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  1. Nada B, Ballantyne LA, Jusoh WFA
    Zootaxa, 2021 Feb 02;4920(4):zootaxa.4920.4.4.
    PMID: 33756646 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4920.4.4
    Pygoluciola dunguna Nada, 2018 was described from Peninsular Malaysia, using males and reliably associated females. This paper details description of the larva which has been conclusively identified as Pygoluciola dunguna based on DNA barcoding technique and uses morphology, brief habitat and behavioural data. A total of 70 larval specimens were measured and their main features described. The larvae exhibit a riparian or semi-aquatic behaviour, observed crawling on the sandy edge of shallow streams. The stake-like projections along the length of the body suggest a form of defensive mechanism from falling prey to aquatic predators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies*
  2. Ballantyne LA, Lambkin CL, Ho JZ, Jusoh WFA, Nada B, Nak-Eiam S, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2019 Oct 18;4687(1):zootaxa.4687.1.1.
    PMID: 31719466 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4687.1.1
    This overview of the Luciolinae addresses the fauna of S. E. Asia including India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, and the Australopacific area of Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji.Of the 28 genera now recognised in the Luciolinae we address 27 genera from the study area as defined above, including three new genera which are described herein, and 222 species including 13 species newly described herein. Photuroluciola Pic from Madagascar is the only Luciolinae genus not addressed here. A key to genera is presented. Keys to species are either included here or referenced in existing literature. Twelve genera have had no new taxonomic decisions made nor are any new species records listed, and are addressed in an abbreviated fashion, with short diagnoses and plates of features of life stages: Aquatica Fu et al. 2010, Australoluciola Ballantyne 2013, Convexa Ballantyne 2009, Emeia Fu et al. 2012a, Inflata Boontop 2015, Lloydiella Ballantyne 2009, Missimia Ballantyne 2009, Pteroptyx Olivier 1902, Pyrophanes Olivier 1885, Sclerotia Ballantyne 2016, Triangulara Pimpasalee 2016, and Trisinuata Ballantyne 2013.                Abscondita Ballantyne 2013 contains 8 species, and includes new records for Abs. anceyi (Olivier 1883), Abs. chinensis (L.) (which is newly synonymised with Luciola succincta Bourgeois), Abs. terminalis (Olivier 1883) including a first record from both Laos and Thailand, and Abs. perplexa (Walker 1858). Luciola pallescens Gorham 1880 is transferred to Abscondita and the pronotal colour range is addressed from a wide range of localities. Abs. berembun Nada sp. nov. and Abs. jerangau Nada sp. nov. are described from Malaysia. Hooked bursa plates are described for pallescens and berembun.                Aquilonia Ballantyne 2009 is expanded to include 3 species. Gilvainsula Ballantyne 2009, represented by two species from the south eastern coast of New Guinea is synonymised under Aquilonia Ballantyne 2009, which is briefly redescribed and keyed from: Aquil. costata (Lea) from northern Australia, including many new records, Aquil. messoria (Ballantyne) comb. nov. and Aquil. similismessoria (Ballantyne) comb. nov.                Asymmetricata Ballantyne 2009 now includes 4 species. As. bicoloripes (Pic 1927) comb. nov. and As. humeralis (Walker 1858) comb. nov. are transferred from Luciola, with L. doriae Olivier 1885, L. impressa Olivier 1910b and L. notatipennis Olivier 1909a newly synonymised with As. humeralis. Luciola aemula Olivier 1891 is synonymised with As. ovalis (Hope 1831). The variation in the extent of the anterior median emargination of the light organ in ventrite 7, and the possibility of a bipartite light organ in males of As. circumdata (Motsch. 1854) is explored. Females of both As. circumdata and As. ovalis (Hope 1831) are without bursa plates and the distinctively shaped median oviduct plate in each is described. Records from Thailand are recorded for both As. circumdata and As. ovalis.                Atyphella Olliff 1890 now contains 28 species with 4 transferred from other genera, and one new species: Aty. abdominalis (Olivier 1886) comb. nov. and Aty. striata (Fabricius 1801) comb. nov. are transferred from Luciola, with Aty. carolinae Olivier 1911b and Aty. rennellia (Ballantyne 2009) comb. nov. transferred from Magnalata Ballantyne 2009. Atyphella telokdalam Ballantyne sp. nov. from Indonesia is described herein. Atyphella is now known from records in the Philippines and Indonesia as well as Australia and New Guinea.                Colophotia Motschulsky 1853 is considered here from seven species for which intact types can be located for three. An abbreviated revision based on the United States National Museum collection only is presented, with specimens of C. bakeri Pic 1924, C. brevis Olivier 1903a, C. plagiata (Erichson 1834) and C. praeusta (Eschscholtz 1822) redescribed, using where possible features of males, females and larvae. Colophotia particulariventris Pic 1938 is newly synonymised with C. praeusta. Colophotia miranda Olivier 1886 and L. truncata Olivier 1886 are treated as species incertae sedis.                Curtos Motschulsky 1845 includes 19 species with suggestions made, but not yet formalised, for the possible transfer of the following seven species from Luciola: Luciola complanata Gorham 1895, L. costata Pic 1929, L. delauneyi Bourgeois 1890, L. deplanata Pic 1929, L. extricans Walker 1858, L. multicostulata Pic 1927 and L. nigripes Gorham 1903. Curtos is not revised here.                Emarginata Ballantyne gen nov. is described for E. trilucida (Jeng et al. 2003b) comb. nov., transferred from Luciola and characterised by the emarginated elytral apex. An extended range of specimens from Thailand is listed.                Kuantana Ballantyne gen. nov. from Selangor, Malaysia is described from K. menayah gen. et sp. nov. having bipartite light organs in ventrite 7 and an asymmetrical tergite 8 which is not emarginated on its left side. Female has no bursa plates.                Luciola Laporte 1833 s. stricto as defined by a population of the type species Luciola italica (L. 1767) from Pisa, Italy, is further expanded and considered to comprise the following19 species: L. antipodum (Bourgeois 1884), L. aquilaclara Ballantyne 2013, L. chapaensis Pic 1923 which is synonymised with L. atripes Pic 1929, L. curtithorax Pic 1928, L. filiformis Olivier 1913c, L. horni Bourgeois 1905, L. hypocrita Olivier 1888, L. italica (L. 1767), L. kagiana Matsumura 1928, L. oculofissa Ballantyne 2013, L. pallidipes Pic 1928 which is synonymised with L. fletcheri Pic 1935, L. parvula Kiesenwetter 1874, L. satoi Jeng Yang 2003, L. tuberculata Yiu 2017, and two species treated as near L. laticollis Gorham 1883, and near L. nicollieri Bugnion 1922. The following are described as new: L. niah Jusoh sp. nov., L. jengai Nada sp. nov. and L. tiomana Ballantyne sp. nov. Luciola niah sp. nov. female has two wide bursa plates on each side of the bursa.                Luciola s. lato (as defined here) consists of 36 species. Twenty-seven species formerly standing under Luciola have been assigned to other genera or synonymised. Seven species are recommended for transfer to Curtos, and 32 species now stand under species incertae sedis.                Magnalata Ballantyne is reduced to the type species M. limbata and redescribed.                Medeopteryx Ballantyne 2013 is expanded to 20 species with the addition of two new combinations, Med. semimarginata (Olivier 1883) comb. nov. and Med. timida (Olivier 1883) comb. nov., both transferred from Luciola, and one new species, Med. fraseri Nada sp. nov. from Malaysia. The range of this genus now extends from Australia and the island of New Guinea to SE Asia. Medeopteryx semimarginata females have wide paired bursa plates.                Pygoluciola Wittmer 1939 now includes 19 species with 5 new species: P. bangladeshi Ballantyne sp. nov., P. dunguna Nada 2018, P. matalangao Ballantyne sp. nov. (scored by the code name 'Jeng Matalanga' in Ballantyne Lambkin 2013), P. phupan Ballantyne sp. nov. and P. tamarat Jusoh sp. nov. Six species are transferred from Luciola: P. abscondita (Olivier 1891) comb. nov., P. ambita (Olivier 1896) comb. nov., P. calceata (Olivier 1905) comb. nov., P. insularis (Olivier 1883) comb. nov., P. nitescens (Olivier 1903b) comb. nov. and P. vitalisi (Pic 1934) comb. nov., and redescribed from males, and includes female reproductive anatomy for P. nitescens comb. nov. and P. dunguna, both of which have hooked bursa plates.                Serratia Ballantyne gen. nov. is erected for S. subuyania gen. et sp. nov. and characterised by the serrate nature of certain antennal flagellar segments in the male.                The following 37 species listed under species incertae sedis are further explored: Colophotia miranda Olivier 1886, Lampyris serraticornis Boisduval 1835, Luciola angusticollis Olivier 1886, L. antennalis Bourgeois 1905, L. antica (Boisduval 1835), L. apicalis (Eschscholtz 1822), L. aurantiaca Pic 1927, L. bicoloriceps Pic 1924, L. binhana Pic 1927, L. bourgeoisi Olivier 1895, L. dilatata Pic 1929, L. exigua (Gyllenhall 1817), L. exstincta Olivier 1886, L. fissicollis Fairmaire 1891, L. flava Pic 1929, L. flavescens (Boisduval 1835), L. fukiensis Pic 1955, L. immarginata Bourgeois 1890, L. incerta (Boisduval 1835), L. infuscata (Erichson 1834), L. intricata (Walker 1858), L. japonica (Thunberg 1784), L. klapperichi Pic 1955, L. lata Olivier 1883, L. limbalis Fairmaire 1889, L. marginipennis (Boisduval 1835), L. melancholica Olivier 1913a, L. robusticeps Pic 1928, L. ruficollis (Boisduval 1835), L. spectralis Gorham 1880, L. stigmaticollis Fairmaire 1887, L. tincticollis Gorham 1895, L. trivandrensis Raj 1947, L. truncata Olivier 1886, L. vittata (Laporte 1833) Pteroptyx atripennis Pic 1923 and P. curticollis Pic 1923.                While phylogenetic analyses indicate their distinctiveness, no further taxonomic action is taken with Luciola cruciata Motschulsky 1854 and L. owadai Sâtô et Kimura 1994 from Japan given the importance of the former as a national icon. Analyses also indicate that Lampyroidea syriaca Costa 1875 belongs in Luciola s. str. A much wider taxonomic analysis of this genus including all the species is necessary before any further action can be taken.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies*
  3. Ballantyne LA, Lambkin CL
    Zootaxa, 2013;3653:1-162.
    PMID: 25340191
    This revision completes a taxonomic survey of fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the area encompassed by Australia, the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (West Irian/Papua), Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji. It finalises the taxonomic issues arising from the 1969–70 voyage of the scientific vessel Alpha Helix to New Guinea. The firefly fauna of this area is exclusively Luciolinae. The scope of the revision was extended to include all known Luciolinae genera and certain species from SE Asia, and a phylogenetic analysis of 436 morphological characters of males, females, and associated larvae includes 142 Luciolinae species (Ballantyne & Lambkin 2009, and Fu et al. 2012a). The phylogenetic analyses infer four major groups within the Luciolinae. The monotypic Missimia Ballantyne is sister to all remaining Luciolinae and forms a grade to Aquatica Fu etBallantyne. The large clade of Curtos Motschulsky, Photuroluciola Pic, Colophotia Motschulsky, Poluninius gen. nov., Pyrophanes Olivier, Pteroptyx s. str. Olivier, Medeopteryx gen. nov., Trisinuata gen. nov., and Australoluciola gen. nov.forms a grade to the clade of Luciola s. str. Laporte (including Bourgeoisia Olivier). The monotypic Emeia Fu et al.forms a grade with a clade of Luciola and Pygoluciola Wittmer, sister to a large clade of Convexa Ballantyne, Pacifica gen. nov., Magnalata Ballantyne, Lloydiella Ballantyne, Asymmetricata Ballantyne, Pygatyphella s. str. Ballantyne, Atyphella Olliff, Aquilonia Ballantyne, and Gilvainsula Ballantyne. Luciola is paraphyletic, found in up to six clades across the tree. Together with Luciola, Magnalata, Aquilonia, and Gilvainsula render Atyphella paraphyletic. The new genera described here are all monophyletic and supported in the phylogenetic analyses that also provide evidence for the inclusion of taxa within them. Twenty-three genera including five new ones, and ten new species, are recognised and keys are presented for the males and females. Certain females are characterised by the nature of their bursa plates. Australoluciola gen. nov. is proposed for ten species from Australia and New Guinea, seven transferred from Luciola and three new, with species keyed from males, all of which have an entire light organ in ventrite 7. Aus. anthracina (Olivier), Aus. aspera (Olivier), Aus. australis (F.), Aus. flavicollis (MacLeay), Aus. foveicollis (Olivier), Aus. nigra (Olivier) and Aus. orapallida (Ballantyne) are transferred from Luciola with males assigned to Aus. aspera(Olivier), and a lectotype designated for Luciola foveicollis Olivier; Aus. baduria sp. nov., Aus. fuscamagna sp. nov.,Aus. fuscaparva sp. nov., Aus. japenensis sp. nov. and Aus. pharusaurea sp. nov. are described. Females of Aus. australis and Aus. flavicollis have two pairs of wide bursa plates.  The bent-winged fireflies of New Guinea and Australia are removed from Pteroptyx Olivier and assigned to Medeopteryx gen. nov. and Trisinuata gen. nov. Medeopteryx gen. nov. is erected for 17 species including two new; all have ventrite 7 with an entire light organ, trisinuate posterior margin and short posterolateral projections; the following 14 species in which males have deflexed elytral apices are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier: M. amilae (Satô), M. antennata (Olivier), M. corusca (Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), M. elucens (Ballantyne), M. flagrans (Ballantyne), M. fulminea (Ballantyne), M. hanedai (Ballantyne), M. platygaster (Lea), M. similisantennata(Ballantyne), M. sublustris (Ballantyne), M. tarsalis (Olivier), and M. torricelliensis (Ballantyne). M. clipeata sp. nov. is described. Two species without deflexed elytral apices include M. pupilla (Olivier) which is transferred from Luciola, and M. similispupillae sp. nov. A Lectotype is designated for Luciola pupilla (Olivier). Females of M. corusca(Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), and M. similispupillae sp. nov. have two pairs of wide bursa plates. The second genus including species in which the males have deflexed elytral apices is Trisinuata gen. nov., where all males have light organ in ventrite 7 bipartite and posterolateral projections expanded; it is proposed for eight New Guinean species: T. microthorax (Olivier), T. minor (Ballantyne), T. papuae (McDermott) and T. similispapuae(Ballantyne) are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier, T. papuana (Olivier) previously known only from a female, has males associated and is transferred from Luciola, and T. caudabifurca sp. nov., T. dimidiata sp. nov. and T. apicula sp. nov. are described. Females of T. similispapuae (Ballantyne) have two pairs of wide bursa plates. Luciola s. str. is defined by scoring the type species L. italica (L), Bourgeoisia Olivier and Lampyroidea (based on its type species syriaca Costa) both of which are submerged into Luciola; Luciola s. str is addressed here from four Pacific Island species: L. hypocrita Olivier, L. antipodum Bourgeois both transferred from Bourgeoisia; L. aquilaclarasp. nov. and L. oculofissa sp. nov. are described. L. oculofissa sp. nov. is the only Luciolinae male known to lack light organs. Females of L. italica and L. hypocrita lack bursa plates.Pacifica gen. nov. is proposed for five species from the Solomon Islands transferred from Pygatyphella(Ballantyne), and which the phylogenetic analysis shows to be distinctive viz. P. limbatifusca (Ballantyne), P. limbatipennis (Pic), P. plagiata (Blanchard), P. russellia (Ballantyne), and P. salomonis (Olivier). A monotypic genus Poluninius gen. nov. is proposed for Pol. selangoriensis sp. nov. from Selangor, Malaysia. The genera Colophotia, Pteroptyx, Pyrophanes, and Pygoluciola are treated in an abbreviated fashion with generic diagnoses, lists of, and keys to, species. Pteroptyx bearni Olivier and P. tener Olivier are characterised from type specimens and female bursae and P. similis Ballantyne is synonymised with P. bearni. Luciola semilimbata Olivier is transferred to Pyrophanes, and Luciola cowleyi Blackburn to Pygoluciola. The following species are treated as species incertae sedis: L. melancholica Olivier, L. ruficollis Guérin-Ménéville. The New Guinean records of Luciola tenuicornis Olivier, L. timida Olivier and Photinus cinctellus Motschulsky are suspect. Fifteen of the species treated here are recognised by flashing patterns. The functions of the terminal abdominal modifications, origins of the Australopacific firefly fauna, and use of female and larval characters in interpretations of relationships are considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies/anatomy & histology; Fireflies/classification*; Fireflies/genetics
  4. Jusoh WFA, Ballantyne L, Lambkin CL, Hashim NR, Wahlberg N
    Zootaxa, 2018 Aug 06;4456(1):1-71.
    PMID: 30314190 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4456.1.1
    The synchronous firefly genus Pteroptyx Olivier is reassessed from morphological, molecular, and habitat perspectives in Malaysia, and includes some reliably associated females described from morphological features and internal female reproductive anatomy. Phylogenetic analyses using combined morphological and molecular data (where available) for 158 taxa supported all the major features of the existing taxonomic categories within the Indopacific Luciolinae. They revealed a distinct Pteroptyx clade as a morphologically variable genus with Poluninius selangoriensis Ballantyne being newly synonymised with Luciola testacea Motschulsky, the type species, which is redescribed from the type series. Pteroptyx gelasina Ballantyne was shown to be distinct and three of the four morphological subdivisions within Pteroptyx malaccae (Gorham) considered useful. A new species Pt. balingiana Jusoh sp. nov. is described from Sarawak. A second specimen of Pt. gombakia Ballantyne is described and figured.        Some females were reliably associated with identified males by molecular data, but investigation of their morphology showed consistent features that were for the most part not useful for species delineation, which still relies on association with the males and colour patterns. All females investigated had bursa plates.Habitat details for most Pteroptyx revealed an association with a riparian environment likely to support mangroves but not necessarily an obligatory association with mangroves or any particular species. Pteroptyx galbina Jusoh was found up to 30 km from the sea, and Pt. bearni Olivier displays in a variety of flowering plants alongside rivers, including mangroves.Keys to species and diagnoses of all species with coloured plates are given.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies*
  5. Nada B, Ballantyne LA
    Zootaxa, 2018 Aug 02;4455(2):343-362.
    PMID: 30314213 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4455.2.5
    A new species of firefly (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) Pygoluciola dunguna Nada sp. nov. is described from males and reliably associated females, collected mainly from lowland dipterocarp forests of Peninsular Malaysia at elevations below 300 m a.s.l. This species is found to be terrestrial, flying at low heights between 10-15 m above ground in between the herbaceous plants. Males are intermediate between the two types of Pygoluciola Wittmer known until now. A list of species, and a key to males and known females of Pygoluciola is given. The female bursa has paired elongate hook like bursa plates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies*
  6. Hong, Choon Ong, Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged, Tang, Suey Shya
    MyJurnal
    Many studies have been carried out using different metaheuristic algorithms on optimisation problems in various fields like engineering design, economics and routes planning. In the real world, resources and time are scarce. Thus the goals of optimisation algorithms are to optimise these available resources. Different metaheuristic algorithms are available. The firefly algorithm is one of the recent metaheuristic algorithms that is used in many applications; it is also modified and hybridised to improve its performance. In this paper, we compare the Standard Firefly Algorithm, the Elitist Firefly Algorithm, also called the Modified Firefly Algorithm with the Chaotic Firefly Algorithm, which embeds chaos maps in the Standard Firefly Algorithm. The Modified Firefly Algorithm differs from the Standard Firefly Algorithm in such a way that the global optimum solution at a particular iteration will not move randomly but in a direction that is chosen from randomly generated directions that can improve its performance. If none of these directions improves its performance, then the algorithm will not be updated. On the other hand, the Chaotic Firefly Algorithm tunes the parameters of the algorithms for the purpose of increasing the global search mobility i.e. to improve the attractiveness of fireflies. In our study, we found that the Chaotic Firefly Algorithms using three different chaotic maps do not perform as well as the Modified Firefly Algorithms; however, at least one or two of the Chaotic Firefly Algorithms outperform the Standard Firefly Algorithm under the given accuracy and efficiency tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies
  7. Saadi Ahmad Kamaruddin, Nor Azura Md Ghani, Norazan Mohamed Ramli
    MyJurnal
    Neurocomputing has been adjusted effectively in time series forecasting activities, yet the vicinity of exceptions that frequently happens in time arrangement information might contaminate the system preparing information. This is because of its capacity to naturally realise any example without earlier suspicions and loss of sweeping statement. In principle, the most widely recognised calculation for preparing the system is the backpropagation (BP) calculation, which inclines toward minimisation of standard slightest squares (OLS) estimator, particularly the mean squared mistake (MSE). Regardless, this calculation is not by any stretch of the imagination strong when the exceptions are available, and it might prompt bogus expectation of future qualities. In this paper, we exhibit another calculation which controls the firefly algorithm of least median squares (FFA-LMedS) estimator for neural system nonlinear autoregressive moving average (ANN-NARMA) model enhancement to provide betterment for the peripheral issue in time arrangement information. Moreover, execution of the solidified model in correlation with another hearty ANN-NARMA models, utilising M-estimators, Iterative LMedS and Particle Swarm Optimisation on LMedS (PSO-LMedS) with root mean squared blunder (RMSE) qualities, is highlighted in this paper. In the interim, the actual monthly information of Malaysian Aggregate, Sand and Roof Materials value was taken from January 1980 to December 2012 (base year 1980=100) with various levels of anomaly issues. It was found that the robustified ANN-NARMA model utilising FFA-LMedS delivered the best results, with the RMSE values having almost no mistakes at all in all the preparation, testing and acceptance sets for every single distinctive variable. Findings of the studies are hoped to assist the regarded powers including the PFI development tasks to overcome cost overwhelms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies
  8. Cheng S, Mat-Isa MN, Sapian IS, Ishak SF
    Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Feb;48(2):1281-1290.
    PMID: 33582950 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-021-06189-0
    The estuarine firefly, Pteroptyx tener, aggregates in the thousands in mangrove trees lining tidal rivers in Southeast Asia where they engage one another in a nocturnal, pre-mating ritual of synchronised courtship flashes. Unfortunately, populations of the species by virtue of being restricted to isolated estuarine rivers systems in the region, are at risk of genetic isolation. Because of this concern we undertook the task of sequencing and characterising the mitochondrial DNA genome of P. tener, as the first step towards helping us to characterise and better understand their genetic diversity. We sequenced and assembled the mitochondrial DNA genome of P. tener from two male and female specimens from the district of Kuala Selangor in Peninsular Malaysia and announce the molecules in this publication. We also reconstructed the phylogenetic trees of all available lampyrids mitogenomes and suggest the need to re-examine our current understanding of their classification which have largely been based on morphological data and the cox1 gene. Separately, our analysis of codon usage patterns among lampyrid mitogenomes showed that the codon usage in a majority of the protein-coding genes were non-neutral. Codon usage patterns between mitogenome sequences of P. tener were, however, largely neutral. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of mitochondrial genes/mitogenomes for analysing both inter- and intra- specific variation in the Lampyridae to aid in species discovery in this highly variable genus; and elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Pteroptyx spp. from the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies/genetics*
  9. Abdullah NA, Asri LN, Husin SM, Shukor AM, Darbis NDA, Ismail K, et al.
    Environ Monit Assess, 2021 Sep 07;193(10):634.
    PMID: 34491451 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-021-09426-y
    We studied the water quality of the riparian firefly sanctuary of Sungai Rembau, or Rembau River, in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, from January 2018 to November 2018 to determine the possible influence of the physico-chemical characteristics of the water on the firefly populations living within the sanctuary. We set up a total of five water quality sampling stations and 10 firefly sampling stations along the river. Dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in situ, while chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) were analysed in the laboratory. Firefly samples were collected using a sweep net at both day and night for 1 min. Sungai Rembau was categorized as Class II on the Malaysian water quality index (WQI), which indicates slight pollution. Except for EC and DO, the water quality parameter values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the sampling stations. A total of 529 firefly individuals consisting of Pteroptyx tener (n = 525, 99.24%), P. malaccae (n = 3, 0.57%) and P. asymmetria (n = 1, 0.19%) were collected. There was significant correlation between firefly abundance and BOD (r =  - 0.198, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies
  10. Abdullah A, Deris S, Anwar S, Arjunan SN
    PLoS One, 2013;8(3):e56310.
