mandibular model was created in the Mimics software program by using the CBCT digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images. The model was transferred to the 3Matics software program to form a 2-mm-thick mucosal layer and to assemble the denture DICOM file. A 12-mm-long standard implant (Ø3.5 mm) and a mini dental implant (Ø2.5 mm) along with the LOCATOR male attachments (height 4 mm) were designed by using the SOLIDWORKS software program. Two standard or 2 mini implants in the canine region were embedded separately in the 3D assembled model. The base of the mandible was fixed, and vertical compressive loads of 100 N were applied unilaterally and bilaterally in the first molar region. The material properties for acrylic resin (denture), titanium (implants), mucosa (tissue), and bone (mandible) were allocated. Maximum von Mises stress and strain values were obtained and analyzed.
RESULTS: Maximum stresses of 9.78 MPa (bilaterally) and 11.98 MPa (unilaterally) were observed in 2 mini implants as compared with 3.12 MPa (bilaterally) and 3.81 MPa (unilaterally) in 2 standard implants. The stress values in the mandible were observed to be almost double the mini implants as compared with the standard implants. The stresses in the denture were in the range of 3.21 MPa and 3.83 MPa and in the mucosa of 0.68 MPa and 0.7 MPa for 2 implants under unilateral and bilateral loading conditions. The strain values shown similar trends with both implant types under bilateral and unilateral loading.
CONCLUSIONS: Two mini implants generated an average of 68.15% more stress than standard implants. The 2 standard implant-retained overdenture showed less stress concentration in and around implants than mini implant-retained overdentures.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of fiber post location on fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated premolars with 2 roots.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty extracted maxillary first premolars with 2 roots were divided randomly into 5 groups. Group 1 was comprised of sound teeth, which received only metal crowns (control). Teeth from groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were decoronated 2 mm above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and were endodontically treated. No post was placed in group 2 teeth. Teeth from groups 3, 4 and 5 were given a fiber post placed in the buccal canal, palatal canal, and both buccal and palatal canals, respectively. All teeth in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were built up with composite and full coverage metal crowns. A compressive static load was applied at an angle of 25° to the crowns with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, until fracture.
RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences among the groups (p = 0.002). A post hoc test showed significantly lower fracture resistance of group 4 compared to group 5 (p = 0.011). Furthermore, group 2 had significantly less fracture resistance compared to group 1 (p = 0.021) and group 5 (p = 0.002). According to Fisher's exact test, different post locations are non-significantly associated with fracture mode (p = 0.256).
CONCLUSIONS: Fiber post location has a significant effect on fracture resistance of severely damaged, endodontically treated maxillary premolars with 2 roots. However, post placement in the palatal root is preferred, as it maintains the restorability of the tooth.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional solid models of the maxilla, mucosa, and denture of a selected edentulous patient were created using Mimics and CATIA software. The FEA model was created and duplicated in ANSYS 16.0 to perform two simulations for the IOD and the CD models. The values of maximum stress and strain and total deformation were obtained and compared to the outcomes of premaxilla resorption from a parallel clinical study.
RESULTS: The maximum principal stress in the premaxilla in the IOD model ranged from 0.019 to 0.336 MPa, while it ranged from 0.011 to 0.193 MPa in the CD model. The maximum principal strain in the IOD model was 1.75 times greater than that in the CD model. Total deformation was 1.8 times higher in the IOD model. Greater bone resorption was observed in regions of higher stress, which were on the occlusal and buccal sides of the premaxilla residual ridge.
CONCLUSION: Stress, strain, and total deformation values present in the premaxilla area beneath a CD were approximately two times greater in a comparison between an opposing mandibular two-IOD and an opposing mandibular CD. The results were consistent with a parallel clinical study in which the rate of premaxilla bone resorption was almost three times greater in the IOD group.