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  1. Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(9):11312-22.
    PMID: 23109854 DOI: 10.3390/ijms130911312
    Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry*
  2. Karim FT, Ghafoor K, Ferdosh S, Al-Juhaimi F, Ali E, Yunus KB, et al.
    J Food Drug Anal, 2017 Jul;25(3):654-666.
    PMID: 28911651 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.11.017
    In order to improve the encapsulation process, a newly supercritical antisolvent process was developed to encapsulate fish oil using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. Three factors, namely, temperature, pressure, and feed emulsion rate were optimized using response surface methodology. The suitability of the model for predicting the optimum response value was evaluated at the conditions of temperature at 60°C, pressure at 150 bar, and feed rate at 1.36 mL/min. At the optimum conditions, particle size of 58.35 μm was obtained. The surface morphology of the micronized fish oil was also evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy where it showed that particles formed spherical structures with no internal voids. Moreover, in vitro release of oil showed that there are significant differences of release percentage of oil between the formulations and the results proved that there was a significant decrease in the in vitro release of oil from the powder when the polymer concentration was high.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry*
  3. Kam YC, Woo KK, Ong LGA
    Molecules, 2017 Dec 08;22(12).
    PMID: 29292721 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22122106
    Lipases with unique characteristics are of value in industrial applications, especially those targeting cost-effectiveness and less downstream processes. The aims of this research were to: (i) optimize the fermentation parameters via solid state fermentation (SSF); and (ii) study the performance in hydrolysis and esterification processes of the one-step partially purified Schizophyllum commune UTARA1 lipases. Lipase was produced by cultivating S. commune UTARA1 on sugarcane bagasse (SB) with used cooking oil (UCO) via SSF and its production was optimized using Design-Expert® 7.0.0. Fractions 30% (ScLipA) and 70% (ScLipB) which contained high lipase activity were obtained by stepwise (NH₄)₂SO₄ precipitation. Crude fish oil, coconut oil and butter were used to investigate the lipase hydrolysis capabilities by a free glycerol assay. Results showed that ScLipA has affinities for long, medium and short chain triglycerides, as all the oils investigated were degraded, whereas ScLipB has affinities for long chain triglycerides as it only degrades crude fish oil. During esterification, ScLipA was able to synthesize trilaurin and triacetin. Conversely, ScLipB was specific towards the formation of 2-mono-olein and triacetin. From the results obtained, it was determined that ScLipA and ScLipB are sn-2 regioselective lipases. Hence, the one-step partial purification strategy proved to be feasible for partial purification of S. commune UTARA1 lipases that has potential use in industrial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry
  4. Van Thuoc D, My DN, Loan TT, Sudesh K
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Dec 01;141:885-892.
    PMID: 31513855 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.09.063
    A moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from fermenting shrimp paste, Salinivibrio sp. M318 was found capable of using fish sauce and mixtures of waste fish oil and glycerol as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production. A cell dry weight (CDW) of up to 10 g/L and PHB content of 51.7 wt% were obtained after 48 h of cultivation in flask experiment. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] was synthesized when 1,4-butanediol, γ-butyrolactone, or sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate was added as precursors to the culture medium. The biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] was achieved by supplying precursors such as sodium valerate, sodium propionate, and sodium heptanoate. Salinivibrio sp. M318 was able to accumulate the above mentioned PHAs during the growth phase. High CDW of 69.1 g/L and PHB content of 51.5 wt% were obtained by strain Salinivibrio sp. M318 after 78 h of cultivation in fed-batch culture. The results demonstrate Salinivibrio sp. M318 to be a promising wild-type bacterium for the production of PHA from aquaculture residues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry*
  5. Hajeb P, Selamat J, Afsah-Hejri L, Mahyudin NA, Shakibazadeh S, Sarker MZ
    J Food Prot, 2015 Jan;78(1):172-9.
    PMID: 25581193 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-248
    High-quality fish oil for human consumption requires low levels of toxic elements. The aim of this study was to compare different oil extraction methods to identify the most efficient method for extracting fish oil of high quality with the least contamination. The methods used in this study were Soxhlet extraction, enzymatic extraction, wet reduction, and supercritical fluid extraction. The results showed that toxic elements in fish oil could be reduced using supercritical CO2 at a modest temperature (60°C) and pressure (35 MPa) with little reduction in the oil yield. There were significant reductions in mercury (85 to 100%), cadmium (97 to 100%), and lead (100%) content of the fish oil extracted using the supercritical fluid extraction method. The fish oil extracted using conventional methods contained toxic elements at levels much higher than the accepted limits of 0.1 μg/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry*
  6. Zulfakar MH, Chan LM, Rehman K, Wai LK, Heard CM
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2018 Apr;19(3):1116-1123.
