METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), TEF1-α and β-tubulin, as well as on the phylogenetic analysis of combined sequences, four species of Lasiodiplodia (L. theobromae,L. pseudotheobromae, L. iranensis, L. mahajangana) and two species of Neofusicoccum (N. ribis, N. parvum) were identified. Pseudofusicoccum violaceum, Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and three species of Botryosphaeria (B. scharifii, B. dothidea, B. ramosa) were identified based on sequences of ITS and TEF1-α. Pathogenicity test of selected isolates were tested on Chok Anan, Waterlily and Falan mango cultivars. Generally, all species were observed to be pathogenic on the three tested mango cultivars on wounded fruits, except for N. ribis and N. parvum, which were pathogenic on both wounded and unwounded fruits. However, N. ribis was only pathogenic on cultivar Falan, whereas B. ramosa were pathogenic on cultivars Waterlily and Falan.
CONCLUSIONS: Eleven species of Botryosphaeriaceae were associated with mango stem-end rot in Malaysia. To the best of our knowledge, four species, namely L. mahajangana, B. ramosa, N. ribis and P. violaceum are the first recorded Botryosphaeriaceae fungi associated with stem end rot of mango.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The identification of Botryosphaeriaceae fungi is important to establish suitable control measures and quarantine requirements. Many species have a wide host range, which means that there is a possibility of cross infection from other infected plants.
METHODS: Organic acid and antioxidant profiles of Xeniji fermented foods were evaluated. Moreover, oral acute (5 g/kg body weight) and subchronic toxicity (0.1, 1 and 2 g/kg body weight) of Xeniji were tested on mice for 14 days and 30 days, respectively. Mortality, changes of body weight, organ weight and serum liver enzyme level were measured. Liver and spleen of mice from subchronic toxicity study were subjected to antioxidant and immunomodulation quantification.
RESULTS: Xeniji was rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids. No mortality and significant changes of body weight and serum liver enzyme level were recorded for both oral acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Antioxidant level in the liver and immunity of Xeniji treated mice were significantly upregulated in dosage dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: Xeniji is a fermented functional food that rich in nutrients that enhanced antioxidant and immunity of mice. Xeniji that rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids promote antioxidant and immunity in mice without causing toxic effect.
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