Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Paudel YN, Angelopoulou E, Piperi C, Balasubramaniam VRMT, Othman I, Shaikh MF
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2019 Sep 05;858:172487.
    PMID: 31229535 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172487
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous protein, released passively by necrotic tissues or secreted actively by stressed cells. Extracellular HMGB1 is a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule which generates different redox types through binding with several receptors and signalling molecules, aggravating a range of cellular responses, including inflammation. HMGB1 is reported to participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, through the interaction with pivotal transmembrane receptors, including the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4). This review aims to highlight the role of HMGB1 in the innate inflammatory response describing its interaction with several cofactors and receptors that coordinate its downstream effects. Novel and underexplored HMGB1 binding molecules that have been actively involved in HMGB1-mediated inflammatory diseases/conditions with therapeutic potential are further discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism*
  2. Paudel YN, Angelopoulou E, Piperi C, Othman I, Aamir K, Shaikh MF
    Cells, 2020 02 07;9(2).
    PMID: 32046119 DOI: 10.3390/cells9020383
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia, with accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) as defining pathological features. AD presents a serious global health concern with no cure to date, reflecting the complexity of its pathogenesis. Recent evidence indicates that neuroinflammation serves as the link between amyloid deposition, Tau pathology, and neurodegeneration. The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an initiator and activator of neuroinflammatory responses, has been involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. HMGB1 is a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein that exerts its biological activity mainly through binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). RAGE and TLR4 are key components of the innate immune system that both bind to HMGB1. Targeting of HMGB1, RAGE, and TLR4 in experimental AD models has demonstrated beneficial effects in halting AD progression by suppressing neuroinflammation, reducing Aβ load and production, improving spatial learning, and inhibiting microglial stimulation. Herein, we discuss the contribution of HMGB1 and its receptor signaling in neuroinflammation and AD pathogenesis, providing evidence of its beneficial effects upon therapeutic targeting.
    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism*
  3. Cheng KJ, Alshawsh MA, Mejia Mohamed EH, Thavagnanam S, Sinniah A, Ibrahim ZA
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2020 Apr;43(2):177-193.
    PMID: 31677065 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-019-00477-5
    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, has been found to play multifunctional roles in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Although much attention has been given to the diagnostic and prognostic values of HMGB1 in colorectal cancer, the exact functional roles of the protein as well as the mechanistic pathways involved have remained poorly defined. This systematic review aims to discuss what is currently known about the roles of HMGB1 in colorectal cancer development, growth and progression, and to highlight critical areas for future investigations. To achieve this, the bibliographic databases Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science and ScienceDirect were systematically screened for articles from inception till June 2018, which address associations of HMGB1 with colorectal cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: HMGB1 plays multiple roles in promoting the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, despite a few contradicting studies. HMGB1 may differentially regulate disease-related processes, depending on the redox status of the protein in colorectal cancer. Binding of HMGB1 to various protein partners may alter the impact of HMGB1 on disease progression. As HMGB1 is heavily implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, it is crucial to further improve our understanding of the functional roles of HMGB1 not only in colorectal cancer, but ultimately in all types of cancers.

    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism
  4. Paudel YN, Angelopoulou E, Piperi C, Othman I, Shaikh MF
    Pharmacol Res, 2020 06;156:104792.
    PMID: 32278047 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104792
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disorder with no effective disease-modifying treatment up to date. The underlying molecular mechanisms of ALS are not yet completely understood. However, the critical role of the innate immune system and neuroinflammation in ALS pathogenesis has gained increased attention. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, acting as a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly through activation of its principal receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which are crucial components of the innate immune system. HMGB1 is an endogenous ligand for both RAGE and TLR4 that mediate its biological effects. Herein, on the ground of pre-clinical findings we unravel the underlying mechanisms behind the plausible contribution of HMGB1 and its receptors (RAGE and TLR4) in the ALS pathogenesis. Furthermore, we provide an account of the therapeutic outcomes associated with inhibition/blocking of HMGB1 receptor signalling in preventing motor neuron's death and delaying disease progression in ALS experimental models. There is strong evidence that HMGB1, RAGE and TLR4 signaling axes might present potential targets against ALS, opening a novel headway in ALS research that could plausibly bridge the current treatment gap.
    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism*
  5. Ibrahim ZA, Armour CL, Phipps S, Sukkar MB
    Mol Immunol, 2013 Dec;56(4):739-44.
