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  1. Ng CW, How CH, Ng YP
    Singapore Med J, 2017 08;58(8):459-466.
    PMID: 28848991 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2017080
    Major depression is common in the primary care setting. In the final article of this series, we illustrate the approach to the management of depression in primary care. Psychotherapy has been shown to be as effective as antidepressants for mild to moderate major depression. The common myth that antidepressants are addictive should be addressed. Antidepressants should be started at a subtherapeutic dose to assess tolerability, then gradually increased until a minimally effective dose is achieved. Apart from pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, management of depression should include managing stressors, engaging social and community support, dealing with stigma and discrimination, and managing concomitant comorbidities. A strong therapeutic relationship and empathic listening are important between the primary care physician and patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  2. Wan Mohd Yunus WMA, Musiat P, Brown JSL
    Occup Environ Med, 2018 01;75(1):66-75.
    PMID: 29074553 DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2017-104532
    Depression is increasingly being recognised as a significant mental health problem in the workplace contributing to productivity loss and economic burden to organisations. This paper reviews recently published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of universal and targeted interventions to reduce depression in the workplace. Studies were identified through searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES Full Text, and Global Health and Social Policy and Practice databases. Studies were included if they included an RCT of a workplace intervention for employees targeting depression as the primary outcome. Twenty-two published RCTs investigating interventions utilising various therapeutic approaches were identified. The cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) approach is the most frequently used in the workplace, while interventions that combine different therapeutic approaches showed the most promising results. A universal intervention in the workplace that combines CBT and coping flexibility recorded the highest effect size (d=1.45 at 4 months' follow-up). Most interventions were delivered in group format and showed low attrition rates compared with other delivery formats. Although all studies reviewed were RCTs, the quality of reporting is low. Interventions using different therapeutic approaches with different modes of delivery have been used. Most of these interventions were shown to reduce depression levels among employees in the workplace, particularly those that combine more than one therapeutic approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  3. Liao SJ, Tan MP, Chong MC, Chua YP
    Issues Ment Health Nurs, 2018 May;39(5):398-402.
    PMID: 29436896 DOI: 10.1080/01612840.2017.1417519
    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment may be limited in older persons. Several studies using Tai Chi or music therapy separately confirmed positive effects in the reduction of depressive symptoms. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of combined music and Tai Chi on depressive symptoms.

    METHODS: One hundred and seven older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were recruited from Ya'an city. Fifty-five participants were cluster randomized to combined music and Tai Chi group for three months, while the other fifty-two individuals were randomized to the control group that entailed routine health education delivered monthly by community nurses. The primary outcome of depressive symptoms was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and monthly for three months.

    RESULTS: At three-month follow-up, a statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms was found in the intervention group compared with control group (F(3,315) = 69.661, P < 0.001). Following adjustments for socio-demographic data, the true effect of intervention on depressive symptoms was significant (F = 41.725, P < 0.01, ηp2 = 0.574).

