Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as one of the major underlying mechanisms behind many acute and chronic diseases. However, the measurement of free radicals or their end products is complicated. Isoprostanes, derived from the non-enzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid are now considered to be reliable biomarkers of oxidant stress in the human body. Isoprostanes are involved in many of the human diseases such as type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes elevated levels of F(2)-Isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs) have been observed. The measurement of bioactive F(2)-IsoPs levels offers a unique noninvasive analytical tool to study the role of free radicals in physiology, oxidative stress-related diseases, and acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. Measurement of oxidative stress by various other methods lacks specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to shed light on the implemention of F(2)-IsoPs measurement as a gold-standard biomarker of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetics.
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of our study was to characterize the human salivary proteome and determine the changes in protein expression in two different stages of diabetic retinopathy with type-2 diabetes mellitus: (1) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and (2) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Type-2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy (XDR) was designated as control.
METHOD: In this study, 45 saliva samples were collected (15 samples from XDR control group, 15 samples from NPDR disease group and 15 samples from PDR disease group). Salivary proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, trypsin digested and labeled with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) before being analyzed by an Orbitrap fusion tribrid mass spectrometer. Protein annotation, fold change calculation and statistical analysis were interrogated by Proteome Discoverer. Biological pathway analysis was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD003723-PX003725.
RESULTS: A total of 315 proteins were identified from the salivary proteome and 119 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. The differentially expressed proteins from the NPDR disease group and the PDR disease group were assigned to respective canonical pathways indicating increased Liver X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, Farnesoid X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation, acute phase response signaling, sucrose degradation V and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho in the PDR disease group compared to the NPDR disease group.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Progression from non-proliferative to proliferative retinopathy in type-2 diabetic patients is a complex multi-mechanism and systemic process. Furthermore, saliva was shown to be a feasible alternative sample source for diabetic retinopathy biomarkers.
Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease.
Peer-reviewed articles on the usage of mobile applications in the management of diabetes were reviewed. Studies using mobile device applications for diabetes interventions published between January 2007 and March 2013 were included in this review. Studies related to the developmental processes of the mobile applications were excluded. The characteristics of these studies and the outcomes of the methods used in the management of diabetes were gathered. We retrieved a total of 372 articles from ACM Digital library, PubMed and Proquest Medical Library. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 articles were eligible for further review. Most of the studies included in this review showed the effectiveness of mobile applications in diabetes management. Their major contribution comes from feedback functions of the systems that assist participants in the self-monitoring of their blood glucose and dietary intake. However, the majority of the studies showed the limited use of the mobile phone as a tool to input information into systems which would in turn convey a reminder message to the patient. In conclusion, with its features of portability and convenience, mobile application used in the management of diabetes has the potential to improve glycaemic control, resulting in significant clinical and financial benefits.
Ficus deltoidea from the Moraceae family has been scientifically proven to reduce hyperglycemia at different prandial states. In this study, we evaluate the mechanisms that underlie antihyperglycemic action of Ficus deltoidea. The results had shown that hot aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea stimulated insulin secretion significantly with the highest magnitude of stimulation was 7.31-fold (P < 0.001). The insulin secretory actions of the hot aqueous extract involved K(+) (ATP) channel-dependent and K(+) (ATP)-channel-independent pathway. The extract also has the ability to induce the usage of intracellular Ca(2+) to trigger insulin release. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts enhanced basal and insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipocytes cells. The extracts possess either insulin-mimetic or insulin-sensitizing property or combination of both properties during enhancing glucose uptake into such cells. Meanwhile, the hot aqueous and methanolic extracts augmented basal and insulin-stimulated adiponectin secretion from adipocytes cells. From this study, it is suggested that Ficus deltoidea has the potential to be developed as future oral antidiabetic agent.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic and chronic metabolic disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. In addition, osteoporosis (OP) is a silent disease with a harmful impact on morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the relationship between OP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Systematic reviews of full-length articles published in English from January 1950 to October 2010 were identified in PubMed and other available electronic databases on the Universiti Sains Malaysia Library Database. The following keywords were used for the search: T2DM, OP, bone mass, skeletal. Studies of more than 50 patients with T2DM were included. Forty-seven studies were identified. The majority of articles (26) showed increased bone mineral density (BMD), while 13 articles revealed decreased BMD; moreover, eight articles revealed normal or no difference in bone mass. There were conflicting results concerning the influence of T2DM on BMD in association with gender, glycemic control, and body mass index. However, patients with T2DM display an increased fracture risk despite a higher BMD, which is mainly attributable to the increased risk of falling. As a conclusion, screening, identification, and prevention of potential risk factors for OP in T2DM patients are crucial and important in terms of preserving a good quality of life in diabetic patients and decreasing the risk of fracture. Patients with T2DM may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls. Patient education about an adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and regular exercise is important for improving muscle strength and balance. Furthermore, adequate glycemic control and the prevention of diabetic complications are the starting point of therapy in diabetic patients.