Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

  1. Gan S, Lau EV, Ng HK
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Dec 30;172(2-3):532-49.
    PMID: 19700241 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.118
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic micropollutants which are resistant to environmental degradation due to their highly hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse health effects have resulted in extensive studies on the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs. This paper aims to provide a review of the remediation technologies specifically for PAH-contaminated soils. The technologies discussed here include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, photocatalytic degradation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal treatment and integrated remediation technologies. For each of these, the theories are discussed in conjunction with comparative evaluation of studies reported in the specialised literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  2. Bundhoo MA, Mohee R, Hassan MA
    J Environ Manage, 2015 Jul 1;157:20-48.
    PMID: 25881150 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.04.006
    Biohydrogen production from dark fermentation of lignocellulosic materials represents a huge potential in terms of renewable energy exploitation. However, the low hydrogen yield is currently hindering its development on industrial scale. This study reviewed various technologies that have been investigated for enhancing dark fermentative biohydrogen production. The pre-treatment technologies can be classified based on their applications as inoculum or substrates pre-treatment or they can be categorised into physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological based on the techniques used. From the different technologies reviewed, heat and acid pre-treatments are the most commonly studied technologies for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment. Nevertheless, these two technologies need not necessarily be the most suitable since across different studies, a wide array of other emerging techniques as well as combined technologies have yielded positive findings. To date, there exists no perfect technology for either inoculum or substrate pre-treatment. Although the aim of inoculum pre-treatment is to suppress H2-consumers and enrich H2-producers, many sporulating H2-consumers survive the pre-treatment while some non-spore H2-producers are inhibited. Besides, several inoculum pre-treatment techniques are not effective in the long run and repeated pre-treatment may be required for continuous suppression of H2-consumers and sustained biohydrogen production. Furthermore, many technologies employed for substrates pre-treatment may yield inhibitory compounds that can eventually decrease biohydrogen production. Consequently, much research needs to be done to find out the best technology for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment while also taking into consideration the energetic, economic and technical feasibility of implementing such a process on an industrial scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  3. Lim KT, Shukor MY, Wasoh H
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:503784.
    PMID: 24696853 DOI: 10.1155/2014/503784
    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid which is widely distributed in nature. It is normally present as arsenate under oxic conditions while arsenite is predominant under reducing condition. The major discharges of arsenic in the environment are mainly due to natural sources such as aquifers and anthropogenic sources. It is known that arsenite salts are more toxic than arsenate as it binds with vicinal thiols in pyruvate dehydrogenase while arsenate inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation process. The common mechanisms for arsenic detoxification are uptaken by phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporins, and active extrusion system and reduced by arsenate reductases via dissimilatory reduction mechanism. Some species of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms use arsenic oxyanions for their regeneration of energy. Certain species of microorganisms are able to use arsenate as their nutrient in respiratory process. Detoxification operons are a common form of arsenic resistance in microorganisms. Hence, the use of bioremediation could be an effective and economic way to reduce this pollutant from the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  4. Ong WJ, Tan LL, Chai SP, Yong ST, Mohamed AR
    ChemSusChem, 2014 Mar;7(3):690-719.
    PMID: 24532412 DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300924
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides because of its extraordinary surface, electronic, and photocatalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and the considerable recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic efficiency. Therefore, research attention is being increasingly directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 on the atomic level (namely morphological control of {001} facets on the micro- and nanoscale) to fine-tune its physicochemical properties; this could ultimately lead to the optimization of selectivity and reactivity. This Review encompasses the fundamental principles to enhance the photocatalytic activity by using highly reactive {001}-faceted TiO2 -based composites. The current progress of such composites, with particular emphasis on the photodegradation of pollutants and photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation, is also discussed. The progresses made are thoroughly examined for achieving remarkable photocatalytic performances, with additional insights with regard to charge transfer. Finally, a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and new research directions for future exploitation in this emerging frontier are provided, which hopefully would allow for harnessing the outstanding structural and electronic properties of {001} facets for various energy- and environmental-related applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  5. Zahed MA, Aziz HA, Isa MH, Mohajeri L, Mohajeri S, Kutty SR
    J Hazard Mater, 2011 Jan 30;185(2-3):1027-31.