    CONCLUSIONS: Combined music and Tai Chi reduced depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older persons. This represents an economically viable solution to the management of depression in highly populous developing nations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  4. Hmwe NT, Subramanian P, Tan LP, Chong WK
    PMID: 25468282 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.11.002
    Patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis are affected by physiological and psychological stressors, which contribute to poor quality of life and negative clinical outcomes. Depression, anxiety, and stress are highly prevalent in this population. Effective interventional strategies are required to manage these psychological symptoms. Acupressure has been believed to be one of the complementary therapies that could promote psychological wellbeing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  5. Hashim HA, Zainol NA
    Psychol Health Med, 2015;20(5):623-8.
    PMID: 25603900 DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2014.1002851
    This study compared the effects of 6 and 12 sessions of relaxation training on emotional distress, short-term memory, and sustained attention in primary school children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  6. Zainal NZ, Booth S, Huppert FA
    Psychooncology, 2013 Jul;22(7):1457-65.
    PMID: 22961994 DOI: 10.1002/pon.3171
    This study aims to investigate the evidence of the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in improving stress, depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  7. Charkhandeh M, Talib MA, Hunt CJ
    Psychiatry Res, 2016 05 30;239:325-30.
    PMID: 27058159 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.03.044
    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  8. Lim LW, Prickaerts J, Huguet G, Kadar E, Hartung H, Sharp T, et al.
    Transl Psychiatry, 2015;5:e535.
    PMID: 25826110 DOI: 10.1038/tp.2015.24
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for patients with refractory depression. However, key questions remain with regard to which brain target(s) should be used for stimulation, and which mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of DBS, with low- and high-frequency stimulation (LFS, HFS), in different brain regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC; cingulate cortex, Cg; nucleus accumbens (NAc) core or shell; lateral habenula, LHb; and ventral tegmental area) on a variety of depressive-like behaviors using rat models. In the naive animal study, we found that HFS of the Cg, vmPFC, NAc core and LHb reduced anxiety levels and increased motivation for food. In the chronic unpredictable stress model, there was a robust depressive-like behavioral phenotype. Moreover, vmPFC HFS, in a comparison of all stimulated targets, produced the most profound antidepressant effects with enhanced hedonia, reduced anxiety and decreased forced-swim immobility. In the following set of electrophysiological and histochemical experiments designed to unravel some of the underlying mechanisms, we found that vmPFC HFS evoked a specific modulation of the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which have long been linked to mood. Finally, using a neuronal mapping approach by means of c-Fos expression, we found that vmPFC HFS modulated a brain circuit linked to the DRN and known to be involved in affect. In conclusion, HFS of the vmPFC produced the most potent antidepressant effects in naive rats and rats subjected to stress by mechanisms also including the DRN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  9. Chong Guan N, Mohamed S, Kian Tiah L, Kar Mun T, Sulaiman AH, Zainal NZ
    Int J Psychiatry Med, 2016 07;51(5):414-430.
    PMID: 28629286 DOI: 10.1177/0091217416680197
    Objective Psychotherapy is a common non-pharmacological approach to help cancer patients in their psychological distress. The benefit of psychotherapies was documented, but the types of psychotherapies proposed are varied. Given that the previous literature review was a decade ago and no quantitative analysis was done on this topic, we again critically and systematically reviewed all published trials on psychotherapy in cancer patients. Method We identified 17 clinical trials on six types of psychotherapy for cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE. Result There were four trials involved adjunct psychological therapy which were included in quantitative analysis. Each trial demonstrated that psychotherapy improved the quality of life and coping in cancer patients. There was also a reduction in distress, anxiety, and depression after a psychological intervention. However, the number and quality of clinical trials for each type of psychotherapy were poor. The meta-analysis of the four trials involved adjunct psychological therapy showed no significant change in depression, with only significant short-term improvement in anxiety but not up to a year-the standardized mean differences were -0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.57, -0.16) at 2 months, -0.21 (95% CI = -0.42, -0.01) at 4 months, and 0.03 (95 % CI = -0.19, 0.24) at 12 months. Conclusion The evidence on the efficacy of psychotherapy in cancer patients is unsatisfactory. There is a need for more rigorous and well-designed clinical trials on this topic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  10. Shaw SA, Ward KP, Pillai V, Hinton DE
    Am J Orthopsychiatry, 2019;89(6):665-674.
    PMID: 30035560 DOI: 10.1037/ort0000346
    Forcibly displaced persons confront multiple stressors while awaiting permanent asylum or resettlement and often experience high levels of emotional distress. This study assessed an 8-week somatic-focused culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention with 39 female refugees from Afghanistan living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Twenty-nine participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions, resulting in 20 participants in two separate treatment groups and 9 in a waitlist control group. An additional 10 participants were not randomly assigned and therefore were treated as an additional treatment group and analyzed separately. A three-group piecewise linear growth model was specified in Mplus using Bayesian estimation. Dependent variables included emotional distress, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and social support. From baseline to posttreatment assessments, initial intervention participants experienced significant declines in emotional distress (b = -16.90, p < .001), anxiety (b = -.80, p < .001), depression (b = -.59, p < .001), and posttraumatic stress (b = -.24, p < .05). Gains were maintained three months posttreatment, with similar trends observed among nonrandomized participants. Subsequent to receiving treatment, the waitlist control participants also showed significant declines in emotional distress (b = -20.88, p < .001), anxiety (b = -1.10, p < .001), depression (b = -.79, p < .001), and posttraumatic stress scores (b = -.82, p < .001). Comparing the treatment groups to the waitlist control group revealed large effect sizes: Cohen's d was 2.14 for emotional distress, 2.31 for anxiety, 2.42 for depression, and 2.07 for posttraumatic stress. Relevant public health findings include low drop out, group format, and facilitation by a trained community member. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
  11. Misra S, Mohanty D
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2019;59(8):1230-1236.
    PMID: 29190117 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1399860
    Gut microbiomes may have a significant impact on mood and cognition, which is leading experts towards a new frontier in neuroscience. Studies have shown that increase in the amount of good bacteria in the gut can curb inflammation and cortisol level, reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, lowers stress reactivity, improves memory and even lessens neuroticism and social anxiety. This shows that, probably the beneficial gut bacteria or probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds. Thus, a psychobiotic is a live organism, when ingested in adequate amounts, produces a health benefit in patients suffering from psychiatric illness. Study of these novel class of probiotics may open up the possibility of rearrangement of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy
  12. Lai NM, Chang SMW, Ng SS, Tan SL, Chaiyakunapruk N, Stanaway F
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019 11 25;2019(11).
    PMID: 31763689 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013243.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic condition which progressively affects memory and other cognitive functions, social behaviour, and ability to carry out daily activities. To date, no treatment is clearly effective in preventing progression of the disease, and most treatments are symptomatic, often aiming to improve people's psychological symptoms or behaviours which are challenging for carers. A range of new therapeutic strategies has been evaluated in research, and the use of trained animals in therapy sessions, termed animal-assisted therapy (AAT), is receiving increasing attention.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of animal-assisted therapy for people with dementia.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialised Register on 5 September 2019. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of major healthcare databases, trial registries, and grey literature sources. We also searched MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), ISI Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO's trial registry portal.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and randomised cross-over trials that compared AAT versus no AAT, AAT using live animals versus alternatives such as robots or toys, or AAT versus any other active intervention.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of Cochrane Dementia. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using mean difference (MD), standardised mean difference (SMD), and risk ratio (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) where appropriate.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included nine RCTs from 10 reports. All nine studies were conducted in Europe and the US. Six studies were parallel-group, individually randomised RCTs; one was a randomised cross-over trial; and two were cluster-RCTs that were possibly related where randomisation took place at the level of the day care and nursing home. We identified two ongoing trials from trial registries. There were three comparisons: AAT versus no AAT (standard care or various non-animal-related activities), AAT using live animals versus robotic animals, and AAT using live animals versus the use of a soft animal toy. The studies evaluated 305 participants with dementia. One study used horses and the remainder used dogs as the therapy animal. The duration of the intervention ranged from six weeks to six months, and the therapy sessions lasted between 10 and 90 minutes each, with a frequency ranging from one session every two weeks to two sessions per week. There was a wide variety of instruments used to measure the outcomes. All studies were at high risk of performance bias and unclear risk of selection bias. Our certainty about the results for all major outcomes was very low to moderate. Comparing AAT versus no AAT, participants who received AAT may be slightly less depressed after the intervention (MD -2.87, 95% CI -5.24 to -0.50; 2 studies, 83 participants; low-certainty evidence), but they did not appear to have improved quality of life (MD 0.45, 95% CI -1.28 to 2.18; 3 studies, 164 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There were no clear differences in all other major outcomes, including social functioning (MD -0.40, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.61; 1 study, 58 participants; low-certainty evidence), problematic behaviour (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.98 to 0.30; 3 studies, 142 participants; very-low-certainty evidence), agitation (SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.89 to 0.10; 3 studies, 143 participants; very-low-certainty evidence), activities of daily living (MD 4.65, 95% CI -16.05 to 25.35; 1 study, 37 participants; low-certainty evidence), and self-care ability (MD 2.20, 95% CI -1.23 to 5.63; 1 study, 58 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were no data on adverse events. Comparing AAT using live animals versus robotic animals, one study (68 participants) found mixed effects on social function, with longer duration of physical contact but shorter duration of talking in participants who received AAT using live animals versus robotic animals (median: 93 seconds with live versus 28 seconds with robotic for physical contact; 164 seconds with live versus 206 seconds with robotic for talk directed at a person; 263 seconds with live versus 307 seconds with robotic for talk in total). Another study showed no clear differences between groups in behaviour measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MD -6.96, 95% CI -14.58 to 0.66; 78 participants; low-certainty evidence) or quality of life (MD -2.42, 95% CI -5.71 to 0.87; 78 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were no data on the other outcomes. Comparing AAT using live animals versus a soft toy cat, one study (64 participants) evaluated only social functioning, in the form of duration of contact and talking. The data were expressed as median and interquartile ranges. Duration of contact was slightly longer in participants in the AAT group and duration of talking slightly longer in those exposed to the toy cat. This was low-certainty evidence.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-certainty evidence that AAT may slightly reduce depressive symptoms in people with dementia. We found no clear evidence that AAT affects other outcomes in this population, with our certainty in the evidence ranging from very-low to moderate depending on the outcome. We found no evidence on safety or effects on the animals. Therefore, clear conclusions cannot yet be drawn about the overall benefits and risks of AAT in people with dementia. Further well-conducted RCTs are needed to improve the certainty of the evidence. In view of the difficulty in achieving blinding of participants and personnel in such trials, future RCTs should work on blinding outcome assessors, document allocation methods clearly, and include major patient-important outcomes such as affect, emotional and social functioning, quality of life, adverse events, and outcomes for animals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy
  13. Periasamy U, Mohd Sidik S, Rampal L, Fadhilah SI, Akhtari-Zavare M, Mahmud R
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2017 May 15;15(1):104.
    PMID: 28506305 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-017-0680-2
    BACKGROUND: Cancer is now becoming a leading cause of death. Chemotherapy is an important treatment for cancer patients. These patients also need consultation during their treatment to improve quality of life and decrease psychological disorders. The objectives of the study were to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a chemotherapy counseling module by pharmacists among oncology patients on their quality of life and psychological outcomes in Malaysia.

