CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man presented to our orthopedic outpatient department with 3-months history of an unusual painful swelling at the operated area following DFO. The leakage of joint fluid from the penetrated suprapatellar pouch was assumed to be the reason for this complication.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall aim of this case report is to provide a lesson to budding surgeons who might experience a similar situation that cannot be easily explained, like the unexpected complication in the present case.
METHODS: Three different cams (triangle, ellipse, and circle) and three different posts (straight, convex, concave) geometries were considered in this study and were analysed using kinematic analyses. Femoral rollback did not occur until reaching 50° of knee flexion. Beyond this angle, two of the nine combinations demonstrate poor knee flexion and were eliminated from the study.
RESULTS: The combination of circle cam with concave post, straight post and convex post showed 15.6, 15.9 and 16.1 mm posterior translation of the femur, respectively. The use of ellipse cam with convex post and straight post demonstrated a 15.3 and 14.9 mm femoral rollback, whilst the combination of triangle cam with convex post and straight post showed 16.1 and 15.8 mm femoral rollback, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that the use of circle cam and convex post created the best femoral rollback effect which in turn produces the highest amount of knee flexion. The findings of the study suggest that if the design is applied for knee implants, superior knee flexion may be possible for future patients.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
METHODS: Fifty computed tomography scans of nonarthritic knees were evaluated using three-dimensional image processing software. Four distal femoral rotational axes were determined in the axial plane: the transepicondylar axis (TEA), transcondylar axis (TCA), posterior condylar axis (PCA), and a line perpendicular to Whiteside's anterior-posterior axis. Then, angles were measured relative to the TEA. Tibial joint line obliquity was measured as the angle between the proximal tibial plane and a line perpendicular to the axis of the tibia.
RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between PCA-TEA and tibial joint line obliquity (r = 0.68, P < .001) as well as TCA-TEA and tibial joint line obliquity (r = 0.69, P < .001). In addition, the tibial joint line obliquity and TCA-TEA angles were similar, 3.7° ± 2.2° (mean ± standard deviation) and 3.5° ± 1.7°, respectively (mean difference, 0.2° ± 0.2°; P = .369).
CONCLUSION: Both PCA-TEA and TCA-TEA strongly correlated with proximal tibial joint line obliquity indicating a relationship between distal femoral rotational geometry and proximal tibial inclination. These findings could imply that the native knee in flexion attempts to balance the collateral ligaments toward a rectangular flexion space. A higher tibial varus inclination is matched with a more internally rotated distal femur relative to the TEA.
METHODS: This single-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled trial involved intraoperative measurements for 271 femoral component implantations from 3 contemporary TKA systems, with 2 systems offering narrow sizing options. The difference between femoral component dimensions and the resected surface of distal femur was measured in millimeters at 5 distinct zones.
RESULTS: Overhang of standard femoral component was common in the anterior-medial condyle and anterior-lateral condyle ranging from 50.8% to 99.0% and 21.5% to 88.0%, respectively. With narrow femoral components, the rate of overhang reduced to 21.5%-30.2% and 9.2%-32.1%. Conversely, underhang rates were higher over the anterior flange width, middle medial-lateral and posterior medial-lateral zones. Standard components displayed higher underhang rates at these zones compared to narrow components. The good fit rate for femoral component was low among the 3 systems ranging from 1.0% to 56.0%. System with narrow option sizing increases the underhang rates in males, while improving the component fit among females at similar zones with rate ranging from 5.2% to 52.9%.
CONCLUSION: Currently available TKA implant designs may not provide a perfect match for the distal femoral shape of the Korean population. The availability of implants with standard and narrow options can substantially improve the optimal fitting of femoral components in the Korean population.