    PMID: 21041026 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.009
    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  6. Yap CL, Gan S, Ng HK
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 May 15;177(1-3):28-41.
    PMID: 20006435 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.078
    A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  7. Show KY, Lee DJ, Pan X
    Biotechnol Adv, 2013 Jul-Aug;31(4):409-20.
    PMID: 23267859 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.12.006
    Biological removal of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur is drawing increasing research interest in search for an efficient and cost-effective wastewater treatment. While extensive work on separate removal of nitrogen and sulfur is well documented, investigation on simultaneous denitrifying sulfide removal has only been reported recently. Most of the work on denitrifying sulfide removal has been focusing on bioreactor performance, loading and operating conditions. Nonetheless, underlying principles elucidating the biochemical reactions and the mechanisms of the microbial degradation are yet to be established. In addition, unstable denitrifying sulfide removal which is a major operating problem that hinders practical application of the process, is yet to be resolved. This paper provides a review on the state-of-the-art development of simultaneous biological removal of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon. Research on bioreactor operation and performance, reactor configurations, mechanisms and modeling work including the use of mass balance analysis and artificial neural networks is delineated. An in-depth discussion on the microbial community and functional consortium is also provided. Challenges and future work on simultaneous biological removal of nitrogen-sulfur-carbon are also outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  8. Kumar S, Prasad S, Yadav KK, Shrivastava M, Gupta N, Nagar S, et al.
    Environ Res, 2019 12;179(Pt A):108792.
    PMID: 31610391 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108792
    This review emphasizes the role of toxic metal remediation approaches due to their broad sustainability and applicability. The rapid developmental processes can incorporate a large quantity of hazardous and unseen heavy metals in all the segments of the environment, including soil, water, air and plants. The released hazardous heavy metals (HHMs) entered into the food chain and biomagnified into living beings via food and vegetable consumption and originate potentially health-threatening effects. The physical and chemical remediation approaches are restricted and localized and, mainly applied to wastewater and soils and not the plant. The nanotechnological, biotechnological and genetical approaches required to more rectification and sustainability. A cellular, molecular and nano-level understanding of the pathways and reactions are responsible for potentially toxic metals (TMs) accumulation. These approaches can enable the development of crop varieties with highly reduced concentrations of TMs in their consumable foods and vegetables. As a critical analysis by authors observed that nanoparticles could provide very high adaptability for both in-situ and ex-situ remediation of hazardous heavy metals (HHMs) in the environment. These methods could be used for the improvement of the inbuilt genetic potential and phytoremediation ability of plants by developing transgenic. These biological processes involve the transfer of gene of interest, which plays a role in hazardous metal uptake, transport, stabilization, inactivation and accumulation to increased host tolerance. This review identified that use of nanoremediation and combined biotechnological and, transgenic could help to enhance phytoremediation efficiency in a sustainable way.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods
  9. Mat-Shayuti MS, Tuan Ya TMYS, Abdullah MZ, Megat Khamaruddin PNF, Othman NH
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Sep;26(26):26419-26438.
    PMID: 31327143 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05954-w
    Steady efforts in using ultrasonic energy to treat oil-contaminated sand started in the early 2000s until today, although pilot studies on the area can be traced to even earlier dates. Owing to the unique characteristics of the acoustic means, the separation of oil from sand has been showing good results in laboratories. This review provides the compilation of researches and insights into the mechanism of separation thus far. Related topics in the areas of oil-contaminated sand characterizations, fundamental ultrasonic cleaning, and cavitation effects are also addressed. Nevertheless, many of the documented works are only at laboratory or pilot-scale level, and the comprehensive interaction between ultrasonic parameters towards cleaning efficiencies may not have been fully unveiled. Gaps and opportunities are also presented at the end of this article.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  10. Ashraf MA, Khan AM, Ahmad M, Akib S, Balkhair KS, Bakar NK
    Environ Geochem Health, 2014 12;36(6):1165-90.
    PMID: 24804829 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-014-9620-9
    Radionuclide contamination in terrestrial ecosystems has reached a dangerous level. The major artificial radionuclide present in the environment is (137)Cs, which is released as a result of weapon production related to atomic projects, accidental explosions of nuclear power plants and other sources, such as reactors, evaporation ponds, liquid storage tanks, and burial grounds. The release of potentially hazardous radionuclides (radiocesium) in recent years has provided the opportunity to conduct multidisciplinary studies on their fate and transport. Radiocesium's high fission yield and ease of detection made it a prime candidate for early radio-ecological investigations. The facility setting provides a diverse background for the improved understanding of various factors that contribute toward the fate and transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem. In this review, we summarize the significant environmental radiocesium transfer factors to determine the damaging effects of radiocesium on terrestrial ecosystem. It has been found that (137)Cs can trace the transport of other radionuclides that have a high affinity for binding to soil particles (silts and clays). Possible remedial methods are also discussed for contaminated terrestrial systems. This review will serve as a guideline for future studies of the fate and transport of (137)Cs in terrestrial environments in the wake of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster in 2011.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  11. Dadrasnia A, Agamuthu P
    Waste Manag Res, 2013 Nov;31(11):1133-9.
    PMID: 24025373 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X13502382
    Toxic inorganic and organic chemicals are major contributors to environmental contamination and pose major health risks to human population. In this work, Dracaena reflexa and Podocarpus polystachyus were investigated for their potential to remove hydrocarbons from 2.5% and 1% diesel fuel-contaminated soil amended individually with 5% organic wastes (tea leaf, soy cake and potato skin) for a period of 270 days. Loss of 90% and 99% oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5% and 1% oil with soy cake amendment, respectively, compared with 52% and 62% in unamended soil with D. reflexa at the end of 270 days. Similarly, 84% and 91% oil loss was recorded for P. polystachyus amended with organic wastes in 2.5% and 1% oil, respectively. Diesel fuel disappeared more rapidly in the soil amendment with SC than in other organic waste supplementation. It was evident that plants did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil, while the number of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria was high in the rhizosphere, thus suggesting that the mechanism of the oil degradation was rhizodegradation. The kinetic model result indicated a high rate of degradation in soil amendment with SC at 1% with D. reflexa compared with other treatments. Thus, a positive relationship was observed between diesel hydrocarbon degradation with plant biomass production. Dracaena reflexa with organic wastes amendment has a greater potential of restoring hydrocarbon-contaminated soil compared to P. polystachyus plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  12. Lim JW, Lim PE, Seng CE, Adnan R
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2013 Jun;170(4):831-40.
    PMID: 23613119 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0245-8
    The aeration strategy ranging from intermittent to continuous aeration in the REACT period of moving bed sequencing batch reactor (MBSBR) was evaluated for simultaneous removal of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and nitrogen. The results show that the removal rates of 4-CP and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) increased with the increase of continuous aeration period. In the presence of 4-CP, NH(4)(+)-N removal was mainly by the assimilation process. The removal of NH(4)(+)-N to oxidized nitrogen via oxidation was only observed after 4-CP was completely degraded with sufficient aeration period provided indicating the inhibitory effect of 4-CP on nitrification. As the intermittent aeration strategy would lead to slower 4-CP degradation resulting in the delay of nitrification process, continuous aeration would be the preferred strategy in the simultaneous removal of 4-CP and nitrogen in the MBSBR system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  13. Hashim MA, Mukhopadhyay S, Sahu JN, Sengupta B
    J Environ Manage, 2011 Oct;92(10):2355-88.
    PMID: 21708421 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.009
    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal, originating either from natural soil sources or from anthropogenic sources is a matter of utmost concern to the public health. Remediation of contaminated groundwater is of highest priority since billions of people all over the world use it for drinking purpose. In this paper, thirty five approaches for groundwater treatment have been reviewed and classified under three large categories viz chemical, biochemical/biological/biosorption and physico-chemical treatment processes. Comparison tables have been provided at the end of each process for a better understanding of each category. Selection of a suitable technology for contamination remediation at a particular site is one of the most challenging job due to extremely complex soil chemistry and aquifer characteristics and no thumb-rule can be suggested regarding this issue. In the past decade, iron based technologies, microbial remediation, biological sulphate reduction and various adsorbents played versatile and efficient remediation roles. Keeping the sustainability issues and environmental ethics in mind, the technologies encompassing natural chemistry, bioremediation and biosorption are recommended to be adopted in appropriate cases. In many places, two or more techniques can work synergistically for better results. Processes such as chelate extraction and chemical soil washings are advisable only for recovery of valuable metals in highly contaminated industrial sites depending on economical feasibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  14. Al-Hamadani YA, Yusoff MS, Umar M, Bashir MJ, Adlan MN
    J Hazard Mater, 2011 Jun 15;190(1-3):582-7.