    METHOD: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out among 162 oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy from July 2013 to February 2014 in a government hospital with oncology facilities in Malaysia. Participants were randomized to either the intervention group or the control group. Chemotherapy counseling using the module on 'Managing Patients on Chemotherapy' by Pharmacists was delivered to the intervention group. The outcome measures were assessed at baseline, first follow-up and second follow-up and third follow-up post-intervention. Chi-square, independent samples t-test and two-way repeated measures ANOVA were conducted in the course of the data analyses.

    RESULTS: In assessing the impact of the chemotherapy counseling module, the study revealed that the module along with repetitive counseling showed significant improvement of quality of life in the intervention group as compared to the control group with a large effect size in physical health (p = 0.001, partial Ƞ2 = 0.66), psychological (p = 0.001, partial Ƞ2 = 0.65), social relationships (p = 0.001, partial Ƞ2 = 0.30), and environment (p = 0.001, partial Ƞ2 = 0.67) and decrease in the anxiety (p = 0.000; partial Ƞ2 = 0.23), depression (p = 0.000; partial Ƞ2 = 0.40).

    CONCLUSION: The module on 'Managing Patients on Chemotherapy' along with repetitive counseling by pharmacists has been shown to be effective in improving quality of life and decreasing anxiety and depression among oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: National Medical Research Register (NMRR) of Malaysia and given a registration number NMRR-12-1057-12,363 on 21 December 2012.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy
  14. Haron SA, Foong HF, Hamid TA
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2018 Sep;18(9):1361-1365.
    PMID: 30044041 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.13490
    AIM: Disability is strongly linked to poorer life satisfaction among older persons. Such close correlations warrant better understanding of the underlying moderator in which negative effects of the former on the latter can be reduced. More specifically, it is the aim of this study to examine the moderating effect of emotional support on the relationship between disability and life satisfaction.

    METHODS: The study included 2322 nationally represented community-dwelling older persons in Malaysia who participated in the baseline study of Neuroprotective Model for Healthy Longevity. In order to test the moderating effect of emotional support on the association between disability and life satisfaction, a series of hierarchical multiple linear regression models were utilized, after controlling for potential covariates associated with life satisfaction.

    RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that disability negatively predicted life satisfaction, whereas emotional support positively predicted life satisfaction. Furthermore, the moderated hierarchical regression analysis showed that emotional support moderated the association between disability and life satisfaction, after controlling for potential covariates, such that the negative relationship between disability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with lower levels of emotional support.

    CONCLUSIONS: The presence of emotional support might reduce the negative effects of disability on life satisfaction. These findings have important clinical implications, especially in developing better strategies to help disabled older persons to cope with their disabilities; with the hope that in the long term, a society with healthy longevity can be established. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 1361-1365.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy
  15. Tan MP, Morgan K
    Curr Opin Psychiatry, 2015 Sep;28(5):371-7.
    PMID: 26181666 DOI: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000181
    To evaluate recent literature on psychological interventions in cardiovascular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy
  16. Syed Elias SM, Petriwskyj A, Scott T, Neville C
    Australas J Ageing, 2019 Mar;38(1):E25-E30.
    PMID: 30426630 DOI: 10.1111/ajag.12598
    OBJECTIVE: To explore how older people with loneliness, anxiety and depression experience a spiritual reminiscence therapy (SRT) program and to explore its acceptability within the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: Unstructured observations and a focus-group discussion were carried out with 18 participants involved in a six-week SRT program in a residential care facility in Kuala Lumpur.

    RESULTS: Analysis revealed four themes: (i) Enthusiastic participation; (ii) Connections across boundaries; (iii) Expressing and reflecting; and (iv) Successful use of triggers.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the process of reminiscence, on which the program was based, was enjoyable for the participants and created opportunities to form connections with other members of the group. The use of relevant triggers in the SRT program that related to Malaysian cultures, ethnicities and religions was helpful to engage the participants and was acceptable across the different religions and ethnicities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/therapy*
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