    PMID: 29181705 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0923-x
    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vitamin-like oil-soluble molecule that has anti-oxidant and anti-ageing effects. To determine the most optimal CoQ10 delivery vehicle, CoQ10 was solubilised in both water and fish oil, and formulated into hydrogel, oleogel and bigel. Permeability of CoQ10 from each formulation across porcine ear skin was then evaluated. Furthermore, the effects of the omega-3 fatty eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids from fish oil on skin permeation were investigated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and computerised molecular modelling docking experiments. The highest drug permeation was achieved with the bigel formulation that proved to be the most effective vehicle in delivering CoQ10 across the skin membrane due to a combination of its adhesive, viscous and lipophilic properties. Furthermore, the interactions between CoQ10 and fatty acids revealed by NMR and molecular modelling experiments likely accounted for skin permeability of CoQ10. NMR data showed dose-dependent changes in proton chemical shifts in EPA and DHA. Molecular modelling revealed complex formation and large binding energies between fatty acids and CoQ10. This study advances the knowledge about bigels as drug delivery vehicles and highlights the use of NMR and molecular docking studies for the prediction of the influence of drug-excipient relationships at the molecular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry
  7. Han YZ, Ren TJ, Jiang ZQ, Jiang BQ, Gao J, Koshio S, et al.
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2012 Dec;38(6):1785-1794.
    PMID: 22763698 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-012-9675-4
    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of palm oil blended with oxidized and non-oxidized fish oil on growth performances, hematology, and non-specific immune response in juvenile Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas. Japanese sea bass (1.73 ± 0.01 g) were fed seven experimental diets containing 100 g/kg of dietary lipid in forms of palm oil (10P), fish oil (10F), fish oil blended with palm oil at different ratios, 6:4 (6F4P) and 4:6 (4F6P), oxidized fish oil (10OF), and oxidized fish oil blended with palm oil at different ratios, 6:4 (6OF4P) and 4:6 (4OF6P). After the feeding trial, the following results were illustrated. No significant effects were observed in survival, feed conversion ratio, condition factor, and hematocrit after feeding with experimental diets for 60 days. The relatively higher specific growth rate and hematology were observed in 6F4P. Furthermore, both palm oil and oxidized fish oil acted as a negatively on serum lysozyme activity (P < 0.05). This study suggested that a ration of 6F4P is recommended as an innocuous ratio for Japanese sea bass. Furthermore, according to the present investigation, palm oil seems to have the ability to improve the protein efficiency when added to oxidized fish diets as well as a positive trend to the growth performance (P > 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry
  8. Rehman K, Mohd Amin MC, Zulfakar MH
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(10):961-70.
    PMID: 25252741
    Polymer-Fish oil bigel (hydrogel/oleogel colloidal mixture) was developed by using fish oil and natural (sodium alginate) and synthetic (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) polymer for pharmaceutical purposes. The bigels were closely monitored and thermal, rheological and mechanical properties were compared with the conventional hydrogels for their potential use as an effective transdermal drug delivery vehicle. Stability of the fish oil fatty acids (especially eicosapentanoic acid, EPA and docosahexanoic acid, DHA) was determined by gas chromatography and the drug content (imiquimod) was assessed with liquid chromatography. Furthermore, in vitro permeation study was conducted to determine the capability of the fish oil-bigels as transdermal drug delivery vehicle. The bigels showed pseudoplastic rheological features, with excellent mechanical properties (adhesiveness, peak stress and hardness), which indicated their excellent spreadability for application on the skin. Bigels prepared with mixture of sodium alginate and fish oil (SB1 and SB2), and the bigels prepared with the mixture of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and fish oil (HB1-HB3) showed high cumulative permeation and drug flux compared to hydrogels. Addition of fish oil proved to be beneficial in increasing the drug permeation and the results were statistically significant (p < 0.05, one-way Anova, SPSS 20.0). Thus, it can be concluded that bigel formulations could be used as an effective topical and transdermal drug delivery vehicle for pharmaceutical purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry*
  9. Rehman K, Tan CM, Zulfakar MH
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2014 Mar;64(3):159-65.
    PMID: 24026957 DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1355351
    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05, ANOVA) and it was concluded that the beeswax-fish oil combination in oleogel can prove to be beneficial in terms of permeation across the skin and stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry*
  10. Lee LK, Shahar S, Chin AV, Yusoff NA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2013 Feb;225(3):605-12.
    PMID: 22932777 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-012-2848-0
    RATIONALE: Epidemiological studies have suggested a beneficial effect of fish oil supplementation in halting the initial progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unclear whether fish oil affects cognitive function in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on cognitive function in elderly person with MCI.

