Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Paramjothy M, Chua CP
    Med J Malaysia, 1982 Sep;37(3):215-6.
    PMID: 7177000
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood*
  2. Pham TS, Reda A, Ngan Nguyen TT, Ng SJ, Huan VT, Viet DC, et al.
    Transfus Apher Sci, 2020 Dec;59(6):102907.
    PMID: 32883595 DOI: 10.1016/j.transci.2020.102907
    We report a case of blood exchange transfusion to treat acute liver failure following hepatitis B infection at the Infectious Disease Department of Children's Hospital No.2 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. A 3.5-month old baby boy was admitted to the hospital with a presentation of progressively worsening jaundice for the past one month. The patient was diagnosed with hepatitis B infection with a positive HBV DNA quantitative assay. Plasma exchange was indicated in view of progressive liver failure and gradually increasing hepatic coma. However, it was impossible to perform plasmapheresis in this case because the patient was small (in terms of age and weight) and there was no suitable plasma exchange filter. Accordingly, the patient was treated with 3 times of blood exchange transfusion in combination with an antiviral drug, lamivudine. After each blood exchange transfusion, the biochemical values (bilirubin, liver enzymes, and coagulation profile) gradually improved and he was discharged after 1 month of treatment. Blood exchange transfusion is an effective procedure for managing acute liver failure, where plasma exchange is not possible while waiting for the recovery of liver functions or liver transplantation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood/methods*
  3. Teoh SL, Boo NY, Ong LC, Nyein MK, Lye MS, Au MK
    Eye (Lond), 1995;9 ( Pt 6):733-7.
    PMID: 8849541
    One hundred and thirteen consecutive infants with a very low birthweight of less than 1500 g were followed prospectively for 6 months to determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and associated risk factors. Of this group, 36 (31.9%) infants developed ROP (13 infants had stage 1 ROP, nine had stage 2, six had stage 3, six had stage 4, and two had cicatricial stage ROP). Stepwise logistic regression analysis of various potential risk factors (birthweight, gestation, duration of oxygen therapy, duration of ventilation, highest documented PaO2 and exchange transfusion) showed that only two risk factors were significantly associated with the development of ROP. These risk factors were: the duration of oxygen therapy (p = 0.0005) and exchange transfusion during the neonatal period (odds ratio 5.754, 95% confidence interval 1.002 to 32.997, p = 0.049). The equation of the regression model is: log (odds of developing ROP) = -0.8395 + 0.1447 (OXY)- 0.8750 (ET), where OXY is the duration of oxygen therapy in days, ET = -1 when there was a history of exchange transfusion, and ET = 1 when there was no history of exchange transfusion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood*
  4. Ong HC, Chan WF, Hussein N
    Med J Malaysia, 1975 Sep;30(1):63-65.
    PMID: 1207535
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood*
  5. Ong HT, Kamath KR
    Med J Malaysia, 1973 Sep;28(1):32-4.
    PMID: 4273780
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood/adverse effects*
  6. Singh H
    Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 1986 Feb 08;292(6517):397-8.
    PMID: 3080188 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.292.6517.397
    Over two years cord blood from 27 879 babies was screened for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The overall incidence was 3.1% in boys and 1.6% in girls. Sixty nine babies had severe jaundice (bilirubin concentration greater than 380 mmol/l (20 mg/100 ml], and exchange transfusion was performed. Parents were given written and verbal instructions to avoid herbs and drugs that trigger kernicterus, which reduced the incidence of kernicterus and thereby prevented mental retardation. G6PD deficiency is common in all three ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese, and Indians) in Malaysia and screening is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
  7. Lai NM, Ahmad Kamar A, Choo YM, Kong JY, Ngim CF
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 Aug 01;8(8):CD011891.
    PMID: 28762235 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011891.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is a common problem which carries a risk of neurotoxicity. Certain infants who have hyperbilirubinaemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus which may lead to long-term disability. Phototherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Among the adjunctive measures to compliment the effects of phototherapy, fluid supplementation has been proposed to reduce serum bilirubin levels. The mechanism of action proposed includes direct dilutional effects of intravenous (IV) fluids, or enhancement of peristalsis to reduce enterohepatic circulation by oral fluid supplementation.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the risks and benefits of fluid supplementation compared to standard fluid management in term and preterm newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia who require phototherapy.

    SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 7 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 7 June 2017), and CINAHL (1982 to 7 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared fluid supplementation against no fluid supplementation, or one form of fluid supplementation against another.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group using the Covidence platform. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using mean difference (MD), risk difference (RD), and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    MAIN RESULTS: Out of 1449 articles screened, seven studies were included. Three articles were awaiting classification, among them, two completed trials identified from the trial registry appeared to be unpublished so far.There were two major comparisons: IV fluid supplementation versus no fluid supplementation (six studies) and IV fluid supplementation versus oral fluid supplementation (one study). A total of 494 term, healthy newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia were evaluated. All studies were at high risk of bias for blinding of care personnel, five studies had unclear risk of bias for blinding of outcome assessors, and most studies had unclear risk of bias in allocation concealment. There was low- to moderate-quality evidence for all major outcomes.In the comparison between IV fluid supplementation and no supplementation, no infant in either group developed bilirubin encephalopathy in the one study that reported this outcome. Serum bilirubin was lower at four hours postintervention for infants who received IV fluid supplementation (MD -34.00 μmol/L (-1.99 mg/dL), 95% CI -52.29 (3.06) to -15.71 (0.92); participants = 67, study = 1) (low quality of evidence, downgraded one level for indirectness and one level for suspected publication bias). Beyond eight hours postintervention, serum bilirubin was similar between the two groups. Duration of phototherapy was significantly shorter for fluid-supplemented infants, but the estimate was affected by heterogeneity which was not clearly explained (MD -10.70 hours, 95% CI -15.55 to -5.85; participants = 218; studies = 3; I² = 67%). Fluid-supplemented infants were less likely to require exchange transfusion (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.71; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.02; participants = 462; studies = 6; I² = 72%) (low quality of evidence, downgraded one level due to inconsistency, and another level due to suspected publication bias), and the estimate was similarly affected by unexplained heterogeneity. The frequencies of breastfeeding were similar between the fluid-supplemented and non-supplemented infants in days one to three based on one study (estimate on day three: MD 0.90 feeds, 95% CI -0.40 to 2.20; participants = 60) (moderate quality of evidence, downgraded one level for imprecision).One study contributed to all outcome data in the comparison of IV versus oral fluid supplementation. In this comparison, no infant in either group developed abnormal neurological signs. Serum bilirubin, as well as the rate of change of serum bilirubin, were similar between the two groups at four hours after phototherapy (serum bilirubin: MD 11.00 μmol/L (0.64 mg/dL), 95% CI -21.58 (-1.26) to 43.58 (2.55); rate of change of serum bilirubin: MD 0.80 μmol/L/hour (0.05 mg/dL/hour), 95% CI -2.55 (-0.15) to 4.15 (0.24); participants = 54 in both outcomes) (moderate quality of evidence for both outcomes, downgraded one level for indirectness). The number of infants who required exchange transfusion was similar between the two groups (RR 1.60, 95% CI 0.60 to 4.27; RD 0.11, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.34; participants = 54). No infant in either group developed adverse effects including vomiting or abdominal distension.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that IV fluid supplementation affects important clinical outcomes such as bilirubin encephalopathy, kernicterus, or cerebral palsy in healthy, term newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy. In this review, no infant developed these bilirubin-associated clinical complications. Low- to moderate-quality evidence shows that there are differences in total serum bilirubin levels between fluid-supplemented and control groups at some time points but not at others, the clinical significance of which is uncertain. There is no evidence of a difference between the effectiveness of IV and oral fluid supplementations in reducing serum bilirubin. Similarly, no infant developed adverse events or complications from fluid supplementation such as vomiting or abdominal distension. This suggests a need for future research to focus on different population groups with possibly higher baseline risks of bilirubin-related neurological complications, such as preterm or low birthweight infants, infants with haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia, as well as infants with dehydration for comparison of different fluid supplementation regimen.

    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood/statistics & numerical data
  8. Usman AS, Mustaffa R, Ramli N, Diggi SA
    Asian J Transfus Sci, 2013 Jan;7(1):84-5.
    PMID: 23559775 DOI: 10.4103/0973-6247.106750
    OBJECTIVE: Maternal allo-antibody production is stimulated when fetal red blood cells are positive for an antigen absent on the mother's red cells. The maternal IgG antibodies produced will pass through the placenta and attack fetal red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. Allo-immune hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-E rarely occurs.

    CASE SUMMARY: We report two cases of anti-E hemolytic diseases in neonates. One of the neonates had severe hemolysis presenting with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, while the other had moderate anemia and unconjugated hyperbilrubinemia. Although both the neonates were treated by phototherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin, one of them received double volume exchange transfusion.

    CONCLUSION: There appeared to be an increase in the occurrence of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by Rh antibodies other than anti-D. In this case report, both patients presented with anemia and hyperbilirubinemia but were successfully treated, with a favorable outcome.

    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
  9. Olusanya BO, Ogunlesi TA, Kumar P, Boo NY, Iskander IF, de Almeida MF, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2015 Apr 12;15:39.
    PMID: 25884679 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0358-z
    Hyperbilirubinaemia is a ubiquitous transitional morbidity in the vast majority of newborns and a leading cause of hospitalisation in the first week of life worldwide. While timely and effective phototherapy and exchange transfusion are well proven treatments for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, inappropriate or ineffective treatment of hyperbilirubinaemia, at secondary and tertiary hospitals, still prevails in many poorly-resourced countries accounting for a disproportionately high burden of bilirubin-induced mortality and long-term morbidity. As part of the efforts to curtail the widely reported risks of frequent but avoidable bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) and kernicterus) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) with significant resource constraints, this article presents a practical framework for the management of late-preterm and term infants (≥ 35 weeks of gestation) with clinically significant hyperbilirubinaemia in these countries particularly where local practice guidelines are lacking. Standard and validated protocols were followed in adapting available evidence-based national guidelines on the management of hyperbilirubinaemia through a collaboration among clinicians and experts on newborn jaundice from different world regions. Tasks and resources required for the comprehensive management of infants with or at risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia at all levels of healthcare delivery are proposed, covering primary prevention, early detection, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and follow-up. Additionally, actionable treatment or referral levels for phototherapy and exchange transfusion are proposed within the context of several confounding factors such as widespread exclusive breastfeeding, infections, blood group incompatibilities and G6PD deficiency, which place infants at high risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia and bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction in LMICs, as well as the limited facilities for clinical investigations and inconsistent functionality of available phototherapy devices. The need to adjust these levels as appropriate depending on the available facilities in each clinical setting and the risk profile of the infant is emphasised with a view to avoiding over-treatment or under-treatment. These recommendations should serve as a valuable reference material for health workers, guide the development of contextually-relevant national guidelines in each LMIC, as well as facilitate effective advocacy and mobilisation of requisite resources for the optimal care of infants with hyperbilirubinaemia at all levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
  10. Boo NY, Oakes M, Lye MS, Said H
    J Trop Pediatr, 1994 Aug;40(4):194-7.
    PMID: 7932930
    A study of 128 jaundiced term neonates showed that 28 (22 per cent) had hearing loss based on brain stem-evoked response. There was no significant difference in the percentage of neonates with hearing loss between those with peak serum bilirubin levels of less than 340 mumol/l (16 per cent) and those with hyperbilirubinaemia > 339 mumol/l (33 per cent) (P = 0.11). Logistic regression analysis showed that severe jaundice which required exchange transfusion and earlier age of onset of hyperbilirubinaemia were statistically significant risk factors associated with hearing loss (P = 0.038 and P = 0.012, respectively).
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
  11. Sinniah D, Tay LK, Dugdale AE
    Arch Dis Child, 1971 Oct;46(249):712-5.
    PMID: 5118063
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
  12. Sinniah D
    Med J Malaya, 1971 Mar;25(3):211-4.
    PMID: 4253249
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
  13. Lim, N.L., Boo, N.Y., Nur Atiqah, N.A., Padma Soosai, A., Musa Mohd Nordin, M Sham. Kasim
    Severe jaundice (serum bilirubin level > 340 gmol/L) occurred in 81 infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur (MHKL) in 1993. Of these 46 (56.8%) underwent 53 exchange transfusions. In-patient case notes were available for study on 41 of them. Two infants had no cause identified while 12 were associated with prematurity, 13 ABO incompatibility, 8 G6PD deficiency, 6 sepsis 2 Rh isoimmunisation and 6 miscellaneous causes. In 14 infants it was felt that exchange transfusions might have been avoided if they were detected earlier and phototherapy instituted promptly. Twenty six (26) infants were deemed to have been given phototherapy at the appropriate time but jaundice increased to exchange transfusion levels, threshold values depending on the unit in charge. Use of higher intensity phototherapy might have been more effective in some of the cases. Available data showed similar outcomes in both groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
  14. Lee WS, Chong LA, Begum S, Abdullah WA, Koh MT, Lim EJ
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2001 May;23(4):244-6.
    PMID: 11846304
    We report a newborn infant girl, born to consanguineous parents, with recurrent intracranial hemorrhage secondary to congenital factor V deficiency with factor V inhibitor. Repeated transfusions of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates, administrations of immunosuppressive therapy (prednisolone and cyclophosphamide), and intravenous immunoglobulin failed to normalize the coagulation profiles. Exchange transfusion followed-up by administrations of activated prothrombin complex and transfusions of FFP and platelet concentrates caused a temporary normalization of coagulation profile, enabling an insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for progressive hydrocephalus. The treatment was complicated by thrombosis of left brachial artery and ischemia of left middle finger. The child finally died from another episode of intracranial hemorrhage 10 days after insertion of the VP shunt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
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