Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 648 in total

  1. Md Shajahan MY
    Family Physician, 1994;6:20-26.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise
  2. Salari N, Hayati A, Kazeminia M, Rahmani A, Mohammadi M, Fatahian R, et al.
    Neurol Sci, 2022 Jan;43(1):167-185.
    PMID: 34709478 DOI: 10.1007/s10072-021-05689-y
    BACKGROUND: Stroke, Parkinson, and multiple sclerosis are a range of diseases affecting the nervous system and show balance impairments due to damage of the balance control system. Many early articles have been published on the effect of exercise on balance in patients suffering from neuromuscular diseases. However, a comprehensive study showing a clear result of these three diseases was not found. Hence, the purpose of the present meta-analysis and systematic review is to determine the effect of exercise on balance in people with stroke, Parkinson, and multiple sclerosis.

    METHODS: According to the PRISMA 2009 multi-step instructions, keywords related to the purpose of the research were browsed in the MeSH browser databases; IranDoc, MagIran, IranMedex, SID, ScienceDirect, Web of Science (WoS), ProQuest, Medline (PubMed), Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched to extract articles published in Persian and English language. The search process for retrieving the articles in the sources mentioned from January 01, 2000, to December 30, 2020, was done. The heterogeneity index of the studies was determined using the I2 test. Given the heterogeneity, the random-effects model was used to combine the articles and the results.

    RESULTS: Initially, 7067 articles were found, but after removing duplicate and irrelevant articles, 96 clinical trials with a sample size of the intervention group of 1760 people were included in the study. As a result of the articles' composition, the mean balance score index after exercise in the intervention group showed a significant increase of 0.67 ± 0.12 of the unit (P˂0.01). The highest rate of increase in the balance score after the intervention was reported in patients with myelomeningocele with 1.66 ± 0.3 unit (P˂0.01).