    PMID: 21507572 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.03.087
    Landfill leachate is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is produced as a result of water infiltration through solid wastes generated industrially and domestically. This study investigates the potential of using psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid for the treatment of landfill leachate. Psyllium husk has been tested as primary coagulant and as coagulant aid with poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (alum). As primary coagulant, the optimum dosage and pH for PACl were 7.2 and 7.5 g/L, respectively, with removal efficiencies of 55, 80 and 95% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. For alum, the optimum conditions were 11 g/L alum dosage and pH 6.5 with removal efficiencies of 58, 79 and 78% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, color and TSS were 64, 90 and 96%, respectively, when psyllium husk was used as coagulant aid with PACl. Based on the results, psyllium husk was found to be more effective as coagulant aid with PACl in the removal of COD, color and TSS as compared to alum. Zeta potential test was carried out for leachate, PACl, alum and psyllium husk before and after running the jar test to enhance the results of the jar test experiments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods
  15. Aziz SQ, Aziz HA, Yusoff MS, Mohajeri S
    Environ Monit Assess, 2012 Oct;184(10):6147-58.
    PMID: 22068314 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2409-8
    In this research, two types of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with 8 h of cycle times, namely non-powdered activated carbon (NPAC-SBR) and powdered activated carbon (PAC-SBR), were used for the treatment of raw leachates at Kulim and Pulau Burung landfill sites. To test the performance of SBRs, phenols, total iron, zinc, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, color, suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, and total dissolved salts removal efficiencies and sludge volume index (SVI) were studied at both sites. The rates of phenols removal, for instance in NPAC-SBRs and PAC-SBRs at Kulim, were 25% and 55%, respectively, whereas those at Pulau Buring were 94.81% and 97.75%, respectively. PAC as adsorbent in PAC-SBRs enhanced the removal efficiencies of the aforementioned pollutants from leachates at both sites. In addition, PAC as adsorbent decreased the SVI values at Kulim (59.7 mL/g) and Pulau Burung (91.4 mL/g) leachates and improved the nitrification and denitrification processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  16. Yap CL, Gan S, Ng HK
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(6):1064-75.
    PMID: 23505874
    Solubility data of recalcitrant contaminants in cosolvents is essential to determine their potential applications in enhanced soil remediation. The solubilities of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in ethyl lactate/water and ethanol/water mixtures were measured using equilibrium techniques. The cosolvency powers derived from solubility data were then applied to the model developed from the solvophobic approach to predict the capability of ethyl lactate and ethanol in enhancing the desorption of contaminants from soils. Both ethyl lactate and ethanol cosolvents were shown to be able to enhance the solubilisation of the tested four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by > 4 orders of magnitude above the levels obtained with water alone. However, ethyl lactate demonstrated a greater capacity to enhance PAH solubility than ethanol. The cosolvency powers of ethyl lactate/water system obtained from the end-to-end slope (sigma) and the end-to-half slope (sigma0.5) of the solubilisation curve were 1.0-1.5 and 2.0-2.9 higher than ethanol/water system respectively. In line with this, ethyl lactate/water was demonstrated to enhance the desorption of contaminants from soil by 20%-37% and 18%-61% higher compared to ethanol/water system in low organic content and high organic content soils respectively, with a 2:1 (V/W) ratio of solution:soil and with cosolvent fraction as low as 0.4. With the exception of benzo[a]pyrene, the experimental desorption results agreed fairly with the predicted values, under an applied solution:soil ratio that was enough to hold the capacity of released contaminants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  17. Chan YJ, Chong MF, Law CL
    J Environ Manage, 2010 Aug;91(8):1738-46.
