To encourage recycling in Malaysian households, a waste separation at source programme was implemented that made it mandatory for households to sort their waste into different categories before leaving it out for collection. Penalties designed to act as a deterrent are imposed on households that fail to sort their waste appropriately. But does this deterrence motivate compliance with the programme directives? This study employs the deterrence theory to investigate if deterrence alone is sufficient to motivate households to actively participate in recycling. A total of 866 questionnaires were administered in person in households in Putrajaya and Melaka. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results of the structural model reveal that just 25% of the variance in compliance is explained by the severity of the sanction, and the perceived certainty of penalty imposed. Perceived severity of sanction (β = 0.149, p = 0.012) and perceived certainty of sanction (β = 0.383, p = 0.000) were found to contribute significantly to compliance behaviour to the programme directives. However, deterrence alone cannot motivate household participation in waste separation at source because it only explains 25% of compliance behaviour. The present study provides information that could allow policymakers to understand recycling habits better and implement more effective compliance strategies.
PIP: The nature of the family in Southeast Asia is examined by reviewing the work of Koichi Mizuno on multi-household compounds in Northeast Thailand in comparison with groupings among Kedah Malays. The authors conclude that the family among Thais and Malays is a flexible, social circle of interwoven dyadic relations and that it can take a variety of grouping pattterns according to circumstances
PIP: Malaysia recently reiterated its commitment to protect the right of couples to choose the number and spacing of their children and to have the information and means to do so. This policy is in accord with Malaysia's belief that the individual is at the center of all socioeconomic and environmental programs. Thus, Malaysia acknowledges the importance of promoting better understanding of the relationship between population and sustainable development. This focus will enable Malaysia to emphasize areas such as maternal mortality, family planning, and breast feeding and to establish special programs for marginalized, disadvantaged, and vulnerable groups of people. Malaysia also acknowledges the importance of establishing a pool of trained researchers in population and development issues.
Introduction Tong Nibong is a Bidayuh village located at Sarawak Kalimantan border.
Since the year 2004 to 2009, a total of 537 cases of malaria were recorded in
Serian District of which 14 cases were reported from Kampung Tong
Nibong. Community empowerment programme for malaria infection
prevention showed tremendous improvement in implementation. This
intervention study aims to gauge the effectiveness of community
empowerment approach in malaria elimination programme in Kampung Tong
Methods An intervention study was conducted with pre and post data collection. Data
was collected using validated questionnaire by face to face interview.
Universal sampling method was used to select respondents from head of
household and post data was collected after intervention activities were
carried out within a year of study period.
Results The study showed significant difference on level of knowledge of
respondents on vector of malaria between pre and post data with a P < 0.05.
There was significant difference between pre and post data on practices on
control and prevention of malaria with a P < 0.05. The same goes to level of
positive attitude of respondents towards malaria control.
Conclusions In conclusion, the study can be considered successful because there is
significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice among the
respondents between pre and post data. This indicates that community
empowerment (voluntary participation) measures can be implemented in high
risk or endemic areas where malaria is a persistent problem to the community
and health institutions faces many limiting factors.
The effect of unmanageable construction waste is an unstable land settlement and groundwater pollution. In addition to environmental pollution, construction waste could incur construction cost. The most construction waste is the material used at sites and tile is also a part of the waste generated in construction. The objectives of this study are to determine the tile waste generated in construction stages and linear regression analysis for the amount of tile waste generated. The method used in this study was the Linear Regression Model. The regression model established in the sample data reported an R2 value of 0.793; therefore, the model can predict approximately 79.3% of the factor (area) of tile waste generation. The linear regressions can be applied as tools to predict the tile waste generated at construction sites and help the contractor to track the sources of missing waste.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is one of the latest technologies for high spatial resolution 3D modeling of the Earth. The objectives of this study are to assess low-cost UAV data using image radiometric transformation techniques and investigate its effects on global and local accuracy of the Digital Surface Model (DSM). This research uses UAV Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from 80 meters and UAV Drone data from 300 and 500 meters flying height. RAW UAV images acquired from 500 meters flying height are radiometrically transformed in Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB). UAV images from 300 meters flying height are processed for the generation of 3D point cloud and DSM in Pix4D Mapper. UAV LIDAR data are used for the acquisition of Ground Control Points (GCP) and accuracy assessment of UAV Image data products. Accuracy of enhanced DSM with DSM generated from 300 meters flight height were analyzed for point cloud number, density and distribution. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value of Z is enhanced from ±2.15 meters to 0.11 meters. For local accuracy assessment of DSM, four different types of land covers are statistically compared with UAV LIDAR resulting in compatibility of enhancement technique with UAV LIDAR accuracy.
CONCLUSIONS: The comparison of different selection indices is justified only if the indices are constrated to achieve the same profit function, even when each index is not optimized with respect to that profit function.When a profit function is known and is non-linear, the desired gains index may be more efficient than the economic index. The optimum desired gains index should be determined by iterative techniques over several generations to compare the genetic progress with the economic index, because gains by the economic index are not linear and the changes observed in the initial generations of selection are not the same rates in future generations, although those changes are linear in the case of the desired gains index.
The introduction of good and services tax (GST) that has replaced the sales and services tax (SST) had contributed to the rising cost of living in Malaysia. The focus of this research was to present a data article on the response and perception of Malaysian households about the increasing cost of living. A descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Data were obtained from randomly selected 751 respondents of households across Malaysia. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using tables and percentages. The findings show the negative perceptions of Malaysian households on the increase in the cost of living. There are various causes of the rising cost of living and can be inferred based on the perspective of income changes, price changes and patterns household consumption expenditure.
Water constitutes one of the basic necessities of life. Around 71% of the Earth is covered by water, however, not all of it is readily available as fresh water for daily consumption. Fresh water scarcity is a chronic issue which poses a threat to all living things on Earth. Seawater, as a natural resource abundantly available all around the world, is a potential water source to fulfil the increasing water demand. Climate-independent seawater desalination has been touted as a crucial alternative to provide fresh water. While the membrane-based desalination process continues to dominate the global desalination market, the currently employed membrane fabrication materials and processes inevitably bring adverse impacts to the environment. This review aims to elucidate and provide a comprehensive outlook of the recent efforts based on greener approaches used for desalination membrane fabrication, which paves the way towards achieving sustainable and eco-friendly processes. Membrane fabrication using green chemistry effectively minimizes the generation of hazardous compounds during membrane preparation. The future trends and recommendations which could potentially be beneficial for researchers in this field are also highlighted.
Mobile robots often have to discover a path of collision-free towards a specific goal point in their environment. We are trying to resolve the mobile robot problem iteratively by means of numerical technique. It is built on a method of potential field that count on the use of Laplace’s equation in the mobile robot’s configuration space to constrain/which reduces the generation of a potential function over regions. This paper proposed an iterative approach in solving robot path finding problem known as Accelerated Over-Relaxation (AOR). The experiment shows that these suggested approach can establish a smooth path between the starting and goal points by engaging with a finite-difference technique. The simulation results also show that a more rapidly solution with smoother path than the previous work is achieved via this numerical approach.
"Based on surveys conducted among different ethnic groups in rural and urban settings in Peninsular Malaysia in 1981-82, this paper analyses changes in patterns of marriage and household formation among Malays, Chinese, and Indians. Aspects covered include social mixing before marriage, choice of spouse, comparison of spouses' characteristics, and place of residence after marriage. There are important cultural differences between the main Malaysian ethnic groups in matters related to marriage, but in many important respects, attitudes and practice are tending to converge...."
The design of family studies to estimate the value of an intraclass correlation coefficient p is considered when ni individuals are to be selected from each of k families, i = 1, 2, ..., k. In particular, the accuracy of a balance design (ni = n, i = 1, 2, ..., k) for estimating p is compared with the accuracy of an unbalanced "natural" design, in which the ni are sampled at random from family size distributions that tend to occur in practice. It is found for two different estimators of p that the balanced design is usually preferable, but only to a small degree if the number of families sampled is greater than 50.
About 10% of 3887 ever-married women included in the 1984-85 Malaysian Population and Family Survey revealed that they were influenced by the new population policy to desire more children than they had originally wanted. These women were more likely to be rural Malays from the lower socioeconomic class. Ideal family size was more than four children. Children are desired for economic benefits and emotional support. The natality of the Malays has risen since 1980: their total fertility rate has increased while their contraceptive prevalence rate has dropped sharply. Coupled with a decline in the crude death rate, the present fertility preferences and behaviour of the Malays will render the target of the population policy more attainable than is reflected by the survey data.
The study investigated socio-demographic factors and product attributes affecting purchase decision of special rice by Malaysian consumer. The primary data were analyzed by using binary logit model.
Demographic factors and consumer preference for special rice (with reference to basmati rice) attributes were identified to affect purchasing behavior for special rice. Size of household, marital status, number of children, household income and gender of consumers are the main socio-demographic factors that significantly influence households’ choices of special rice for home consumption in the Klang Valley area. The findings also suggest that product attributes such as flavor and aroma, availability, brand name and quality also influence the frequent purchasing of Basmati rice among the Malaysian consumers. However price and easy preparation are not significant in influencing the frequent purchasing of Basmati rice since most consumers are aware that special rice such as Basmati is expensive and all rice has to be prepared in a usual way.
A prospective study of 92 children with poisoning admitted to University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur is reported. Majority of the affected children were below 3 years of age and belonged to low income families. Household items, especially kerosene, and medications were most often implicated. All children recovered completely. Preventive strategies are discussed.
This study aimed to determine the psychosocial factors associated with school truancy in secondary school students attending three high risk schools in Kuala Lumpur. It is a cross-sectional study involving 373 Form Four students. Socio demographic, family, living and school characteristics of the respondents were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. There were significantly greater percentage of divorced parents (p=0.025, OR=2.52, 1.01
Beekeeping with stingless bee provides new opportunities to improve the incomes of many households in Malaysia through the sale of honey and other bee products. While Heterotrigona itama is one of the most commonly cultured species of stingless bees, its behavior is not very well understood. Hence, we conducted this study to investigate the behavior of H. itama in exploiting food sources by ascertaining the nectar sugar concentration preferred by the bee. We also aimed to determine the preferred distance of food source from the beehive. Our results suggest that H. itama prefers high sugar concentrations of 35% and above, and most of the bees preferred to forage close to their hive to collect food. We discuss how nectar concentration, food distance, and abiotic factors influence the number of bees exploiting food sources and the overall foraging pattern of H. itama.
Homeownership affordability is not only the ability of households to pay the housing cost. But homeownership affordability is also involving the ability of households to pay housing costs as well as to maintain the basic needs in the continuity of life. Thus, affordability aspect is important in home ownership. Meanwhile, home ownership is the biggest decision for a household in a term. The combination of affordability and homeownership led to research on factors that affect the affordability of homeownership, especially in terms of socio-economic households inclusively. Socio-economic factors as discussed include income, household expenditures, job type, education level, number of dependents, monthly housing loan and financial savings. Each factor plays the role of its own to ensure the affordability level of homeownership. In fact, the factors that affect the homeownership affordability is different between households. Analysis of the socio-economic factors is necessary because homeownership affordability issues impact the quality life of mankind.
This study employs dynamic panel data for 34 Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) countries for the period 1984-2016 to estimate the effects of renewable energy on environmental quality measured by three indicators, namely, per capita CO2 emissions, energy intensity (EI) and Aggregate National Savings (ANS). The study leveraged a battery of second-generation econometric tests and estimation and causality methods to obtain the coefficients between the regressed and the regressors. Results reveal that use of renewable energy reduces CO2 emissions and energy intensity while it enhances ANS. Economic growth still seems to be expensive for the region as it stimulates CO2 emissions. However, it has a positive effect on ANS. As expected, fossil fuels exacerbate CO2 emissions and energy intensity. FDI is found to be detrimental for the environment of SSA region with its positive significant coefficient on CO2 emissions. Financial development is reported to reduce CO2 emissions. Some causal links between variables are also noted.