Community engagement describes a complex political process with dynamic negotiation and renegotiation of power and authority between providers and recipients of health care in order to achieve a shared goal of universal health care coverage. Though examples exist of community engagement projects, there is very little guidance on how to implement and embed community engagement as a concerted, integrated, strategic, and sustained component of health systems. Through a series of case studies, this article explores the factors that enable community engagement particularly with a direct impact on health systems.
A Population Oratorical Competition between upper secondary pupils aimed at getting students interested in population problems will be held in Johore from May to June. The competition will be launched on 20th May 1981 in Segamat by En. Nordin bin Nazir the Deputy Director of Education, Johore. 81 secondary schools will be sending 184 students to participate at this oratorical competition. The Districts of Kluang, Segamat, Batu Pahat, Muar and Johore Bahru will send students who will face an elimination round during the 1st stage of the competition. The competition is jointly organized by the State Education Department and the National Family Planning Board with a funding support of $3500 from the National Family Planning Board. The Director-General, National Family Planning Board Malaysia, Datin Dr. Hajjah Nor Laily Aziz is scheduled to officiate at the opening ceremony and to give away the prizes on 27th June 1981.
There are an almost infinite number of states of health, all with differing qualities that can be affected by many factors. Each aspect of health has many components which contribute to multidimensionality. Cancer and its' related issues surrounding the treatment plan contribute to the variety of changes of quality of life of cancer patients throughout their life. The objective of this article was to provide an overview of some of the issues that can affect their quality of life and initiatives towards successful care in Malaysia by reviewing relevant reports and articles. The current strategies can be further strengthened by prevention of cancer while improving quality of service to cancer patients.
Persistent barriers to universal access to medicines are limited social protection in the event of illness, inadequate financing for essential medicines, frequent stock-outs in the public sector, and high prices in the private sector. We argue that greater coherence between human rights law, national medicines policies, and universal health coverage schemes can address these barriers. We present a cross-national content analysis of national medicines policies from 71 countries published between 1990-2016. The World Health Organization's (WHO) 2001 guidelines for developing and implementing a national medicines policy and all 71 national medicines policies were assessed on 12 principles, linking a health systems approach to essential medicines with international human rights law for medicines affordability and financing for vulnerable groups. National medicines policies most frequently contain measures for medicines selection and efficient spending/cost-effectiveness. Four principles (legal right to health; government financing; efficient spending; and financial protection of vulnerable populations) are significantly stronger in national medicines policies published after 2004 than before. Six principles have remained weak or absent: pooling user contributions, international cooperation, and four principles for good governance. Overall, South Africa (1996), Indonesia and South Sudan (2006), Philippines (2011-2016), Malaysia (2012), Somalia (2013), Afghanistan (2014), and Uganda (2015) include the most relevant texts and can be used as models for other settings. We conclude that WHO's 2001 guidelines have guided the content and language of many subsequent national medicines policies. WHO and national policy makers can use these principles and the practical examples identified in our study to further align national medicines policies with human rights law and with Target 3.8 for universal access to essential medicines in the Sustainable Development Goals.
Matched MeSH terms: Government Programs/legislation & jurisprudence*
There is no doubt that on a global basis, Haemonchus contortus is by far the most important parasite of small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is particularly more so now, with the development of high levels of resistance to both the broad and narrow spectrum anthelmintic drugs in H. contortus throughout the world. Epidemiological studies describe the lower environmental limits for haemonchosis to occur in sheep, as being a mean monthly temperature of 18C and approximately 50mm rainfall. Thus it has been generally recognised that H. contortus is a problem parasite restricted to the warm, wet countries where sheep and goats are raised. However, recent evidence shows that this parasite is apparently common even in northern Europe. Thus the need for sustainable control strategies for H. contortus is becoming much more pressing. This report highlights two examples of sustainable and highly efficient control programmes for H. contortus, that can be implemented in regions at the extremes of its geographic range (Malaysia and Sweden), where the authors have had direct involvement.
The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and NCD risk factors in Malaysia have risen substantially in the last two decades. The Malaysian Ministry of Health responded by implementing, "The National Strategic Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases (NSP-NCD) 2010-2014", and the "NCD Prevention 1Malaysia" (NCDP-1M) programme. This paper outlines the primary health system context in which the NCDP-1M is framed. We also discuss the role of community in facilitating the integration of this programme, and outline some of the key challenges in addressing the sustainability of the plan over the next few years. The paper thus provides an analysis of an integration of a programme that involved a multi-sectoral approach with the view to contributing to a broader discourse on the development of responsive health systems.
Matched MeSH terms: Government Programs/organization & administration*
In July 2010 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Niigata University (NU) signed a memorandum of agreement to continue collaboration in joint planning and implementation of education, research and practice services in the field of medicine.This collaboration is also a good opportunity for Doctor of Public Health (DRPH) postgraduate candidates to gain experience on the practice of public health in handling public health issues, planning the healthcare facilities, delivering a quality public health services, enforcing public health policies/regulations and finally learn about the health systems in general at other countries especially from developed country like Japan. Experiencing Health Care and Culture in Niigata, Japan.
Previous studies on anti-infective and cardiovascular drugs have shown extraordinary price increases following privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system. Therefore, it was felt that there was a need to undertake a full-scale study to evaluate the effect of privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system on drug prices.
In 1997, a Motorcycle Safety Programme (MSP) was introduced to address the motorcycle-related accident problem. The MSP was specifically targeted at motorcyclists. In addition to the MSP, the recent economic recession has significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic-related incidents. This paper examines the effects of the recent economic crisis and the MSP on motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia. The autocorrelation integrated moving average model with transfer function was used to evaluate the overall effects of the interventions. The variables used in developing the model were gross domestic product and MSPs. The analysis found a 25% reduction in the number of motorcycle-related accidents, a 27% reduction in motorcycle casualties and a 38% reduction in motorcycle fatalities after the implementation of MSP. Findings indicate that the MSP has been one of the effective measures in reducing motorcycle safety problems in Malaysia. Apart from that, the performance of the country's economy was also found to be significant in explaining the number of motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia.
The NADI program (pulse in Malay) was initially launched as a pilot project in 1980 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It utilized an integrated approach involving both the government and the private sectors. By sharing resources and expertise, and by working together, the government and the people can achieve national development faster and with better results. The agencies work through a multi-level supportive structure, at the head of which is the steering committee. The NADI teams at the field level are the focal points of services from the various agencies. Members of NADI teams also work with urban poor families as well as health groups, parents-teachers associations, and other similar groups. The policy and planning functions are carried out by the steering committee, the 5 area action committees and the community action committees, while the implementation function is carried out by the area program managers and NADI teams. The chairman of each area action committee is the head of the branch office of city hall. Using intestinal parasite control as the entry point, the NADI Integrated Family Development Program has greatly helped in expanding inter-agency cooperation and exchange of experiences by a coordinated, effective and efficient resource-mobilization. The program was later expanded to other parts of the country including the industrial and estate sectors. Services provided by NADI include: comprehensive health services to promote maternal and child health; adequate water supply, proper waste disposal, construction of latrines and providing electricity; and initiating community and family development such as community education, preschool education, vocational training, family counseling and building special facilities for recreational and educational purposes.
The growing burden of non-communicable diseases in middle-income countries demands models of care that are appropriate to local contexts and acceptable to patients in order to be effective. We describe a multi-method health system appraisal to inform the design of an intervention that will be used in a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve hypertension control in Malaysia.