    PMID: 23954397 DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2013.07.008
    The innate immune system forms the first line of protection against infectious and non-infectious tissue injury. Cells of the innate immune system detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns or endogenous molecules released as a result of tissue injury or inflammation through various innate immune receptors, collectively termed pattern-recognition receptors. Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of pattern-recognition receptors have well established roles in the host immune response to infection, while the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor predominantly involved in the recognition of endogenous molecules released in the context of infection, physiological stress or chronic inflammation. RAGE and TLRs share common ligands and signaling pathways, and accumulating evidence points towards their co-operative interaction in the host immune response. At present however, little is known about the mechanisms that result in TLR versus RAGE signalling or RAGE-TLR cross-talk in response to their shared ligands. Here we review what is known in relation to the physicochemical basis of ligand interactions between TLRs and RAGE, focusing on three shared ligands of these receptors: HMGB1, S100A8/A9 and LPS. Our aim is to discuss what is known about differential ligand interactions with RAGE and TLRs and to highlight important areas for further investigation so that we may better understand the role of these receptors and their relationship in host defense.
    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism
  6. Sinon SH, Rich AM, Parachuru VP, Firth FA, Milne T, Seymour GJ
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2016 Jan;45(1):28-34.
    PMID: 25865410 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12319
    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and TLR-associated signalling pathway genes in oral lichen planus (OLP).
    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism
  7. Haque N, Kasim NHA, Kassim NLA, Rahman MT
    Cell Prolif, 2017 Aug;50(4).
    PMID: 28682474 DOI: 10.1111/cpr.12354
    OBJECTIVES: Foetal bovine serum (FBS) is often the serum supplement of choice for in vitro human cell culture. This study compares the effect of FBS and autologous human serum (AuHS) supplement in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture to prepare secretome.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PBMC (n = 7) were cultured either in RPMI-1640 containing L-glutamine and 50 units/ml Penicillin-Streptomycin (BM) or in BM with either AuHS or FBS. Viability, proliferation and differentiation of PBMC were evaluated. Paracrine factors present in the secretomes (n = 6) were analysed using ProcartaPlex Human Cytokine panel (17 plex). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed to predict activation or inhibition of biological functions related to tissue regeneration.

    RESULTS: The viability of PBMC that were cultured with FBS supplement was significantly reduced at 96 h compared to those at 0 and 24 h (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism
  8. Zainal N, Chang CP, Cheng YL, Wu YW, Anderson R, Wan SW, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 02 20;7:42998.
    PMID: 28216632 DOI: 10.1038/srep42998
    Dengue is one of the most significant mosquito-borne virus diseases worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study sought to examine the antiviral activity of resveratrol (RESV), a phytoalexin secreted naturally by plants, against dengue virus (DENV) infection. Our data showed that RESV inhibits the translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a DNA binding protein that normally resides in the nucleus, into the cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. HMGB1 migrates out of the nucleus during DENV infection. This migration is inhibited by RESV treatment and is mediated by induction of Sirt1 which leads to the retention of HMGB1 in the nucleus and consequently helps in the increased production of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Nuclear HMGB1 was found to bind to the promoter region of the ISG and positively regulated the expression of ISG. The enhanced transcription of ISGs by nuclear HMGB1 thus contributes to the antiviral activity of RESV against DENV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that RESV antagonizes DENV replication and that nuclear HMGB1 plays a role in regulating ISG production.
    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism*
  9. Farhana A, Koh AE, Tong JB, Alsrhani A, Kumar Subbiah S, Mok PL
    Molecules, 2021 Sep 06;26(17).
    PMID: 34500845 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26175414
    Molecular crosstalk between the cellular epigenome and genome converge as a synergistic driver of oncogenic transformations. Besides other pathways, epigenetic regulatory circuits exert their effect towards cancer progression through the induction of DNA repair deficiencies. We explored this mechanism using a camptothecin encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin-EDTA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CPT-CEF)-treated HT29 cells model. We previously demonstrated that CPT-CEF treatment of HT29 cells effectively induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, stalling cancer progression. A comparative transcriptome analysis of CPT-CEF-treated versus untreated HT29 cells indicated that genes controlling mismatch repair, base excision repair, and homologues recombination were downregulated in these cancer cells. Our study demonstrated that treatment with CPT-CEF alleviated this repression. We observed that CPT-CEF exerts its effect by possibly affecting the DNA repair mechanism through epigenetic modulation involving genes of HMGB1, APEX1, and POLE3. Hence, we propose that CPT-CEF could be a DNA repair modulator that harnesses the cell's epigenomic plasticity to amend DNA repair deficiencies in cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: HMGB1 Protein/metabolism
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