    PMID: 23469172 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056310
    The development of accurate computational models of biological processes is fundamental to computational systems biology. These models are usually represented by mathematical expressions that rely heavily on the system parameters. The measurement of these parameters is often difficult. Therefore, they are commonly estimated by fitting the predicted model to the experimental data using optimization methods. The complexity and nonlinearity of the biological processes pose a significant challenge, however, to the development of accurate and fast optimization methods. We introduce a new hybrid optimization method incorporating the Firefly Algorithm and the evolutionary operation of the Differential Evolution method. The proposed method improves solutions by neighbourhood search using evolutionary procedures. Testing our method on models for the arginine catabolism and the negative feedback loop of the p53 signalling pathway, we found that it estimated the parameters with high accuracy and within a reasonable computation time compared to well-known approaches, including Particle Swarm Optimization, Nelder-Mead, and Firefly Algorithm. We have also verified the reliability of the parameters estimated by the method using an a posteriori practical identifiability test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies/genetics; Fireflies/metabolism
  11. Goudarzi S, Kama MN, Anisi MH, Soleymani SA, Doctor F
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Oct 15;18(10).
    PMID: 30326567 DOI: 10.3390/s18103459
    To assist in the broadcasting of time-critical traffic information in an Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and vehicular sensor networks (VSN), fast network connectivity is needed. Accurate traffic information prediction can improve traffic congestion and operation efficiency, which helps to reduce commute times, noise and carbon emissions. In this study, we present a novel approach for predicting the traffic flow volume by using traffic data in self-organizing vehicular networks. The proposed method is based on using a probabilistic generative neural network techniques called deep belief network (DBN) that includes multiple layers of restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) auto-encoders. Time series data generated from the roadside units (RSUs) for five highway links are used by a three layer DBN to extract and learn key input features for constructing a model to predict traffic flow. Back-propagation is utilized as a general learning algorithm for fine-tuning the weight parameters among the visible and hidden layers of RBMs. During the training process the firefly algorithm (FFA) is applied for optimizing the DBN topology and learning rate parameter. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the accuracy of the prediction model. The results show that the proposed model achieves superior performance accuracy for predicting traffic flow in comparison with other approaches applied in the literature. The proposed approach can help to solve the problem of traffic congestion, and provide guidance and advice for road users and traffic regulators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies
  12. Jusoh WFA, Ballantyne L, Chan SH, Wong TW, Yeo D, Nada B, et al.
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Mar 04;11(3).
    PMID: 33806564 DOI: 10.3390/ani11030687
    The firefly genus Luciola sensu McDermott contains 282 species that are distributed across major parts of Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific islands. Due to phenotypic similarities, species identification using external morphological characters can be unreliable for this group. Consequently, decades of piecemeal taxonomic treatments have resulted in numerous erroneous and contentious classifications. Furthermore, our understanding of the group's evolutionary history is limited due to the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework that has also impeded efforts to stabilize its taxonomy. Here, we constructed molecular phylogenies of Luciola and its allies based on combined mitogenomes and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) sequences including a newly sequenced mitogenome of an unidentified taxon from Singapore. Our results showed that this taxon represents a distinct and hitherto undescribed evolutionary lineage that forms a clade with L. filiformis from Japan and L. curtithorax from China. Additionally, the Singaporean lineage can be differentiated from other congeners through several external and internal diagnostic morphological characters, and is thus described herein as a new species. Our phylogeny also strongly supported the paraphyly of Luciola with regard to L. cruciata and L. owadai, which were inferred to be more closely related to the genus Aquatica as opposed to other members of Luciola sensu stricto. The genus Hotaria was inferred as a derived clade within Luciola (sister to L. italica), supporting its status as a subgenus of Luciola instead of a distinct genus. This is the first time since 1909 that a new species of luminous firefly has been discovered in Singapore, highlighting the need for continued biodiversity research, even in small, well-studied and highly developed countries, such as Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies
  13. Santhi VA, Mustafa AM
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Feb;185(2):1541-54.
    PMID: 22552495 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2649-2
    A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fireflies
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