Education needs to change working life in order to improve and ensure the latest technology has been adopted to cater the new era of industrial revolution. To reach this, a technological-oriented education is required for students. In this section, Virtual Reality (VR) technology is useful to get empirical experience in tertiary education. Moreover, virtual world provides a hazard-free and explorative learning experience. This paper reviews the application of VR in engineering education. This work also covers the usage of VR application which begins with the history of VR application, reasons of VR in education, key elements for immersive VR collaboration, and types of VR systems. The input / output devices which involved in VR systems were also discussed. This paper also reviews VR systems classification and usage of VR in education systems. VR in design application was finally reviewed followed by the advantages and disadvantages of VR systems and VR hardware. The last section provides future trends and conclusion.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common disorder among elderly and may worsen to dementia. The aim of this study is to develop a nutrition and lifestyle booklet to implement better lifestyle modification, as an effort to delay cognitive decline. A series of discussions with a research group comprising of dieticians, nutritionists, a geriatrician and a public health physician were conducted to ascertain the content of the booklet. There were seven guidelines in the booklet including; eat more fish, eat more foods rich in folic acid, eat more fruits and vegetables, exercise regularly, do activities to stimulate memory, stop smoking and alcohol drinking and stay cheerful and positive. Evaluation of acceptance for the booklet was carried out which comprised of assessment on content, graphic and design among elderly and health staff at health clinic in Cheras. The assessment involved 15 Malay elderly subjects aged 60 to 81 years (mean age 66.1 ±6.6 years), with 60.0% men and 40.0% women and 10 health staff aged 36.6 ± 12.0 years, with range of 27 to 58 years, consists of 20.0% men and 80.0% women also participated. Most of elderly subjects (80.0%, n = 12) indicated they understood information in the booklet. Meanwhile, 20.0% (n = 3) of elderly expressed they did not fully understand the content of the booklet in particular on sentence and terminology. All health staff (100.0%) understood the information in the booklet. This booklet was well accepted by elderly subjects and health staff, however adding more graphics, simplifying sentence structures and minimizing scientific terminologies to improve understanding were suggested. The booklet has the potential to increase the nutritional and health knowledge of elderly specifically with MCI. This would motivate them to adopt healthy eating and lifestyle, thus reducing cognitive decline and prevent dementia.
Keywords: Cognitive, education, booklet, elderly, lifestyle
To help adults learners stay competitive in the changing work environments of the 21st century, the teaching and learning of adult learners ought to transition from the traditional didactic school of education to embrace self-directed and social forms of learning. This study proposes a conceptual framework of a mediated activity system in developing the e-socioconstructivist learning environment (eSCLE); which is a learner-centred environment incorporating the design of a physical and virtual learning space conducive for constructing knowledge and building upon existing knowledge in collaboration with others. The design of the eSCLE is a preliminary research attempt to develop instructional learning environments that reflect the unstructured seamless nature of lifelong self-directed learning. It was conducted among a cohort of Master of Instructional Technology (MIT) students enrolled in the Instructional Design and Development (IDD) Course in a local Higher Institution of Learning. Findings from survey questionnaires, content analysis, observation and interview reveal systemic tensions faced by learners in self-directing their learning in the eSCLE where it is suggested that appropriate balance and discretion in managing conflicting situations is needed. The integration of web-based technology is found to be able to scaffold self-directed learning as collaborative mediating tools where functional roles of both instructor and learner-determined web tools enable self-directed actions. Finally, the designed eSCLE is able to facilitate the development of self-directed learning as learners transition through various self-directed learning phases in a steep learning curve, towards continuous lifelong learning.
The study investigated the effects of flipped and conventional classroom teaching approach on performance and retention ability of advance financial accounting students in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria. The study had three specific objectives and three null hypotheses. Quasiexperimental design of pre-test, post-test I and post-test II was used for the study. The study used an intact class of 76 students that offered advance financial accounting in 2015/2016 academic session in the institution. Three instruments were used for data collection. The instruments were Advance financial accounting Achievement Test (AFAAT), Advance financial accounting Diagnostic Achievement Test I (AFADAT I) and Advance financial accounting Diagnostic Achievement Test II (AFADAT II). The validations of instruments were determined by board of examiners in department of vocational and technology education in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. The reliability of the instruments was established using pilot study. The result of the pilot study gave reliability coefficient of 0.79. Data collected from the study were coded into Statistical Package of Social Sciences. The package was used to run t-test statistics for the test of the three null hypotheses at significance level of 0.05. The results shows improvement in the performance and retention ability of students when flipped teaching technique was adopted. It was recommended among others that financial accounting lecturers in Nigerian universities should adopt the use of flipped classroom approach in teaching students by providing students with pre-class materials and assignments prior their classroom activities.
Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Emotion has a particularly strong influence on attention, especially modulating the selectivity of attention as well as motivating action and behavior. This attentional and executive control is intimately linked to learning processes, as intrinsically limited attentional capacities are better focused on relevant information. Emotion also facilitates encoding and helps retrieval of information efficiently. However, the effects of emotion on learning and memory are not always univalent, as studies have reported that emotion either enhances or impairs learning and long-term memory (LTM) retention, depending on a range of factors. Recent neuroimaging findings have indicated that the amygdala and prefrontal cortex cooperate with the medial temporal lobe in an integrated manner that affords (i) the amygdala modulating memory consolidation; (ii) the prefrontal cortex mediating memory encoding and formation; and (iii) the hippocampus for successful learning and LTM retention. We also review the nested hierarchies of circular emotional control and cognitive regulation (bottom-up and top-down influences) within the brain to achieve optimal integration of emotional and cognitive processing. This review highlights a basic evolutionary approach to emotion to understand the effects of emotion on learning and memory and the functional roles played by various brain regions and their mutual interactions in relation to emotional processing. We also summarize the current state of knowledge on the impact of emotion on memory and map implications for educational settings. In addition to elucidating the memory-enhancing effects of emotion, neuroimaging findings extend our understanding of emotional influences on learning and memory processes; this knowledge may be useful for the design of effective educational curricula to provide a conducive learning environment for both traditional "live" learning in classrooms and "virtual" learning through online-based educational technologies.
In this ever-progressive digital era, conventional e-learning methods have become inadequate to handle the requirements of upgraded learning processes especially in the higher education. E-learning adopting Cloud computing is able to transform e-learning into a flexible, shareable, content-reusable, and scalable learning methodology. Despite plentiful Cloud e-learning frameworks have been proposed across literature, limited researches have been conducted to study the usability factors predicting continuance intention to use Cloud e-learning applications. In this study, five usability factors namely Computer Self Efficacy (CSE), Enjoyment (E), Perceived Ease of Use (PEU), Perceived Usefulness (PU), and User Perception (UP) have been identified for factor analysis. All the five independent variables were hypothesized to be positively associated to a dependent variable namely Continuance Intention (CI). A survey was conducted on 170 IT students in one of the private universities in Malaysia. The students were given one trimester to experience the usability of Cloud e-Learning application. As an instrument to analyse the usability factors towards continuance intention of the application, a questionnaire consisting thirty questions was formulated and used. The collected data were analysed using SMARTPLS 3.0. The results obtained from this study observed that computer self-efficacy and enjoyment as intrinsic motivations significantly predict continuance intention, while perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and user perception were insignificant. This outcome implies that computer self-efficacy and enjoyment significantly affect the willingness of students to continue using Cloud e-learning application in their studies. The discussions and implications of this study are vital for researchers and practitioners of educational technologies in higher education.