Chemically crosslinked hydrogel magnetorheological (MR) plastomer (MRP) embedded with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) exhibits excellent magnetic performance (MR effect) in the presence of external stimuli especially magnetic field. However, oxidation and desiccation in hydrogel MRP due to a large amount of water content as a dispersing phase would limit its usage for long-term applications, especially in industrial engineering. In this study, different solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are also used to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel MRP. Thus, to understand the dynamic viscoelastic properties of hydrogel MRP, three different samples with different solvents: water, DMSO, and their binary mixtures (DMSO/water) were prepared and systematically carried out using the oscillatory shear. The outcomes demonstrate that the PVA hydrogel MRP prepared from precursor gel with water shows the highest MR effect of 15,544% among the PVA hydrogel MRPs. However, the samples exhibit less stability and tend to oxidise after a month. Meanwhile, the samples with binary mixtures (DMSO/water) show an acceptable MR effect of 11,024% with good stability and no CIPs oxidation. Otherwise, the sample with DMSO has the lowest MR effect of 7049% and less stable compared to the binary solvent samples. This confirms that the utilisation of DMSO as a new solvent affects the rheological properties and stability of the samples.
Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of 6-O-glucosyldecanoate from d-glucose and decanoic acid was performed in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a mixture of DMSO and tert-butanol and tert-butanol alone with a decreasing order of polarity. The highest conversion yield (> 65%) of decanoic acid was obtained in the blended solvent of intermediate polarity mainly because it could dissolve relatively large amounts of both the reactants. The reaction obeyed Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics. The affinity of the enzyme towards the limiting substrate (decanoic acid) was not affected by the polarity of the solvent, but increased significantly with temperature. The esterification reaction was endothermic with activation energy in the range of 60-67 kJ mol⁻¹. Based on the Gibbs energy values, in the solvent blend of DMSO and tert-butanol the position of the equilibrium was shifted more towards the products compared to the position in pure solvents. Monoester of glucose was the main product of the reaction.
The complexation reactions between the macrocyclic ionophore, p-isopropylcalixarene and Cs+ cation were studied in dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile (DMSO-AN) binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. The conductance data show that the stoichiometry of the (p-isopropylcalix-arene·Cs)+ complex in all binary mixed solvents is 1:1. The stability of the complexes is affected by the composition of the binary solvent media and a non-linear behavior was observed for changes of log K(f) of the complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents. The thermodynamic parameters (DH°(c) and DS°(c)) for formation of (p-isopropyl-calixarene·Cs)+ complex were obtained from temperature dependence of the stability constant and the obtained results show that the (p-isopropylcalixarene·Cs)+ complex is enthalpy destabilized, but entropy stabilized, and the values of the mentioned parameters are affected strongly by the nature and composition of the binary mixed solvents.
Mortality rate due to heart diseases increases dramatically with age. Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) used effectively for the management of hypertension. Due to short elimination half-life of captopril the oral dose is very high. Captopril is prone to oxidation and it has been reported that the oxidation rate of captopril in skin tissues is considerably low when compared to intestinal tissues. All these factors make captopril an ideal drug candidate for transdermal delivery. In this research work an effort was made to formulate transdermal films of captopril by utilizing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as film formers and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) as a plasticizer. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) were used as permeation enhancers. Physicochemical parameters of the films such as appearance, thickness, weight variation and drug content were evaluated. The invitro permeation studies were carried out through excised human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cells. The in-vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the film (P4) having the polymer ratio (PVP:PVA = 80:20) with DMSO (10%) resulted a promising drug release of 79.58% at 24 hours with a flux of 70.0 µg/cm(2)/hr. No signs of erythema or oedema were observed on the rabbit skin as a result of skin irritation study by Draize test. Based on the stability report it was confirmed that the films were physically and chemically stable, hence the prepared films are very well suited for transdermal application.
A simple and sensitive RP-HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of atenolol and propranolol and subsequently applied to investigate the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide in rat in situ intestinal permeability studies. Atenolol (400 microm) and propranolol (100 microm) were perfused in the small intestine of anaesthetized (pentobarbitone sodium 60 mg/kg, i.p.) male Sprague-Dawley rats either in the presence (1, 3 and 5%) or in the absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. There was no significant alteration (p > 0.05) in the permeability of atenolol and propranolol, which indicated there was no effect of various concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (1-5%) on the membrane integrity of the rat intestinal tissues. The analytical method was validated on a C(4) column with a mobile phase comprising ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.5, 0.02 m) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:70 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The validated method was found to be accurate and precise and stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions and both analytes were found to be stable. These findings are applicable for determining the absorbability of water-insoluble drugs and new chemical entities for the purpose of classifying them in the biopharmaceutical classification system.
Drug permeation through the intercellular lipids, which pack around and between corneocytes, may be enhanced by increasing the thermodynamic activity of the active in a formulation. However, this may also result in unwanted drug crystallisation on and in the skin. In this work, we explore the combination of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the skin. Ex vivo permeation studies of saturated solutions of diclofenac sodium (DF Na) in two vehicles, propylene glycol (PG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), were carried out in porcine ear skin. Tape stripping and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were conducted simultaneously to collect spectral data as a function of skin depth. Multivariate data analysis was applied to visualise and categorise the spectral data in the region of interest (1700-1500cm(-1)) containing the carboxylate (COO(-)) asymmetric stretching vibrations of DF Na. Spectral data showed the redshifts of the COO(-) asymmetric stretching vibrations for DF Na in the solution compared with solid drug. Similar shifts were evident following application of saturated solutions of DF Na to porcine skin samples. Multivariate data analysis categorised the spectral data based on the spectral differences and drug crystallisation was found to be confined to the upper layers of the skin. This proof-of-concept study highlights the utility of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis as a simple and rapid approach in the investigation of drug deposition in the skin. The approach described here will be extended to the study of other actives for topical application to the skin.
The use of lipase in hydrophilic solvent is usually hampered by inactivation. The solvent stability of a recombinant solvent stable lipase isolated from thermostable Bacillus sp. strain 42 (Lip 42), in DMSO and methanol were studied at different solvent-water compositions. The enzymatic activities were retained in up to 45% v/v solvent compositions. The near-UV CD spectra indicated that tertiary structures were perturbed at 60% v/v and above. Far-UV CD in methanol indicated the secondary structure in Lip 42 was retained throughout all solvent compositions. Fluorescence studies indicated formations of molten globules in solvent compositions of 60% v/v and above. The enzyme was able to retain its secondary structures in the presence of methanol; however, there was a general reduction in beta-sheet and an increase in alpha-helix contents. The H-bonding arrangements triggered in methanol and DMSO, respectively, caused different forms of tertiary structure perturbations on Lip 42, despite both showing partial denaturation with molten globule formations.
Acanthamoeba castellanii is the causative agent of blinding keratitis. Though reported in non-contact lens wearers, it is most frequently associated with improper use of contact lens. For contact lens wearers, amoebae attachment to the lens is a critical first step, followed by amoebae binding to the corneal epithelial cells during extended lens wear. Acanthamoeba attachment to surfaces (biological or inert) and migration is an active process and occurs during the trophozoite stage. Thus retaining amoebae in the cyst stage (dormant form) offers an added preventative measure in impeding parasite traversal from the contact lens onto the cornea. Here, we showed that as low as 3% DMSO, abolished A. castellanii excystation. Based on the findings, it is proposed that DMSO should be included in the contact lens disinfectants as an added preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis.