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  1. Anne-Marie K, Yee W, Loh SH, Aziz A, Cha TS
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2020 Apr;190(4):1438-1456.
    PMID: 31782088 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-019-03182-z
    In this study, the effects of limited and excess phosphate on biomass content, oil content, fatty acid profile and the expression of three fatty acid desaturases in Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 were determined. It was found that total biomass (0.67-0.83 g L-1), oil content (30.99-38.08%) and the duration for cells to reach stationary phase (25-27 days) were not considerably affected by phosphate limitation. However, excess phosphate slightly reduced total biomass and oil content to 0.50 g L-1 and 25.36% respectively. The dominant fatty acids in M. gracile, pamitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) which constitute more than 81% of the total fatty acids remained relatively high and constant across all phosphate concentrations. Reduction of phosphate concentration to 25% and below significantly increased total MUFA, whereas increasing phosphate concentration to ≥ 50% and ≥ 100% significantly increased total SFA and PUFA content respectively. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FADi1, ω-3 FADi2) and omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) was increased under phosphate limitation, especially at ≤ 12.5% phosphate, whereas levels of streoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) transcripts were relatively unchanged across all phosphate concentrations. The first isoform of ω-3 FAD (ω-3 FADi) displayed a binary upregulation under limited (≤ 12.5%) and excess (200%) phosphate. The expression of ω-6 FAD, ω-3 FAD and SAD were inconsistent with the accumulation of oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3), suggesting that these genes may be regulated indirectly by phosphate availability via post-transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics
  2. Jaya-Ram A, Ishak SD, Enyu YL, Kuah MK, Wong KL, Shu-Chien AC
    PMID: 21130179 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.11.018
    There is very little information on the capacity of freshwater carnivorous fish to biosynthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). The striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) is a carnivorous species cultured inland of several Southeast Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical properties in wound healing enhancement. We described here the full-length cDNA cloning of a striped snakehead fatty acid desaturase (fads), which is responsible for desaturation of unsaturated fatty acids in the HUFA biosynthesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a protein coding region with length of 445 amino acids containing all characteristic features of desaturase enzyme, including a cytochrome b5-domain with the heme-binding motif, two transmembrane domains and three histidine-rich regions. The striped snakehead fads amino acid sequence shares high similarity with known fads of other teleosts. The mRNA expression of striped snakehead fads also showed an ontogenic-related increase in expression in 0-20 days after hatch larva. Using ISH, we localized the presence of fads in larva brain, liver and intestinal tissues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  3. Tan SH, Chung HH, Shu-Chien AC
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2010 Mar 12;393(3):397-403.
    PMID: 20138842 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.01.130
    Despite the known importance of long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during development, very little is known about their utilization and biosynthesis during embryogenesis. Combining the advantages of the existence of a complete range of enzymes required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis and the well established developmental biology tools in zebrafish, we examined the expression patterns of three LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes, Elovl2-like elongase (elovl2), Elovl5-like elongase (elovl5) and fatty acyl desaturase (fad) in different zebrafish developmental stages. The presence of all three genes in the brain as early as 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) implies LC-PUFA synthesis activity in the embryonic brain. This expression eventually subsides from 72 hpf onwards, coinciding with the initiation of elovl2 and fad expression in the liver and intestine, 2 organs known to be involved in adult fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, these patterns strongly suggest the necessity for localized production of LC-PUFA in the brain during in early stage embryos prior to the maturation of the liver and intestine. Interestingly, we also showed a specific expression of elovl5 in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the zebrafish pronephros, suggesting a possible new role for LC-PUFA in kidney development and function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  4. Abdul Hamid NK, Carmona-Antoñanzas G, Monroig Ó, Tocher DR, Turchini GM, Donald JA
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0150770.
    PMID: 26943160 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150770
    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are intensively cultured globally. Understanding their requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and the biochemistry of the enzymes and biosynthetic pathways required for fatty acid synthesis is important and highly relevant in current aquaculture. Most gnathostome vertebrates have two fatty acid desaturase (fads) genes with known functions in LC-PUFA biosynthesis and termed fads1 and fads2. However, teleost fish have exclusively fads2 genes. In rainbow trout, a fads2 cDNA had been previously cloned and found to encode an enzyme with Δ6 desaturase activity. In the present study, a second fads2 cDNA was cloned from the liver of rainbow trout and termed fads2b. The full-length mRNA contained 1578 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1365 nucleotides that encoded a 454 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52.48 kDa. The predicted Fads2b protein had the characteristic traits of the microsomal Fads family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (HPPG), histidine boxes (HDXGH, HFQHH and QIEHH) and three transmembrane regions. The fads2b was expressed predominantly in the brain, liver, intestine and pyloric caeca. Expression of the fasd2b in yeast generated a protein that was found to specifically convert eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and therefore functioned as a Δ5 desaturase. Therefore, rainbow trout have two fads2 genes that encode proteins with Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities, respectively, which enable this species to perform all the desaturation steps required for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 precursors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  5. Jaya-Ram A, Shu-Chien AC, Kuah MK
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2016 Aug;42(4):1107-22.
    PMID: 26842427 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-016-0201-y
    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  6. Garba L, Ali MS, Oslan SN, Rahman RN
    Mol Biotechnol, 2016 Nov;58(11):718-728.
    PMID: 27629791
    Fatty acid desaturase enzymes are capable of inserting double bonds between carbon atoms of saturated fatty acyl-chains to produce unsaturated fatty acids. A gene coding for a putative Δ9-fatty acid desaturase-like protein was isolated from a cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. A8, cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene named as PA8FAD9 has an open reading frame of 1185 bp and codes for 394 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 45 kDa. The enzyme showed high Δ9-fatty acid desaturase-like protein activity and increased overall levels of cellular unsaturated fatty acids in the recombinant E. coli cells upon expression at different temperatures. The results showed that the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid in the recombinant E. coli cells increased by more than twice the amount observed in the control cells at 20 °C using 0.4 mM IPTG. GCMS analysis confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert exogenous stearic acid to oleic acid incorporated into the recombinant E. coli membrane phospholipids. It may be concluded that the PA8FAD9 gene from Pseudomonas sp. A8 codes for a putative Δ9-fatty acid desaturase protein actively expressed in E. coli under the influence of temperature and an inducer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  7. Soo HJ, Sam KK, Chong J, Lau NS, Ting SY, Kuah MK, et al.
    J Fish Biol, 2020 Jul;97(1):83-99.
    PMID: 32222967 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.14328
    The biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), a process to convert C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or arachidonic acid (ARA), requires the concerted activities of two enzymes, the fatty acyl desaturase (Fads) and elongase (Elovl). This study highlights the cloning, functional characterisation and tissue expression pattern of a Fads and an Elovl from the Boddart's goggle-eyed goby (Boleophthalmus boddarti), a mudskipper species widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned fads and elovl are clustered with other teleost orthologs, respectively. The investigation of the genome of several mudskipper species, namely Boleophthalmus pectinirostris, Periophthalmus schlosseri and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, revealed a single Fads2 and two elongases, Elovl5 and Elovl4 for each respective species. A heterologous yeast assay indicated that the B. boddarti Fads2 possessed low desaturation activity on C18 PUFA and no desaturation on C20 and C22 PUFA substrates. In comparison, the Elovl5 showed a wide range of substrate specificity, with a capacity to elongate C18, C20 and C22 PUFA substrates. An amino acid residue that affects the capacity to elongate C22:5n-3 was identified in the B. boddarti Elovl5. Both genes are highly expressed in brain tissue. Among all tissues, DHA is highly concentrated in neuron-rich tissues, whereas EPA is highly deposited in gills. Taken together, the results showed that due to the inability to perform desaturation steps, B. boddarti is unable to biosynthesise LC-PUFA, relying on dietary intake to acquire these nutrients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics
  8. Anne-Marie K, Yee W, Loh SH, Aziz A, Cha TS
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2020 Jan 07;36(1):17.
    PMID: 31912247 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-019-2790-y
    In this study, the effects of limited and excess nitrate on biomass, lipid production, and fatty acid profile in Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 were determined. The expression of fatty acid desaturase genes, namely stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD), omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD), omega-3 fatty acid desaturase isoform 1 (ω-3 FADi1), and omega-3 fatty acid desaturase isoform 2 (ω-3 FADi2) was also assessed. It was found that nitrate limitation generally increased the total oil, α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3) and total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in M. gracile. The reduction of nitrate concentration from 1.76 to 0.11 mM increased the total oil content significantly from 32.5 to 41.85% (dry weight). Palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids as the predominant fatty acids in this microalgae constituted between 82 and 87% of the total oil content and were relatively consistent throughout all nitrate concentrations tested. The expression of SAD, ω-6 FAD, and ω-3 FADi2 genes increased under nitrate limitation, especially at 0.11 mM nitrate. The ω-3 FADi1 demonstrated a binary up-regulation pattern of expression under both nitrate-deficient (0.11 mM) and -excess (3.55 mM) conditions. Thus, findings from this study suggested that limited or excess nitrate could be used as part of a cultivation strategy to increase oil and PUFA content following media optimisation and more efficient culture methodology. Data obtained from the expression of desaturase genes would provide valuable insights into their roles under excess and limited nitrate conditions in M. gracile, potentially paving the way for future genetic modifications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  9. Tiwari GJ, Liu Q, Shreshtha P, Li Z, Rahman S
    BMC Plant Biol, 2016 08 31;16(1):189.
    PMID: 27581494 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-016-0881-6
    BACKGROUND: The bran from polished rice grains can be used to produce rice bran oil (RBO). High oleic (HO) RBO has been generated previously through RNAi down-regulation of OsFAD2-1. HO-RBO has higher oxidative stability and could be directly used in the food industry without hydrogenation, and is hence free of trans fatty acids. However, relative to a classic oilseed, lipid metabolism in the rice grain is poorly studied and the genetic alteration in the novel HO genotype remains unexplored.

    RESULTS: Here, we have undertaken further analysis of role of OsFAD2-1 in the developing rice grain. The use of Illumina-based NGS transcriptomics analysis of developing rice grain reveals that knockdown of Os-FAD2-1 gene expression was accompanied by the down regulation of the expression of a number of key genes in the lipid biosynthesis pathway in the HO rice line. A slightly higher level of oil accumulation was also observed in the HO-RBO.

    CONCLUSION: Prominent among the down regulated genes were those that coded for FatA, LACS, SAD2, SAD5, caleosin and steroleosin. It may be possible to further increase the oleic acid content in rice oil by altering the expression of the lipid biosynthetic genes that are affected in the HO line.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  10. Mohd-Yusof NY, Monroig O, Mohd-Adnan A, Wan KL, Tocher DR
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2010 Dec;36(4):827-43.
    PMID: 20532815 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-010-9409-4
    Lates calcarifer, commonly known as the Asian sea bass or barramundi, is an interesting species that has great aquaculture potential in Asia including Malaysia and also Australia. We have investigated essential fatty acid metabolism in this species, focusing on the endogenous highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis pathway using both biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongase (Elovl) cDNAs were cloned and functional characterization identified them as ∆6 Fad and Elovl5 elongase enzymes, respectively. The ∆6 Fad was equally active toward 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, and Elovl5 exhibited elongation activity for C18-20 and C20-22 elongation and a trace of C22-24 activity. The tissue profile of gene expression for ∆6 fad and elovl5 genes, showed brain to have the highest expression of both genes compared to all other tissues. The results of tissue fatty acid analysis showed that the brain contained more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) than flesh, liver and intestine. The HUFA synthesis activity in isolated hepatocytes and enterocytes using [1-(14)C]18:3n-3 as substrate was very low with the only desaturated product detected being 18:4n-3. These findings indicate that L. calcarifer display an essential fatty acid pattern similar to other marine fish in that they appear unable to synthesize HUFA from C18 substrates. High expression of ∆6 fad and elovl5 genes in brain may indicate a role for these enzymes in maintaining high DHA levels in neural tissues through conversion of 20:5n-3.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics
  11. Kuah MK, Jaya-Ram A, Shu-Chien AC
    PMID: 27421235 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2016.07.007
    There is a lack of understanding on how the environment and trophic niche affect the capability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in freshwater carnivorous teleost. In this present study, we isolated and functionally characterised a fatty acyl desaturase (Fads) from the striped snakehead Channa striata. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggested a Fads2 protein that is closely related to previously characterised Fads2 proteins from freshwater carnivorous and marine herbivorous fish species. We further demonstrated the capacity of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturation activities for this particular desaturase, with highest activities towards the conversion of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Low Δ4 desaturation activity was also detected, although the significance of this at a physiological level remains to be studied. The expression of this striped snakehead Δ6/Δ5 fads2 gene was highest in brain, followed by liver and intestine. In liver, diet fortified with high LC-PUFA concentration impeded the expression of Δ6/Δ5 fads2 gene compared to vegetable oil (VO) based diets. The discovery of Δ6/Δ5 Fads2 desaturase here complements the previous discovery of a Δ4 Fads2 desaturase and an Elovl5 elongase, lending proof to the existence of all the required enzymatic machinery to biosynthesise LC-PUFA from C18 PUFA in a freshwater carnivorous species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  12. Tay SS, Kuah MK, Shu-Chien AC
    Sci Rep, 2018 03 01;8(1):3874.
    PMID: 29497119 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22157-4
    The front-end desaturases (Fads) are rate-limiting enzymes responsible for production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The full spectrum of the transcriptional regulation of fads is still incomplete, as cloning of fads promoter is limited to a few species. Here, we described the cloning and characterisation of the zebrafish fads2 promoter. Using 5'-deletion and mutation analysis on this promoter, we identified a specific region containing the sterol regulatory element (SRE) which is responsible for the activation of the fads2 promoter. In tandem, two conserved CCAAT boxes were also present adjacent to the SRE and mutation of either of these binding sites attenuates the transcriptional activation of the fads2 promoter. An in vivo analysis employing GFP reporter gene in transiently transfected zebrafish embryos showed that this 1754 bp upstream region of the fads2 gene specifically directs GFP expression in the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) region. This indicates a role for LC-PUFA in the transport of yolk lipids through this tissue layer. In conclusion, besides identifying novel core elements for transcriptional activation in zebrafish fads2 promoter, we also reveal a potential role for fads2 or LC-PUFA in YSL during development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics*
  13. Kuah MK, Jaya-Ram A, Shu-Chien AC
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2015 Mar;1851(3):248-60.
    PMID: 25542509 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.12.012
    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of Δ4 and Δ5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ∆4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics
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