    CONCLUSION: Considering the positive effect of using exercise on increasing the balance in patients with stroke, Parkinson, and multiple sclerosis, it is recommended that health care providers implement a regular exercise program to improve the condition of these patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Therapy; Exercise
  3. Gharaei N, Ismail W, Grosan C, Hendradi R
    Artif Intell Med, 2021 10;120:102151.
    PMID: 34629147 DOI: 10.1016/j.artmed.2021.102151
    Tele-rehabilitation is an alternative to the conventional rehabilitation service that helps patients in remote areas to access a service that is practical in terms of logistics and cost, in a controlled environment. It includes the usage of mobile phones or other wireless devices that are applied to rehabilitation exercises. Such applications or software include exercises in the form of virtual games, treatment monitoring based on the rehabilitation progress and data analysis. However, nowadays, physiotherapists use a default profiling setting for patients carrying out rehabilitation, due to lack of information. Medical Interactive Rehabilitation Assistant (MIRA) is a computer-based (virtual reality) rehabilitation platform. The profile setting includes: a level of difficulty, percentage of tolerance and maximum range. To the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of optimization in the parameter values setting of MIRA exergames that could enhance patients' performance. Generally, non-optimal profile setting leads to reduced effectiveness. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method that optimizes the profile setting of each patient according to the estimated (desired) optimal results. The proposed method is developed using unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques. We use Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to cluster patient records into several distinct clusters. K-fold cross validation is applied to construct the prediction models. Classification And Regression Tree (CART) is utilized to predict the patient's optimal input setting for playing the MIRA games. The combination of these techniques seems to improve the efficiency of the standard (default) way in predicting the optimal settings for exergames. To evaluate the proposed method, we conduct an experiment with data collected from a rehabilitation center. We use three metrics to quantify the quality of the results: R-squared (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results of experimental analysis demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in predicting the adequate parameter setting in MIRA platform. The method has potential to be implemented as an intelligent system for MIRA prediction in healthcare. Moreover, the method could be extended to similar platforms for which data is available to train our method on.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Therapy*; Exercise*
  4. Khoo S, Poh BK, Suhaimi SA, Chong KH, Ramirez Varela A
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:536239.
    PMID: 33194945 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.536239
    About three quarters of the Malaysian adult population are physically active. There has been growth in physical activity and health research since 2010, with most studies being observational in design and few included objective measures of physical activity. The Malaysian Ministry of Health has published physical activity guidelines, strategies and action plans aimed at promoting physical activity. Physical activity promotion activities have included national campaigns and programmes which target different populations. Further work that incorporates the WHO Global Action Plans on Physical Activity (GAPPA), as well as a more systemic approach is needed, to promote physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. High-level multi-stakeholder collaboration is required for continuing expansion and strengthening of research capacity, and for bridging the physical activity policy gaps in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise*
  5. Khajotia R
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(1):21-4.
    PMID: 25606107
    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a common condition affecting 12-15% of the population. Ninety percent of asthmatic individuals and 35-45% of patients with allergic rhinitis are afflicted by EIA, while 3-10% of the general population is also believed to suffer from this condition. EIA is a condition which is more prevalent in strenuous outdoor, cold weather and winter sports. The pathophysiology of EIA continues to intrigue medical physiologists. However, the water-loss hypothesis and the post-exertional airway-rewarming hypothesis are as yet the best accepted theories. EIA is best diagnosed by a good medical history and a free-run challenge test. A post-exertion decrease by 15% in FEV1 and PEFR is diagnostic of EIA. Sensitivity of exercise testing ranges from 55% to 80% while specificity is as high as 93%. EIA is a disorder that can be successfully treated by combining both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is vital if we hope to provide our patients with better overall health, better social life and a better self-image.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma, Exercise-Induced*; Exercise
  6. Azizan A, Justine M, Kuan CS
    Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res, 2013;2013:282315.
    PMID: 24489539 DOI: 10.1155/2013/282315
    Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts) and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE) in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8 ± 4.5 years) were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2) EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3) control group (CG) did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2) = 39.884, P < 0.01, and η = .399); time and group interactions (F(2,60) = 112.683, P < 0.01, and η = .790); and between-group effect (F(2,60) = 12.524, P < 0.01, and η = .295) for step counts. As for ESE, significant differences were also found for time effect (F(2,4) = 66.628, P < 0.05, and η = .526); time and group interactions (F(2,60) = 4.562, P = 0.014, and η = .132); and between-group effect (F(2,60) = 13.632, P < 0.05, and η = .312). EBG presented with significantly higher mean changes for both step counts and ESE compared to other groups (all P < 0.05). Conclusion. This study suggests that the addition of a behavioral program is superior as compared to exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise*
  7. Amjad, N.M.
    Education and training in disaster medicine is an ongoing process to all categories of personnel involved.
    In addition to the collaborative inter-professional table top exercises, regularly conducted field exercise drills offers the best form of training. Currently in most countries there is no standardized curriculum
    for the training of disaster management from the medical perspective. It is imperative that the concept of disaster medicine and its principles should be a component in the undergraduate and postgraduate
    curriculum of Medical and Allied health related programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Therapy; Exercise
  8. Griffith DH, Choo LS
    Med J Malaya, 1956 Dec;11(2):139-52.
    PMID: 13417938
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise*
  9. Hussain J, Sundaraj K, Subramaniam ID, Lam CK
    Front Physiol, 2020;11:112.
    PMID: 32153422 DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2020.00112
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changes in exercise intensity and speed on the three heads of the triceps brachii (TB) during triceps push-down exercise until task failure. Twenty-five subjects performed triceps push-down exercise at three different intensities (30, 45, and 60% 1RM) and speeds (slow, medium, and fast) until failure, and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were recorded from the lateral, long and medial heads of the TB. The endurance time (ET), number of repetitions (NR) and rate of fatigue (ROF) were analyzed. Subsequently, the root-mean-square (RMS), mean power frequency (MPF) and median frequency (MDF) under no-fatigue (NF) and fatigue (Fa) conditions were statistically compared. The findings reveal that ROF increases with increase in the intensity and speed, and the opposite were obtained for the ET. The ROF in the three heads were comparable for all intensities and speeds. The ROF showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) among the three intensities and speeds for all heads. The three heads showed significantly different (P < 0.05) MPF and MDF values for all the performed exercises under both conditions, whereas the RMS values were significantly different only under Fa conditions. The current observations suggest that exercise intensity and speed affect the ROF while changes in intensity do not affect the MPF and MDF under Fa conditions. The behavior of the spectral parameters indicate that the three heads do not work in unison under any of the conditions. Changes in the speed of triceps push-down exercise affects the lateral and long heads, but changes in the exercise intensity affected the attributes of all heads to a greater extent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Therapy; Exercise
  10. Alam T, Rahman SM, Alam T, Habib N, Umar BU, Banna QR, et al.
    JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc, 2014 Jul-Sep;52(195):892-6.
    PMID: 26982662
    Long term physical training has been considered to adversely affect the performance of athletes especially the females. It may be due to the iron depletion caused by hemolysis or hemodilution results from plasma volume expansion. This study aims to assess the effect of heavy exercise on hemoglobin concentration and some other hematological parameters in female athletes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise*
  11. Baderol Allam FN, Ab Hamid MR, Buhari SS, Md Noor H
    J Med Internet Res, 2021 03 15;23(3):e22465.
    PMID: 33720036 DOI: 10.2196/22465
    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the root cause of many chronic diseases. Lifestyle changes (ie, dietary alterations and physical activity) are seen to be an important step in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Educating people through web-based interventional programs could offer an effective solution and help these patients with hypertension in the existing health care scenario.

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, the researchers conducted a scoping literature review of the web-based dietary changes and physical activity-related intervention programs designed for the patients with hypertension and identified the methodologies, effectiveness, protocols, and theories, which could affect and improve existing clinical activities.

    METHODS: This review followed the scoping review methodology to identify and process the peer-reviewed studies published between 2010 and 2020. The literature searches were conducted on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online), ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar. By using relevant search terms, studies were included if they offered information related to the web-based intervention tools, specifically dietary and physical activity intervention for patients with hypertension. Studies written or translated in English language and published within the date range (January 2010 to March 2020) were included.

    RESULTS: Overall, 1441 articles were initially identified. The reviewers included 35 articles after removing duplicates and screening titles. Only 21 articles were assessed for full review, and 15 were kept for analysis. The researchers selected 15 web-based intervention articles published on the topic of hypertension from 7 countries. A few of these 15 web-based tools (4, 27%) included more than 3 functions and provided a lot of important information (such as appointments, health records, or viewable care). Several tools were standalone tools (11, 73%), while most of the tools supported communication intervention-related lifestyle or behavioral changes (13, 87%) and medication adherence (6, 40%). It was found that physicians (9, 60%), allied health professionals (5, 33%), and nurses (5, 33%) were the health care providers who generally used these tools for communicating with their patients. More than half of the above tools (10, 67%) were assessed by different researchers in randomized controlled trials, while 5 tools (33%) were investigated in nonrandomized studies.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified many web-based intervention programs for patients with hypertension from the literature databases. The findings indicate that numerous benefits can be derived after using a web-based dietary and physical activity intervention program for hypertension focusing on lifestyle changes. However, developers need to consider the preferences of the patients with regard to the information or the design features while developing or modifying web-based educational websites. These tools could be used for designing a patient-tailored website intervention program that is based on diet and physical activities for patients with hypertension.

    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise*
  12. Kamal AA, Zulkifli AF
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2019;8(1):145-156.
    Nowadays, people have realized that physical activity plays a critical role in determining the health and wellness of an individual. This is proven by the extensive research on this area, which indicates that people have started to emphasize this matter. In addition, it is also well known that motivation is one of the main factors that determine whether people will participate in performing physical activity or not. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators play a major role in determining levels of physical activity. Therefore, this study is made to investigate the relationship between extrinsic motivation and physical activity level. The researcher randomly selected 195 students from SMK Alam Megah 2, Seksyen 28, Shah Alam, Selangor as respondents for this study. The method of this study includes a questionnaire adapted from International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI), which was edited to fulfil the requirements of this study. The results from this study show that there is a positive and significant relationship between extrinsic motivation and physical activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise*
  13. Farah NM, Amran AD, Che Muhamed AM
    J Sports Sci, 2021 Dec;39(24):2755-2762.
    PMID: 34323655 DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2021.1957294
    Exaggerated cardiovascular (CV) reactivity to stress is associated with negative cardiovascular outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acute high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) on CV reactivity in response to a stress challenge in untrained males. Thirteen, normotensive males (age: 22.8 ± 2 years, BMI: 21.9 ± 3.6 kg/m2) underwent three conditions in counterbalanced order: HIIE (bodyweight exercises; 80-90% HRR), MIE (treadmill-jog; 55-60% HRR) and seated rest (CON) separated by 7-10 days. Thirty minutes after performing HIIE, MIE or CON, subjects underwent a 2-min cold pressor task (CPT). Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before, during, and after CPT. CV reactivity, i.e., the change in BP and HR responses were compared across conditions. Systolic BP reactivity were attenuated following HIIE (-60%, p = 0.015) and MIE (-42%, p = 0.033) compared to CON, but no differences were observed between HIIE and MIE. HR reactivity was not different across all conditions. We conclude that performing HIIE or MIE 30 minutes prior to acute stress exposure lowers BP reactivity compared to rest in untrained males. These findings highlight the potential benefits of HIIE in lowering stress-induced elevations in blood pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise*
  14. Pujiastuti TT, Aima H, Lokonathan S, Chiew L
    Enferm Clin, 2020 06;30 Suppl 5:17-20.
    PMID: 32713561 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2020.01.007
    Hemodialysis is a treatment for patients with kidney failure. One of the main problems in patients on hemodialysis is increasing of interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) due to decreased kidney excretion function. Increasing of interdialytic weight gain cause dangerous conditions and reduce the function of whole-body systems, especially cardiovascular and respiratory systems. These conditions require appropriate intervention. Various references reported intradialysis exercise can be an alternative intervention to reduce interdialytic weight gain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intradialytic exercise intervention to reduce interdialytic weight gain in patients on hemodialysis. A quantitative descriptive analytic study was conducted. Sixty-four patients on hemodialysis were randomly selected in hemodialysis unit. Patients performed intradialytic exercise twice a week for 8 weeks. Statistical analysis with general linear model repeated measure showed there was decrease in the interdialytic weight gain mean in patients on hemodialysis after 3-8 weeks intervention intradialytic exercise with p value of 0.000; <0.05. The interdialytic weight gain mean decrease between 0.281 and 1.438kg. Performed minimal four weeks intradialytic exercise was effective to reduced interdialytic weight gain in patients on hemodialysis. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested for nurses to educate patient on hemodialysis about intradialytic exercise. Intradialytic exercise can be an alternative independent nursing intervention to reduce interdialytic weight gain in patients on hemodialysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Therapy*; Exercise
  15. Mardiana O, Nor Afiah MZ, Ahmad N, Tan KA, Murallitharan M
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 07;76(4):480-487.
    PMID: 34305108
    BACKGROUND: Previous research has documented the benefits of physical activity (PA) for cancer survivors which include improved quality of life, physical, physiological, emotional and social functioning, reduced relapse of cancer and the mitigation of cancer mortality. This study aims to evaluate the effects of an independent PA programme based on PA level, quality of life, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, reinforcement, behavioural capability and observational learning amongst registered National Cancer Society Malaysia's (NCSM) cancer survivors.

    METHODS: A two-armed, parallel, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial, intervention and wait-list control groups will be conducted amongst 106 NCSM's cancer survivors. The programme is developed based on a Social Cognitive Theory that combines both psychoeducation and social media approaches to behavioural intervention. The duration of intervention will be 2 months, in which data will be collected at baseline, 2- month (immediately post-intervention) and 4-month. The primary outcome of the study is to determine the PA level of the participant which will be measured as METminutes/ week of PA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). There are four measurements of PA that are measured which are moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) MET-minutes/week, light PA MET-minutes/week, moderate PA MET-minutes/week and vigorous PA METminutes/ week. A Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) analysis will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, adjusted for baseline covariates on both continuous and categorical outcomes. This study will utilize a significance level of 0.05 with a confidence interval of 95% for means estimation in rejecting null hypothesis. The trial registered to the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials (ANZCTR) with the Registration Number, ACTRN12620000039987.

    CONCLUSION: The programme will be useful as a supplementary prescription to assist policy makers to strengthen non-pharmacological cancer management options and to empower cancer survivors to be self-reliant and self-sufficient to include PA as part of their recovery process.

    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Therapy*; Exercise
  16. Amiri-Khorasani M, Sahebozamani M, Tabrizi KG, Yusof AB
    J Strength Cond Res, 2010 Oct;24(10):2698-704.
    PMID: 20168255 DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bf049c
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static, dynamic, and the combination of static and dynamic stretching within a pre-exercise warm-up on the Illinois agility test (IAT) in soccer players. Nineteen professional soccer players (age = 22.5 ± 2.5 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.003 m, body mass = 74.8 ± 10.9 kg) were tested for agility performance using the IAT after different warm-up protocols consisting of static, dynamic, combined stretching, and no stretching. The players were subgrouped into less and more experienced players (5.12 ± 0.83 and 8.18 ± 1.16 years, respectively). There were significant decreases in agility time after no stretching, among no stretching vs. static stretching; after dynamic stretching, among static vs. dynamic stretching; and after dynamic stretching, among dynamic vs. combined stretching during warm-ups for the agility: mean ± SD data were 14.18 ± 0.66 seconds (no stretch), 14.90 ± 0.38 seconds (static), 13.95 ± 0.32 seconds (dynamic), and 14.50 ± 0.35 seconds (combined). There was significant difference between less and more experienced players after no stretching and dynamic stretching. There was significant decrease in agility time following dynamic stretching vs. static stretching in both less and more experienced players. Static stretching does not appear to be detrimental to agility performance when combined with dynamic warm-up for professional soccer players. However, dynamic stretching during the warm-up was most effective as preparation for agility performance. The data from this study suggest that more experienced players demonstrate better agility skills due to years of training and playing soccer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Test*; Exercise/physiology; Muscle Stretching Exercises*
  17. Priscilla Tang Shu Fern, Masne Kadar, Noorashikin Samin, Nor Afifi Razaob
    Kefungsian mobiliti dalam kalangan populasi warga emas merupakan elemen yang penting bagi kualiti hidup yang
    lebih bermakna. Penilaian adalah penting untuk memastikan langkah-langkah sewajarnya boleh diambil demi
    mengesan perubahan dalam kefungsian mobiliti. Terdapat pelbagai jenis penilaian mobiliti namun kebanyakan
    kajian kebolehpercayaan ulang semula alat penilaian ini adalah berdasarkan kajian luar negara. Oleh itu, kajian
    ini adalah untuk menentukan kebolehpercayaan tiga alat penilaian status kefungsian mobiliti terutama aktiviti fizikal
    dalam kalangan warga emas. Seramai 60 orang warga emas dengan min umur 76.32 tahun dan sisihan piawai 8.66
    terlibat dalam kajian kebolehpercayaan uji-ulang semula bagi tiga jenis alat penilaian; Ujian Berjalan Enam Minit
    [Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT)], Ujian Bangun dan Berjalan [Timed Up and Go Test (TUG)], Ujian Duduk-Berdiri [Sitto-Stand
    Test (STS)]. Bacaan di ambil sebanyak dua kali dengan selang masa seminggu antara penilaian pertama dan
    kedua. Korelasi Intra-Kelas [Intraclass Correlation (ICC)], Had Keserasian [Limits of Agreement (LOA)] dan Ralat
    Pengukuran Piawai [Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)] dan diikuti kombinasi ketiga-tiga kaedah telah digunakan
    dalam analisa data. Hasil kajian menunjukkan ketiga-tiga alat penilaian menggunakan metodologi analisis statistik
    ICC, LOA, SEM dan kombinasi ketiga-tiga metodologi tersebut menunjukkan nilai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi. Nilai
    ICC bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti melebihi 0.90 (ICC=0.94-0.99). Graf LOA menunjukkan wujudnya suatu tahap
    kebolehpercayaan bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti manakala peratus SEM pula merekodkan nilai kurang dari
    10% (SEM%=0.95%-9.95%). Kesimpulannya, ketiga-tiga alat penilaian mempunyai ketekalan yang tinggi dan sesuai
    digunakan sebagai salah satu alat penilaian kefungsian mobiliti bagi warga emas di Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Test
  18. Razazian N, Kazeminia M, Moayedi H, Daneshkhah A, Shohaimi S, Mohammadi M, et al.
    BMC Neurol, 2020 Mar 13;20(1):93.
    PMID: 32169035 DOI: 10.1186/s12883-020-01654-y
    BACKGROUND: Despite many benefits of the physical activity on physical and mental health of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the activity level in these patients is still very limited, and they continue to suffer from impairment in functioning ability. The main aim of this study is thus to closely examine exercise's effect on fatigue of patients with MS worldwide, with particular interest on Iran based on a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

    METHODS: The studies used in this systematic review were selected from the articles published from 1996 to 2019, in national and international databases including SID, Magiran, Iranmedex, Irandoc, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science (ISI). These databases were thoroughly searched, and the relevant ones were selected based on some plausible keywords to the aim of this study. Heterogeneity index between studies was determined using Cochran's test and I2. Due to heterogeneity in studies, the random effects model was used to estimate standardized mean difference.

    RESULTS: From the systematic review, a meta-analysis was performed on 31 articles which were fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The sample including of 714 subjects was selected from the intervention group, and almost the same sample size of 720 individuals were selected in the control group. Based on the results derived from this meta-analysis, the standardized mean difference between the intervention group before and after the intervention was respectively estimated to be 23.8 ± 6.2 and 16.9 ± 3.2, which indicates that the physical exercise reduces fatigue in patients with MS.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study extracted from a detailed meta-analysis reveal and confirm that physical exercise significantly reduces fatigue in patients with MS. As a results, a regular exercise program is strongly recommended to be part of a rehabilitation program for these patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise Therapy*; Exercise*
  19. Gharleghi B, Abu Hassan Shaari Md Nor
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1163-1169.
    The main aim of this paper was to validate the relative price monetary model (RPMM) of exchange rate determination for the Malaysian exchange rate (RM/USD) using monthly data set from 1986-2010. The Johansen multivariate cointegration test and vector error correction model were employed. Because the time period under consideration includes the South
    East Asian financial crisis, the analysis is done using two time periods; the full time period as well as the period after the crisis. Two interesting results were observed from this empirical exercise. First, there is a long-run relationship between exchange rate and the selected macro variables only for the period after the crisis. Second, the forecasting performance of monetary approach based on the error correction model outperformed the Random Walk model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exercise
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