DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis was carried out using the first wave data from MELoR which is a longitudinal study.
SETTING: Urban community dwellers in a middle-income South East Asian country.
PARTICIPANTS: 1565 participants aged ≥55 years were selected by simple random sampling from the electoral rolls of three parliamentary constituencies.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Consenting participants from the MELoR study were asked the question 'Have you fallen down in the past 12 months?' during their computer-assisted home-based interviews. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the prevalence of falls among various ethnic groups.
RESULTS: The overall estimated prevalence of falls for individuals aged 55 years and over adjusted to the population of Kuala Lumpur was 18.9%. The estimated prevalence of falls for the three ethnic populations of Malays, Chinese and Indian aged 55 years and over was 16.2%, 19.4% and 23.8%, respectively. Following adjustment for ethnic discrepancies in age, gender, marital status and education attainment, the Indian ethnicity remained an independent predictor of falls in our population (relative risk=1.45, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.85).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of falls in this study is comparable to other previous Asian studies, but appears lower than Western studies. The predisposition of the Indian ethnic group to falls has not been previously reported. Further studies may be needed to elucidate the causes for the ethnic differences in fall prevalence.
RESULTS: In each group, there were 12 males (60%) and average age was not significantly different (p = 0.682-0.987). Using Chinese subjects as a reference, in Chinese, Malay, Indian and Caucasian subjects, mean trigone thickness was 13.68, 14.02, 11.60 (p
PURPOSE: Information regarding mediators of differences in bone mineral density (BMD) among Asian ethnicities are limited. Since the majority of hip fractures are predicted to be from Asia, differences in BMD in Asian ethnicities require further exploration. We compared BMD among the Chinese, Malay, or Indian ethnicities in Singapore, aiming to identify potential mediators for the observed differences.
METHODS: BMD of 1201 women aged 45-69 years was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We examined the associations between ethnicity and BMD at both sites, before and after adjusting for potential mediators measured using standardized questionnaires and validated performance tests.
RESULTS: Chinese women had significantly lower femoral neck BMD than Malay and Indian women. Of the more than 20 variables examined, age, body mass index, and height accounted for almost all the observed ethnic differences in femoral neck BMD between Chinese and Malays. However, Indian women still retained 0.047 g/cm2 (95% CI, 0.024, 0.071) higher femoral neck BMD after adjustment, suggesting that additional factors may contribute to the increased BMD in Indians. Although no crude ethnic differences in lumbar spine BMD were observed, adjusted regression model unmasked ethnic differences, wherein Chinese women had 0.061(95% CI, - 0.095, 0.026) and 0.065 (95% CI, - 0.091, 0.038) g/cm2 higher lumbar spine BMD compared to Malay and Indian women, respectively.
CONCLUSION: BMD in middle-aged Asian women differ by ethnicity and site. Particular attention should be paid to underweight women of Chinese ethnic origin, who may be at highest risk of osteoporosis at the femoral neck and hence hip fractures.