Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria is a valuable guide to empirical antimicrobial therapy. This paper reports the resistance patterns of more than 36,000 bacteria isolated between August 1991 and July 1992 in six Malaysian hospitals and discusses the implications of the results. A customized menu driven software programme was developed to analyse the results. Generally, resistance to the commonly used antibiotics like ampicillin, cloxacillin, cephalosporins, gentamicin, cotrimoxazole and tetracycline was high. Some differences in resistance rate amongst the six hospitals were also noted. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals is encouraged for the effective control of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
The discovery of antibiotics had been one of the most significant events in the history of medicine. Antibiotics had saved countless number of lives and had contributed significantly to the health of mankind.The emergence of resistance is however a major threat to the continued usefulness of antibiotics. There are now strains of bacteria which are resistant to virtually all available antibiotics and these strains are increasingly being encountered in clinical practice. The development of new agents had not kept pace with resistance and it is unlikely that there will be major breakthroughs in the near future. The world needs to conserve and prolong the useful lives of the existing agents. This can only be achieved through good antibiotic stewardship programmes. As antibiotic resistance is a global threat all major stakeholders have to work together to meet this challenge.
The International Society of Chemotherapy's Working Groups on Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Stewardship convened a half-day workshop on the burden of multidrug-resistant organisms in the Asia-Pacific. This short review is a summary of their discussion and conclusions.
Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with community acquired infections has made the choice of empirical therapy more difficult and more expensive. The problems due to possible spread of MRSA to the community, emergence of penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae, ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae, and multiresistance among common enteric pathogens are highlighted. Bacteria have a remarkable ability to develop resistance to many of the newly synthesized antimicrobial agents but the appropriate use of antibiotics will delay and in many cases prevent the emergence of resistance.
The growing demand for animal products and the widespread use of antibiotics in bringing food animals to market have heightened concerns over cross-species transmission of drug resistance. Both the biology and emerging epidemiology strongly support the need for global coordination in stemming the generation and propagation of resistance, and the patchwork of global and country-level regulations still leaves significant gaps. More importantly, discussing such a framework opens the door to taking modular steps towards solving these challenges - for example, beginning among targeted parties rather than all countries, tying accountability to financial and technical support, or taxing antibiotic use in animals to deter low-value usage of these drugs. An international agreement would allow integrating surveillance data collection, monitoring and enforcement, research into antibiotic alternatives and more sustainable approaches to agriculture, technical assistance and capacity building, and financing under the umbrella of a One Health approach.
The World Health Organization (WHO) selected antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as the theme for World Health Day 2011. The slogan was "Combat Drug Resistance - No action today, no cure tomorrow" A six-point policy package was launched as a core product for World Health Day. It aimed to stimulate extensive and coherent action to overcome the many challenges presented by antimicrobial resistance.
Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%), V. mimicus (16.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (10%), V. vulnificus (6.7%), and V. alginolyticus (1.7%). Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.
A study was carried out to investigate the presence of bacteria flora in wild mud crab (Scylla serrata) from Setiu Wetland as well as their antibiotic resistances. A total of 91 bacterial isolates consisting of 12 bacterial species were successfully isolated from mud crab. Oxolinic acid was found to be effective against all the bacterial isolates whilst the highest percentage of antibiotic resistance was shown by lincomycin (94.5%) followed by ampicillin (90.1%), amoxicillin (86.8%) and oleandomycin (78.0%). The study is very useful to evaluate the safety of mud crab for human consumption based on wild mud crab-associated bacteria as well as their antibiotic resistances.
Eighteen Bifidobacterium strains were tested for their susceptibility to a range of antimicrobial agents. All the strains tested, including the reference culture Lactobacillus acidophilus CH2, were susceptible to several groups of antimicrobial agents, they were cephalosporin (cefamandole, cefazolin, cefaperazone, cefoxitin), polypeptide (bacitracin), macrolide (erythromycin), penicillin (amoxicillin), phenicol (chloramphenicol) and beta-lactam (imipenem). Fourteen strains were resistant to more than 10 antibiotics. The reference culture was resistant to only three antibiotics. The results showed that bifidobacteria are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents.