Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Nisbar ND, Jamal Khair SK, Bujang NB, Mohd Yusop AY
    Sci Rep, 2023 Jun 10;13(1):9478.
    PMID: 37301842 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-36283-1
    The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is an unprecedented global pandemic, sparking grave public health emergencies. One of the measures to reduce COVID-19 transmissions recommended by the World Health Organization is hand hygiene, i.e., washing hands with soap and water or disinfecting them using an alcohol-based hand sanitiser (ABHS). Unfortunately, competing ABHSs with unknown quality, safety, and efficacy thrived, posing yet another risk to consumers. This study aims to develop, optimise, and validate a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based analytical method to simultaneously identify and quantify ethanol or isopropyl alcohol as the active ingredient in ABHS, with simultaneous determination of methanol as an impurity. The GC-MS was operated in Electron Ionisation mode, and Selected Ion Monitoring was chosen as the data acquisition method for quantitation. The analytical method was validated for liquid and gel ABHSs, covering the specificity, linearity and range, accuracy, and precisions, including the limit of detection and the limit of quantitation. The specificity of each target analyte was established using the optimised chromatographic separation with unique quantifier and qualifier ions. The linearity was ascertained with a coefficient of determination (r2) of > 0.9994 over the corresponding specification range. Respectively, the accuracy and precisions were satisfactory within 98.99 to 101.09% and 
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/analysis; Methanol/analysis
  2. Kuswandi B, Irmawati T, Hidayat MA, Jayus, Ahmad M
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(2):2135-49.
    PMID: 24473284 DOI: 10.3390/s140202135
    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/analysis*
  3. Hassan H, Othman MF, Zakaria ZA, Saad FFA, Abdul Razak HR
    Curr Radiopharm, 2021;14(2):131-144.
    PMID: 33115398 DOI: 10.2174/1874471013999201027215704
    BACKGROUND: Organic solvents play an indispensable role in most of the radiopharmaceutical production stages. It is almost impossible to remove them entirely in the final formulation of the product.

    OBJECTIVE: In this presented work, an analytical method by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) has been developed to determine organic solvents in radiopharmaceutical samples. The effect of injection holding time, temperature variation in the injection port, and the column temperature on the analysis time and resolution (R ≥ 1.5) of ethanol and acetonitrile was studied extensively.

    METHODS: The experimental conditions were optimized with the aid of further statistical analysis; thence, the proposed method was validated following the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Q2 (R1) guideline.

    RESULTS: The proposed analytical method surpassed the acceptance criteria including the linearity > 0.990 (correlation coefficient of R2), precision < 2%, LOD, and LOQ, accuracy > 90% for all solvents. The separation between ethanol and acetonitrile was acceptable with a resolution R > 1.5. Further statistical analysis of Oneway ANOVA revealed that the increment in injection holding time and variation of temperature at the injection port did not significantly affect the analysis time. Nevertheless, the variation in injection port temperature substantially influenced the resolution of ethanol and acetonitrile peaks (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The proposed analytical method has been successfully implemented to determine the organic solvent in the [18F]fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine ([18F]FET), [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO), and [18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT).

    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/analysis
  4. Ho CW, Lazim A, Fazry S, Hussain Zaki UKH, Massa S, Lim SJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Feb;100(3):1012-1021.
    PMID: 31646636 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10103
    BACKGROUND: Wines are produced via the alcoholic fermentation of suitable substrates, usually sugar (sugar cane, grapes) and carbohydrates (wheat, grain). However, conventional alcoholic fermentation is limited by the inhibition of yeast by ethanol produced, usually at approximately 13-14%. Aside from that, soursop fruit is a very nutritious fruit, although it is highly perishable, and thus produces a lot of wastage. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce fermented soursop juice (soursop wine), using combination of two starter cultures, namely mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as well as to determine the effects of fermentation on the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of fermented soursop juice. Optimisation of four factors (pH, temperature, time and culture ratio) using response surface methodology were performed to maximise ethanol production.

    RESULTS: The optimised values for alcoholic fermentation were pH 4.99, 28.29 °C, 131 h and a 0.42 culture ratio (42:58, P. pulmonarius mycelia:S. cerevisiae) with a predicted ethanol concentration of 22.25%. Through a verification test, soursop wine with 22.29 ± 0.52% ethanol was produced. The antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power) showed a significant (P ethanol production in soursop wine and higher antioxidant activities. Ultimately, this finding has high potential for application in the brewing industry to enhance the fermentation process, as well as in the development of an innovative niche product, reducing wastage by converting the highly-perishable fruit into wine with a more stable and longer shelf-life. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/analysis
  5. Audah KA, Ettin J, Darmadi J, Azizah NN, Anisa AS, Hermawan TDF, et al.
    Molecules, 2022 Nov 30;27(23).
    PMID: 36500458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27238369
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an S. aureus strain that has developed resistance against ß-lactam antibiotics, resulting in a scarcity of a potent cure for treating Staphylococcus infections. In this study, the anti-MRSA and antioxidant activity of the Indonesian mangrove species Sonneratia caseolaris, Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata, and Rhizophora apiculata were studied. Disk diffusion, DPPH, a brine shrimp lethality test, and total phenolic and flavonoid assays were conducted. Results showed that among the tested mangroves, ethanol solvent-based S. caseolaris leaves extract had the highest antioxidant and anti-MRSA activities. An antioxidant activity assay showed comparable activity when compared to ascorbic acid, with an IC50 value of 4.2499 ± 3.0506 ppm and 5.2456 ± 0.5937 ppm, respectively, classifying the extract as a super-antioxidant. Moreover, S. caseolaris leaves extract showed the highest content of strongly associated antioxidative and antibacterial polyphenols, with 12.4% consisting of nontoxic flavonoids with the minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanol-based S. caseolaris leaves extract being approximately 5000 ppm. LC-MS/MS results showed that phenolic compounds such as azelaic acid and aspirin were found, as well as flavonoid glucosides such as isovitexin and quercitrin. This strongly suggested that these compounds greatly contributed to antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Further research is needed to elucidate the interaction of the main compounds in S. caseolaris leaves extract in order to confirm their potential either as single or two or more compounds that synergistically function as a nontoxic antioxidant and antibacterial against MRSA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/analysis
  6. Hasunuma T, Ismail KSK, Nambu Y, Kondo A
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2014 Feb;117(2):165-169.
    PMID: 23916856 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2013.07.007
    Lignocellulosic biomass dedicated to bioethanol production usually contains pentoses and inhibitory compounds such as furfural that are not well tolerated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus, S. cerevisiae strains with the capability of utilizing both glucose and xylose in the presence of inhibitors such as furfural are very important in industrial ethanol production. Under the synergistic conditions of transaldolase (TAL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) overexpression, S. cerevisiae MT8-1X/TAL-ADH was able to produce 1.3-fold and 2.3-fold more ethanol in the presence of 70 mM furfural than a TAL-expressing strain and a control strain, respectively. We also tested the strains' ability by mimicking industrial ethanol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing fermentation inhibitors, and ethanol production was further improved by 16% when using MT8-1X/TAL-ADH compared to the control strain. Transcript analysis further revealed that besides the pentose phosphate pathway genes TKL1 and TAL1, ADH7 was also upregulated in response to furfural stress, which resulted in higher ethanol production compared to the TAL-expressing strain. The improved capability of our modified strain was based on its capacity to more quickly reduce furfural in situ resulting in higher ethanol production. The co-expression of TAL/ADH genes is one crucial strategy to fully utilize undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, leading to cost-competitive ethanol production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/analysis
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