    METHODS: This was a 12-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using fish oil supplementation with concentrated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Thirty six low-socioeconomic-status elderly subjects with MCI were randomly assigned to receive either concentrated DHA fish oil (n = 18) or placebo (n = 18) capsules. The changes of memory, psychomotor speed, executive function and attention, and visual-constructive skills were assessed using cognitive tests. Secondary outcomes were safety and tolerability of the DHA concentrate.

    RESULTS: The fish oil group showed significant improvement in short-term and working memory (F = 9.890; ηp (2) = 0.254; p fish oil group. Fish oil consumption was well tolerated, and the side effects were minimal and self-limiting.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested the potential role of fish oil to improve memory function in MCI subjects. Studies with larger sample sizes, longer intervention periods, different fish oil dosages and genetic determinations should be investigated before definite recommendations can be made.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry
  11. Hajeb P, Jinap S, Shakibazadeh Sh, Afsah-Hejri L, Mohebbi GH, Zaidul IS
    PMID: 25090228 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.942707
    This study aims to optimise the operating conditions for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of toxic elements from fish oil. The SFE operating parameters of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and extraction time were optimised using a central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). High coefficients of determination (R²) (0.897-0.988) for the predicted response surface models confirmed a satisfactory adjustment of the polynomial regression models with the operation conditions. The results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of pressure and temperature were the most significant (p < 0.05) variables affecting the overall responses. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous elimination of toxic elements comprised a pressure of 61 MPa, a temperature of 39.8ºC, a CO₂ flow rate of 3.7 ml min⁻¹ and an extraction time of 4 h. These optimised SFE conditions were able to produce fish oil with the contents of lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury reduced by up to 98.3%, 96.1%, 94.9% and 93.7%, respectively. The fish oil extracted under the optimised SFE operating conditions was of good quality in terms of its fatty acid constituents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry*
  12. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Ebrahimi M, Loh TC, Hair-Bejo M, Soleimani AF
    Poult Sci, 2012 Sep;91(9):2173-82.
    PMID: 22912451 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02317
    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry
  13. Rehman K, Zulfakar MH
    Pharm. Res., 2017 01;34(1):36-48.
    PMID: 27620176 DOI: 10.1007/s11095-016-2036-8
    PURPOSE: To characterize bigel system as a topical drug delivery vehicle and to establish the immunomodulatory role of imiquimod-fish oil combination against skin cancer and inflammation resulting from chemical carcinogenesis.

    METHODS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigel colloidal system was prepared using a blend of carbopol hydrogel and fish oil oleogel. Bigels were first characterized for their mechanical properties and compared to conventional gel systems. Ex vivo permeation studies were performed on murine skin to analyze the ability of the bigels to transport drug across skin and to predict the release mechanism via mathematical modelling. Furthermore, to analyze pharmacological effectiveness in skin cancer and controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects, imiquimod-fish oil combination was tested in vitro on epidermoid carcinoma cells and in vivo in Swiss albino mice cancer model.

    RESULTS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigels exhibited higher drug availability inside the skin as compared to individual imiquimod hydrogel and oleogel controls through quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Imiquimod-fish oil combination in bigel enhanced the antitumor effects and significantly reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and reducing tumor progression via inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Imiquimod-fish oil combination also resulted in increased expression of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which could also aid anti-tumor activity against skin cancer.

    CONCLUSION: Imiquimod administration through a bigel vehicle along with fish oil could be beneficial for controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects and in the treatment of skin cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry
  14. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Ebrahimi M, Loh TC, Bejo MH, Zerihun H, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2012;11:15.
    PMID: 22273277 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-15
    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/chemistry
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