    PMID: 20430515 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.03.021
    The production of highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has resulted in serious environmental hazards. While anaerobic digestion is widely accepted as an effective method for the treatment of POME, anaerobic treatment of POME alone has difficulty meeting discharge limits due to the high organic strength of POME. Hence, subsequent post-treatment following aerobic treatment is vital to meet the discharge limits. The objective of the present study is to investigate the aerobic treatment of anaerobically digested POME by using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) removal as well as Sludge Volume Index (SVI). The operating pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations were found to be 8.25-9.14 and 1.5-6.4 mg/L, respectively, throughout the experiment. The experimental results demonstrate that MLVSS, OLR and sludge loading rate (SLR) play a significant role in the organic removal efficiency of SBR systems and therefore, further investigation on these parameters was conducted to attain optimum SBR performance. Maximum COD (95-96%), BOD (97-98%) and TSS (98-99%) removal efficiencies were achieved at optimum OLR, SLR and MLVSS concentration ranges of 1.8-4.2 kg COD/m(3)day, 2.5-4.6 kg TSS/m(3)day and 22,000-25,000 mg/L, respectively. The effluent quality remained stable and complied with the discharge limit. At the same time, the sludge showed good settling properties with average SVI of 65. It is envisaged that the SBR process could complement the anaerobic treatment to produce final treated effluent which meets the discharge limit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods
  18. Tham YJ, Latif PA, Abdullah AM, Shamala-Devi A, Taufiq-Yap YH
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jan;102(2):724-8.
    PMID: 20884200 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.068
    In the effort to find alternative low cost adsorbent for volatile organic vapors has prompted this research in assessing the effectiveness of activated carbon produced from durian shell in removing toluene vapors. Durian shells were impregnated with different concentrations of H3PO4 followed by carbonization at 500 °C for 20 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared durian shell activated carbon (DSAC) was characterized for its physical and chemical properties. The removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC was performed using different toluene concentrations. Results showed that the highest BET surface area of the produced DSAC was 1404 m2/g. Highest removal efficiency of toluene vapors was achieved by using DSAC impregnated with 30% of acid concentration heated at 500 °C for 20 min heating duration. However, there is insignificant difference between removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC and different toluene concentrations. The toluene adsorption by DSAC was better fitted into Freundlich model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  19. Zahed MA, Aziz HA, Isa MH, Mohajeri L, Mohajeri S
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Dec;101(24):9455-60.
    PMID: 20705460 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.077
    To determine the influence of nutrients on the rate of biodegradation, a five-level, three-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed for bioremediation of seawater artificially contaminated with crude oil. Removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was the dependent variable. Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols. A significant (R(2)=0.9645, P<0.0001) quadratic polynomial mathematical model was generated. Removal from samples not subjected to optimization and removal by natural attenuation were 53.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Numerical optimization was carried out based on desirability functions for maximum TPH removal. For an initial crude oil concentration of 1g/L supplemented with 190.21 mg/L nitrogen and 12.71 mg/L phosphorus, the Design-Expert software predicted 60.9% hydrocarbon removal; 58.6% removal was observed in a 28-day experiment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
  20. Zahed MA, Aziz HA, Mohajeri L, Mohajeri S, Kutty SR, Isa MH
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Dec 15;184(1-3):350-6.
    PMID: 20837377 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.08.043
    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for removal of n-alkanes from crude oil contaminated seawater samples in batch reactors. Erlenmeyer flasks were used as bioreactors; each containing 250 mL dispersed crude oil contaminated seawater, indigenous acclimatized microorganism and different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus based on central composite design (CCD). Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols using a gas chromatograph. During 28 days of bioremediation, a maximum of 95% total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal was observed. The obtained Model F-value of 267.73 and probability F<0.0001 implied the model was significant. Numerical condition optimization via a quadratic model, predicted 98% n-alkanes removal for a 20-day laboratory bioremediation trial using nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 13.62 and 1.39 mg/L, respectively. In actual experiments, 95% removal was observed under these conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods*
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