Method: This study is to evaluate the outcome of patients with mild head injury which were managed in non-neurosurgical centres with the help of teleneurosurgery. The study recruits samples from five primary hospitals utilising teleneurosurgery for neurosurgical consultations in managing mild head injury cases in Johor state. Two main outcomes were noted; favourable and unfavourable, with a follow up review of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 3 and 6 months.
Results: Total of 359 samples were recruited with a total of 11 (3.06%) patients have an unfavourable. no significant difference in GOS at 3 and 6 months for patient in the unfavourable group (P = 0.368).
Conclusion: In this study we have found no significant factors affecting the outcome of mild head injury patients managed in non-neurosurgical centres in Johor state using the help of teleneurosurgery.
Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and clinical trial registers for studies using search strategies incorporating the terms 'intracerebral haemorrhage', 'tranexamic acid' and 'antifibrinolytic'. Authors of ongoing clinical trials were contacted for further details.
Findings: We screened 268 publications and retrieved 17 articles after screening. Unpublished information from three ongoing clinical trials was obtained. We found five completed studies. Of these, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous tranexamic acid to placebo (n = 54) reported no significant difference in death or dependency. Three observational studies (n = 281) suggested less haematoma growth with rapid tranexamic acid infusion. There are six ongoing RCTs (n = 3089) with different clinical exclusions, imaging selection criteria (spot sign and haematoma volume), time window for recruitment and dosing of tranexamic acid.
Discussion: Despite their heterogeneity, the ongoing trials will provide key evidence on the effects of tranexamic acid on ICH. There are uncertainties of whether patients with negative spot sign, large haematoma, intraventricular haemorrhage, or poor Glasgow Coma Scale should be recruited. The time window for optimal effect of haemostatic therapy in ICH is yet to be established.
Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a promising haemostatic agent for ICH. We await the results of the trials before definite conclusions can be drawn.
METHODS: A retrospective case review study was conducted to compare patients treated with medical therapy and decompressive surgery for malignant MCA infarction in Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a period of 5 years (from January 2007 to December 2012). A total of 125 patients were included in this study; 90 (72%) patients were treated with surgery, while 35 (28%) patients were treated with medical therapy. Outcome was assessed in terms of mortality rate at 30 days, Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) on discharge, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 and 6 months.
RESULTS: Decompressive craniectomy resulted in a significant reduction in mortality rate at 30 days (P < 0.05) and favorable GOS outcome at discharge (P < 0.05). Good functional outcome based on mRS was seen in 48.9% of patients at 3 months and in 64.4% of patients at 6 months (P < 0.05). Factors associated with good outcome include infarct volume of less than 250 ml, midline shift of less than 10 mm, absence of additional vascular territory involvement, good preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and early surgical intervention (within 24 h) (P < 0.05). Age and dominant hemisphere infarction had no significant association with functional outcome.
CONCLUSION: Decompressive craniectomy achieves good functional outcome in, young patients with good preoperative GCS score and favorable radiological findings treated with surgery within 24 h of ictus.
METHODS: Patients who were 10-80 years old and presented with a Graeb score of more than six were randomised into endoscopic washout and EVD treatment groups. A CT brain was repeated on each patient within 24 hours after surgery, and if a patient's Graeb score was still more than six, a repeat endoscopic washout was performed to clear the remaining clots. All patients were monitored for shunt dependency at two weeks and three months, and clinical outcomes were measured at six months after the procedure.
RESULTS: A total of 39 patients were recruited; 19 patients were randomised into the endoscopic washout group, and 20 were randomised into the EVD group. However, three patients in the endoscopic group refused that treatment and opted for EVD insertion. Patients treated with endoscopic washout had significantly less drainage dependency at two weeks (P < 0.005) and at three months (P < 0.004) as compared to patients in the external ventricular drainage group. The reduction in Graeb scores was also significantly greater in the endoscopic washout group (P < 0.001). However, the functional outcome at six months measured via a modified Rankin scale score was no different in the two groups of patients. The difference in the functional outcome of the patients was mainly dependent on the initial pathology, with those presenting with a thalamic bleed with IVH showing a poor functional outcome. This parameter was also influenced by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission, with those patients with a score of 12 or less having a poor functional outcome (MRS 5-6) at three and six months after the surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of neuroendoscopy in patients with a massive IVH significantly reduced drainage dependency. However, it did not alter the final functional outcome.
Methods and results: A retrospective record review was conducted among 432 first-ever stroke patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. Data from between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011, were extracted from the medical records. The Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator was applied to determine the 28-day, 1-year, and 5-year survival probabilities. Log-rank test was used to test the equality of survival time between different groups. A total of 101 patients died during the study period. The 28-day, 1-year, and 5-year survival probabilities were 78.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 73.5-81.9), 74.2% (95% CI: 69.4-78.4), and 70.9% (95% CI: 65.1-75.9), respectively. There were significant differences in the survival time based on the types of stroke, Glasgow Coma Scale, hyperlipidaemia, atrial fibrillation, fasting blood glucose, and diastolic blood pressure.
Conclusion: This study, though retrospective, highlights several clinical parameters that influenced the survival probabilities among first-ever stroke patients managed in a suburban setting in Malaysia, and compared them to those reported in more urban regions. Our data emphasise the need for wider establishment of specialized stroke units and teams, as well as for prospective multi-centre studies on first-ever stroke patients to better inform the development of stroke care provision in Malaysia.
AIM: The current study was designed to understand the time-relative changes and relationship between erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of SHI patients in the 21-day posttraumatic study period.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study included 24 SHI patients and 25 age- and sex-matched normal controls (NC). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were assayed in these patients and controls. The GCS scores of these patients were also recorded for the comparative study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected on day 7 (D7) and D21 from SHI patients and NC for the assay of SOD, GR and GSH-Px activities. These changes were correlated with age and changes in GCS scores of patients.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean values of each parameter between group 1 (NC), group 2 (D7 changes in SHI patients) and group 3 (D21 changes in SHI patients). ANOVA was followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests. The Pearson correlation was applied to correlate between the antioxidant parameters and age and GCS scores of these patients.
RESULTS: A significant increase in erythrocyte SOD and GSH-Px activities was observed in group 3 as compared to groups 1 and 2. The increase in GSH-Px activity was significant in group 2 as compared to group 1. Although not significant, there was an increase in mean GR activity in groups 2 and 3 as compared to group 1.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that SHI patients have shown significantly enhanced erythrocyte SOD and GSH-Px activities during the 21-day posttraumatic study period.
RESULTS: A total of 103 cases with intracranial haemorrhage i.e. intracerebral haemorrhage, extradural haemorrhage, subdural haemorrhage, intraventricular haemorrhage, haemorrhagic contusion and subarachnoid haemorrhage, following motor vehicle accidents was undertaken to study factors contributing to either good or poor outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Patients below 12 years of age were excluded. The end point of the study was taken at 24 months post injury. The selected variables were incorporated into models generated by logistic regression techniques of multivariate analysis to see the significant predictors of outcome as well as the correlation between the CT findings with GCS.
CONCLUSION: Significant predictors of outcome were GCS on arrival in the accident emergency department, pupillary reflex and the CT scan findings. The CT predictors of outcome include ICH, EDH, IVH, present of SAH, site of ICH, volumes of EDH and SDH as well as midline shift.